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NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA 
COMPREHENSIVE REGIONAL POLICY PLAN 



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This document has been prepared with financial 
assistance from the Florida Department of Community Affairs 



North Central Florida Regional Planning Council 

255 S. Main Street 

Gainesville, Florida 32601-1899 



July 1 , 1987 

amended April 27, 1989 

amended July 25, 1991 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS 

CHAPTER PAGE 

I INTRODUCTION 1-1 

The State-Regional-Local Planning Process . 1-1 

North Central Florida Comprehensive Regional Policy Plan . . . 1-4- 

II REGIONAL DESCRIPTION ELEMENT II-1 

Natural Systems II-1 

Human Systems II-5 

Economy II-9 

Urban/Rural 11-11 

III REGIONAL ISSUES ELEMENT III-1 

Introduction III-1 

State Goal 1: Education III-1-1 

State Goal 2: Children III-2-1 

State Goal 3: Families III-3-1 

State Goal 4: The Elderly III-4-1 

State Goal 5: Housing III-5-1 

State Goal 6: Health III-6-1 

State Goal 7: Public Safety III-7-1 

State Goal 8: Water Resources III-8-1 

State Goal 9: Coastal and Marine Resources III-9-1 

State Goal 13: Natural Systems and Recreational Lands . . III-10-1 

State Goal 11: Air Quality III-11-1 

State Goal 12: Energy III-12-1 

State Goal 13: Hazardous and Nonhazardous 

Materials and Waste III-15-1 

State Goal 14: Mining III-14-1 



TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) 

:H AFTER PAGE 



State Goal 15: Property Rights III-15-1 

State Goal 16: Land Use III-16-1 

State Goal 17: Downtown Revitalization III-17-1 

State Goal 18: Public Facilities III-18-1 

State Goal 19: Cultural and Historical Resources III-19-1 

State Goal 20: Transportation III-20-1 

State Goal 21: Governmental Efficiency III-21-1 

State Goal 22: The Economy III-22-1 

State Goal 23: Agriculture III-25-1 

State Goal 24: Tourism III-24-1 

State Goal 25: Employment III-25-1 

State Goal 26: Plan Implementation III-26-1 

IV REGIONAL GOALS, POLICIES AND STANDARDS ELEMENT IV- 1 

Introduction IV-1 

State Goal 1: Education IV-1-1 

State Goal 2: Children IV-2-1 

State Goal 3: Families IV-3-1 

State Goal 4: The Elderly IV-4-1 

State Goal 5: Housing IV-5-1 

State Goal 6: Health IV-6-1 

State Goal 7: Public Safety IV-7-1 

State Goal 8: Water Resources IV-8-1 

State Goal 9: Coastal and Marine Resources IV-9-1 

State Goal 10: Natural Systems and Recreational Lands IV-1 0-1 

li 



I 



TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) 



CHAPTER PAGE 

State Goal 11: Air Quality IV-11-1 

State Goal 12: Energy '■?.-.. IV-12-1 

State Goal 15: Hazardous and Nonhazardous 

Materials and Waste IV-13-1 

State Goal 14: Mining IV-U-1 

State Goal 15: Property Rights IV-15-1 

State Goal 16: Land Use IV-16-1 

State Goal 17: Downtown Revitalizati.on IV-17-1 

State Goal 18: Public Facilities -. .. r- IV-18-1 

State Goal 19: Cultural and Historical Resources IV-19-1 

State Goal 20: Trajisportation IV-20-1 

State Goal 21: Governmental Efficiency IV-21-1 

State Goal 22: The Economy IV-22-1 

State Goal 25: Agriculture IV-23-1 

State Goal 24: Tourism IV-24-1 

State Goal 25: Employment IV-25-1 

State Goal 26: Plan Implementation . IV-26-1 

V IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY 

Introduction V-1 

Growth MansLgement V-1 

Summary of Development Trends V-1 

Present Patterns of Growth V-5 

Preferred Patterns of Growth V-4 

Plaji Interpretation V-7 

Council Implementation Activities V-1 1 

iii 







TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) 

Intergovernmental Coordination V-17 

Ongoing Planning V-25 

APPENDICES 

A Category III Hurricane Surge Line A-1 

B Significant Natural Areas Recommended Management 

Prograjn B-1 



LIST OF TABLES 



TABLE PAGE 

1 Setback Standards for the Suwannee River System IV-8-12 

1 Minimum Acceptable Operating Level of Service 

Standards for the Regional Road System IV-19-2 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



ILLUSTRATION PAGE 



I North Central Florida Region- 
Major Inter-City Routes 11-15 

II North Central Florida Region- 
Growth Manaigement Map Year 2010 V-6 



IV 



I 

INTRODUCTION 

THE STATE-REGIONAL-LOCAL PLANNING PROCESS 

After debating the issue of growth management during the 1984 session, 
the Florida Legislature concluded that: (1) growth and development 
issues transcend the boundaries ajid responsibilities of individual units 
of local government, ajid often no single unit caji plan or implement 
policies to deal with these issues without affecting other units; (2) it 
is necessary to establish and integrate a plajining system and to insure 
coordinated administration of governmental policies, especially those 
dealing with land use, water resources, and transportation system 
development; and (3) the preservation and enhajicement of the quality of 
life of the people in the state requires that a State Comprehensive Plan 
be adopted and implemented by state and regional agencies. 

As a result, the Legislature passed and Governor Graham signed into law, 
the "Florida State and Regional Planning Act of 1984"--cLn act which, for 
the first time in the State of Florida, establishes a planning process 
for the integration and coordination of goals and resources of the state 
through state ajid regional agencies, and local governments. 

The intent of this act is that the State Comprehensive Plan 
guides state and regional policies, especially those dealing 
with land use, water resources, and transportation system 
development. It is intended that state agency functional 
plans be effectively coordinated to facilitate the orderly, 
positive management of growth consistent with the public 
interest. It is also intended that the implementation of 
state and regional plans enhance the quality of life of the 
citizens of the state. 

The act requires the preparation of a state comprehensive plan, state 
land development plan, state water use plan, state agency functional 
plans, and comprehensive regional policy plans for the eleven designated 
regional planning councils. 



THE STATE COMPREHENSIVE PLAN 

The State Comprehensive Plan consists of several components: (1) a 
conditions, trends and needs document; (2) a policy document; and (3) a 
capital improvements program. 

The first component analyzes the problems, opportunities and needs 
associated with the growth and development of the state and provides a 



1-1 



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forecast of future conditions and trends based on expected growth 
patterns. This element is used to prepare goals and policies designed to 
"preserve and enhance the quality of life of the citizens of this state." 

The second component, adopted by the 1985 Legislature, establishes 
statewide goals ajid policies covering 25 subject areas ranging from 
education to economic development to environmental protection and plan 
implementation. This element provides overall guidance to state agencies 
aJid regional plajining councils for the preparation of the state agency 
plans ajid the comprehensive regional policy plans, respectively. 

The third component provides estimates of future infrastructure needs 
that will result from expected growth patterns. The element includes 
recommendations for directing state expenditures in order to implement 
the growth mamagement goals aoid policies of the State Comprehensive Plan . 

STATE AGENCY PLANS 

The State Lamd Development Plan , State Vater Use Plan ajid state agency 
fxinctional plans, which had to be prepared within six months to one year 
following adoption of the State Comprehensive Plan by the Legislature, 
include policies for guiding agency prograjns ajid functions, aJid 
objectives for measuring progress toward achievement of the State 
Comprehensive Plan goals and policies. These agency plans also identify 
infrastructure and capital improvement needs associated with the agency's /< 
prograjns. V 

COMPREHENSIVE REGIONAL POLICY PLANS 

A third major part of the state-regional-local planning process is the 
comprehensive regional policy plans which are to guide activities within 
each of the eleven designated regional planning districts located within 
the state. These comprehensive regional policy plajis, which are to be 
adopted by the respective regional plajining councils by July 1, 1987, 
must include regional goals ajid policies that are consistent with and 
further the State Comprehensive Plan . 

The rule (Chapter 27E-4, Florida Administrative Code) adopted by the 
Office of the Governor which guides the preparation and establishes the 
format of the regional plans requires these plans to include essentially 
four major elements: (1) a regional description element; (2) a regional 
issues element; (3) a goals, policies and standards element; and (4) an 
implementation element which includes three subsections dealing with 
growth management, intergovernmental coordination, and ongoing planning. 

As the naime implies, the first of these elements consists of a 

description of the region including past, current and forecasted 

conditions in terms of the region's natural, economic and social 

characteristics. This element will assist in establishing regional 

Issues that are to be addressed more specifically in the second major [ 

element of the plaji. 

1-2 



Utilizing the format of the State Comprehensive Plan , the regional issues, 
element amd the goals, policies and standards element include goals, 
policies ajid standards which address the identified regional issues. 
These are consistent with and further the state plan goals and policies. 

As noted above, the fourth major element consists of three subparts: 
growth management; intergovernmental coordination; and ongoing planning. 
The growth mstnagement portion describes the manner in which the regional 
issues, goals, policies and standards are to be applied to enhance and 
encourage the preferred patterns of physical, social and economic growth, 
especially as they relate to "land use, water resources, and 
transportation system development." This section also includes a 
subsection which explains how the plan is to be used and interpreted, and 
provides direction on which goals and policies should take priority in 
cases of conflict. 

The intergovernmental coordination portion identifies federal, state, 
regional or local actions necessary to implementation of the plan. The 
ongoing planning activities portion indicates any additional research 
needed to refine the plan and, specifically, to provide the basis for the 
development of standards. 



LOCAL GOVERNMENT COMPREHENSIVE PLANS 

The last, but certainly not least, part of the state-regional-local 
planning process is the local comprehensive plan. Mandated by Chapter 
165, Florida Statutes, local plans are to primarily address the physical 
development of the state. Thus, the local plan format follows the 
traditional format first established in Florida by the "Local Government 
Comprehensive Planning Act of 1975." The 1975 act was amended in 1985 to 
incorporate changes required by the different pieces of growth management 
legislation passed in 1984 and 1985, including a requirement that local 
plans be consistent with state and regional plans prepared pursuant to 
Chapter 186, F.S. It will be through local plans that most of the state 
and regional policies dealing with the management of physical development 
concerns will be implemented. 



NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA COMPREHENSIVE REGIONAL POLICY PLAN 

The following plan, prepared in accordance with Chapters 186, F.S. and 
27E-4, FAC , contains the following elements: (1) a summary of the 
regional description element; (2) a regional issues element; (3) a goals, 
policies and standards element; and (4) an implementation element. The 
plan can be viewed at the Council offices and at libraries located within 
the region. A copy of the plsui can be purchased at the Council's office 
in Gainesville. The plan is to be evaluated and, where appropriate, 
updated every three years. The first evaluation was conducted during 
1990. 



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II 

REGIONAL DESCRIPTION ELEMENT 



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The following is a summary description of the natural, human, aind. 
economic systems, and of the urbam and rural setting of the North Central 
Florida Region. A detailed description, which provides the basis for 
this brief summary, is available for viewing at the Council offices in -~^ 
Gainesville. Copies of the complete description can be purchased at the 
Council offices. 



NATURAL SYSTEMS 

The North Central Florida Region consists of 11 counties covering an area 
of 6,813 square miles. Two of the counties, Dixie and Taylor, border on 
the Gulf of Mexico. Inland counties in the region are Alachua, Bradford, 
Columbia, Gilchrist, Hamilton, Lafayette, Madison, Suwannee, and Union. 
The region is bounded by the Aucilla River aind Jefferson County along the 
northwest border, Georgia along the northern border. Baker, Clay and 
Putnxom Counties to the east, and Levy and Marion Counties .to the south. 
The region is still largely undeveloped and is rich in natural areas ajid 
resources . 



CLIMATE 

The North Central Florida Region lies in a zone of transition between 
temperate and humid sub-tropical climates. Hours of sunshine vary from 
an average of 14 hours a day in June- to 10 hours a day in January. 
Temperatures average between 75-80 degrees Fahrenheit from May to 
September. From November to February, temperatures average between 55-60 
degrees Falirenheit, with periodic invasions of colder northern air. 
Gentle breezes of 5-10 miles per hour occur over most of the region. 
Humidity averages from between 55-70.0 percent in the afternoon to 
between 85-95-0 percent during the night and early morning during the 
summer months. Dry periods lasting several days during early spring 
result in 25-40.0 percent daytime humidity. Winter humidity averages 35- 
55.0 percent in the daytime and in the range of 80.0 percent at night. 
The average annual rainfall is 52-54 Inches. The major rainy season is 
from June to August, the greatest part of which is in the form of 
thunderstorms. Thunderstorms occur, on the average, on one-half of all 
summer days. The driest months are October ajid November. 



II-1 



It is important to note that this region periodically experiences drought 
conditions. As a result of a drought during the summer .of 1986, all the 
counties in the North Central Florida Region were declared disaster 
counties for agricultural use by the federal government. A total of 30 
counties statewide were designated. 

Air pollution is not a serious problem in this region. Air movements 
over the area are sufficiently unstable to help prevent buildup of 
pollutajits. There is an average of only ten potential high air pollution 
days in axiy given year. 



GEOLOGY 

The region is located within the Florida Plateau. The plateau consists 
of thick layers of limestone and sediment which have accumulated over the 
sajidstone and igneous (volcanic) rock continental shelf. It separates 
the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean. The Florida Plateau has rock 
layers thousands of feet thick covered with thin layers of soil. The 
Florida Plateau is regarded as highly stable with very minor earthquake 
potential . 

Rock and mineral deposits in north central Florida are significant. They 
include phosphate, clay, limestone, dolomite, sand and traces of oil ajid 
gas. Potentially valuable despoils of land pebble phosphate deposits are 
present in Alachua, Bradford, Columbia, Hamilton, and Union Counties. 
The hard rock phosphate deposits in four of the region's counties are no 
longer mined. Mining compauiies have acquired mineral rights to mine 
phosphate in several counties of the region which have phosphate reserves 
currently considered as having economic value. The Occidental Chemical 
Corporation operates two large phosphate mines in Hamilton County and 
holds leases on approximately 50,000 acres in Columbia County. 



TOPOGRAPHY 

The North Central Florida Region is divided between two major physio- 
graphic provinces, the Northern Highlands and the Coastal Lowlands. 
Bradford, Union, ajid Columbia Counties, in addition to portions of 
Alachua, Hamilton, Suwajinee, and Taylor Counties, comprise the Northern 
Highlands. In general, this province consists of gently rolling hills. 
It is delimited to the south and east by an erosional scarp which 
represents the most persistent topographic break in the state. There is 
a tendency for streajns to go underground in the lower part of the scarp 
zone west of Gainesville. Except for the Suwannee, every stream which 
enters the scarp zone passes underground, re-emerging again after 
crossing the scarp. East of Gainesville, all streams retain a surface 
flow prior to crossing the scarp. The highest elevations are found in 
the northern part of the province where there are few streams. 



II-2 



The Coastal Lowlajida Include most or all of Dixie, Taylor, Lafayette and 
Gilchrist Counties as well as the more southwestern portions of Alachua, 
Suwannee, Madison, amd Hamilton Counties. The Lowlands have a flat 
topography, sloping gradually south westward to the Gulf of Mexico, and 
are characterized by large, poorly-drained swajnps, marshes and forested 
lands with a number of lakes and streams, but relatively few areas of 
natural beach. 



SOILS 

There are at least 59 soil associations within the North Central Florida 
Region. The four most prevalent are Leon-Mascotte-Rutledge , Chipley- 
Albany-Plummer , Jonesville-Chief land-Archer , and Freshwater Swamp. 

Much of the region's soils present some limitations to community develop- 
ment. Most of the region's soils have some suitability for agriculture. 
The region has a thin topsoil which is generally less than six inches in 
depth. 

FRESHWATER RESOURCES 

The porous limestone which underlies the region provides for the hydrau- 
lic trainsfer and storaige of water in the Floridaji aquifer, one of the 
largest freshwater bearing underground aquifer systems in the United 
States . 

Water in the Floridan aquifer has been found to be suitable for munici- 
pal, agricultural, smd industrial uses of the region. All municipal ^ 
water supply systems in the region withdraw water from the Floridan 
aquifer. Rural water supplies are derived from the surficial and 
secondary aquifers found throughout most of the region. The only area in 
the region where the water in the upper part of the aquifer has been 
found to be relatively high in mineral concentration is at the mouth of 
the Aucilla River. This relatively high concentration of minerals 
indicates the presence of saltwater intrusion to the aquifer in this 
locality. 

There are two major river drainage basins in the region, the Suwannee 
River Basin being the largest. It covers an area of 11,020 square miles, 
the majority of which is contained in the eleven-county North Central 
Florida Region. The St. Johns River Basin covers approximately 8,800 
square miles, of which about 4-95 are contained within the region in 
Alachua and Bradford Counties. 

Several waters in the region have been designated "Outstanding Florida 
Waters" (OFW). The intent of the OFV designation is to stabilize current 
water quality levels and prevent further water quality degradation. The 
Suwannee River is designated an OFW. Other waters with this designation 
in the region are Ichetucknee Springs, the Santa Fe River, waters within 
the San Felasco Hammock State Preserve, and waters within the Paynes 



II-3 



Prairie State Preserve Addition. Also, the Gulf coastal waters within 
the Big Bend Seaigrasses Aquatic Preserve and Orange LaJte , Cross Creek and 
the River Styx have recently been designated Outsta_nding Florida Waters. 

Stream flow data of major rivers in the region are listed below. 

RIVER LENGTH IN REGION DRAINAGE AREA IN REGION AVERAGE DISCHARGE 

Econfina 52 miles 198 sq. miles 266 CFS 

Aucilla 48 miles 805 sq. miles 345 CFS 

Suwannee 288 miles 4127 sq. miles 12550 CFS 

Sajita Fe 75 miles 1440 sq. miles 2143 CFS 

Alapaha 40 miles 1840 sq. miles 1641 CFS 

Vithlacoochee 24 miles 2120 sq miles 3120 CFS 

Steinhatchee 30 miles 586 sq. miles 325 CFS 

CFS - Cubic feet per second 



Water use in the region during 1980 averaged 389.27 million gallons per 
day (mgd). The largest user of water was thermoelectric power genera- 
tion, accounting for 44.8 percent of total water use. Industry, specifi- 
cally phosphate mining operations in Hamilton County as well as a pulp 
mill in Taylor Coianty, accounted for 33.0 percent of the region's total 
water use. Water consumption for urbaji and rural domestic use was 53 
mgd.^ 



VEGETATIVE COMMUNITIES AND WILDLIFE 

In general, plant communities may be subdivided into two very broad 
categories, upland communities and lowlajid or wetlauid communities. 
Upland communities of north central Florida include sandhills, mixed 
hardwoods and pine, hammocks ajid pine flatwoods. Lowland cormnunities 
Include swaonp forests, wet prairies, salt marshes aind submerged lajids. 

A eignificajit number of plajit and animal species on the Florida Committee 
on Rare ajid Endangered Plants and Animals (FCREPA) critical list are 
found in the region. Endangered plajit species number 20, birds 29, fish 
6, land mammals 12, aind reptiles ajid amphibians 15. Habitat is the 
single most important determinant of species health and diversity. The 
number of critical species by habitat type in the region are as follows: 
Coastal Marshes 15: Pine Flatwoods 15; Sand Pine Scrub 13; Longleaf Pine 
13, Hardwood Swamp 13; Coastal Strand 12; Hardwood Ha.T.-.ocks 11; Mixed 
Hardwood Pine 10; Freshwater Marshes 10; and Dry Prairies 7. State and 
federal wildlife management areas in the region total 883,000 acres, and 
fish management areas total 481 acres. 



II-4 



REGIONALLY SIGNIFICANT NATURAL AREAS 

Over 50 areas have been identified as regionally significant based on 
their intrinsic natural value. These areas range in size from relatively- 
small areas such as Brook Sink located in Bradford County, to areas 
covering vast stretches of lajid such as the coastal marsh and associated 
freshwater wetlajids which occupy significant portions of Dixie ajid Taylor 
Counties. The areas serve a wide variety of functions such as ground- 
water recharge, recreation, habitat for flora amd fauna, flood control 
and hurricane surge protection. 



HUMAN SYSTEMS 

POPULATION GROWTH TRENDS 

Population in the North Central Florida Region has steadily increased 
over the past 25 years aind is expected to reach close to 500,000 by the 
year 2010. The most recent estimate of the population (as of 1985) is 
357,648. This represents a 95-3 percent increase in population since 
I960. The average annual increase for the region during the 1960's was 
2.4- percent. The average annual increase for the region during the 
1970's was 3.8 percent. Recent growth, 1980-1985, has slowed to 2.74- 
percent annually in the region. 

In the 1980's, for the first time since I960, the region's growth has 
surpassed the state average of 2.4 percent annually. Since 1980, 
national growth has slowed to 0.8 percent annually. 

Recent projections indicate that the rate, but not necessarily the amount 
of population growth in the region is slowing. The Florida Consensus 
Estimating Conference projection for the year 2000 population in the 
region is 440,276, an average annual increase of 2.4 percent between 1980 
and 2000. The Bureau of Economic and Business Research projection for 
the year 2010 is 474,200, which represents an average annual increase of 
0.8 percent between 2000 and 2010. 

According to the 1980 Census, 51.0 percent of the region's population is 
considered rural, compared to 15.7 percent for the state. Alachua is the 
only county in the region where a Census-defined urbanized area existed 
as of 1980. Recently, Bradford and Alachua Counties were designated a 
Metropolitan Statistical Area. In 1985. 51.4 percent of the regional 
population resided in Alachua County. Five counties in the region, 
Dixie, Gilchrist, Hamilton, Lafayette, and Union, have no populations 
defined by the Census as urban. The overall regional density in 1980 was 
43.6 persons per square mile, compared to the statewide figure of 180.1 
and a nationwide figure of 64.4. 



II-5 



MIGRATION 

Migration accounted for 75-4 percent of the population increase in the 
region from 1970 to 1980. Population growth in the region from 1980-1984 
due to in-migration decreased to 64.0 percent. The state average for in- 
migration over this time period was 88.2 percent. With 16.1 births per 
1,000 population, the birth rate average for the region remained 2.8 
percent greater tham the state average. The region has a slightly high 
death rate relative to the nation due to the percentage of retirees. 
With 4.3 deaths per 1,000 population in 1983, the region was 1.3 percent 
less than the state. 



AGE/ SEX 

The average mediaji a^e for the region has been slightly below the 
national average since I960, reaching 29.6 years in 1980. The average 
for Florida (34.7) has been above the national average (30-9). The 
median age has continued to increase in all counties in the region," 
except Lafayette County which shows a slight decrease in mediaxi age 
between 1970 and 1980. 

Between 1970 and 1980, the greatest percentage increases in the regional 
population occurred in the 18-64 axid the 65-and-over age group. 
Gilchrist County experienced the greatest growth for the 18-64 group, ajid 
Dixie County was highest for the 65-and-over category. 

As of 1984, there are slightly more men than women in the region. Men 
numbered 166,309 representing 50.7 percent of the population, while women 
totaled 161,528 at 49-3 percent.' 



RACIAL AND LINGUISTIC GROUPS 

The majority of the regional population is Caucasian, representing 77.9 
percent of the total 1980 population. Blacks represent 20.7 percent of 
the 1980 population, which is 6.9 percent higher than the black per- 
centage statewide. The category of "other" represents only 1.43 percent 
of the total regional population in 1980. The region does not have a 
large hispanic population characteristic of some areas of the state. 
Florida Consensus Estimating Conference projections show blacks repre- 
senting 20.7 percent for the year 2000. 

English is the dominajit language in the region, with regional percentages 
for English speakers slightly higher than the state average. In 1980, 
95.4 percent of the regional population spoke English. The percentage of 
population speaking Spanish was 2.1 percent in 1980, while 2.5 percent of 
the population spoke other languages. 



II-6 



FAMILIES, HOUSEHOLDS AND HOUSING STOCK 

Households in the region in 1980 numbered 102,754, representing 2.7 
percent of the households in the state- The region's average household 
size in 1984 was 2.76 persons, compared with a state average of 2.5. The 
regional average for percentage change in household size between 1980 and 
1984 was -3.08 percent, compared with the state average of -2.0 percent. 
The decrease in average household size is apparently due to lower birth 
rates, higher divorce rates, and an increase in the number of people 
living alone. 

The region contained 115,220 housing units in 1983. Of these, 97-8 
percent were year-round units and 2.2 percent were seasonal and migratory 
units. Apartments comprised 12.5 percent of the total housing stock, 
while mobile homes comprised 7.8 percent, ajid 0.3 percent were trajisient 
apartments. Renter-occupied housing units were 35.2 percent of the total 
in 1980. The niimber of housing xinits in the region increased 65.6 
percent between 1970 and 1980, compared with an increase of 31.0 percent 
between I960 and 1970. 

The cost of housing has increased considerably. From 1970 and 1980, the 
average value of owner-occupied housing units jumped from $8,427 to 
$23,837 (an increase of 318. 5?^). Furthermore, average median contract 
rent increased 174.5 percent (from $55.54 to $96.91), but average mediaji 
household income only increased by 157.8 percent.^ Approximately 4.0 
percent of the housing stock is federally-assisted housing, ajid estimates 
indicate that the region will need an additional 11,400 subsidized units 
by the year 201 0.^ 

Most of the year-round housing stock is relatively new. As of the 1980 
Census, 4.3 percent of the units were built prior to 1939, 3.6 percent 
were built between 1940-1949, 13.7 percent were built between 1950-1959, 
23.7 percent were built between 1960-1969, and 42.4 percent were built 
between 1970-1980. Between 1970 and 1985, there was a 60.0 percent 
decline in the number of substajidard housing units (measured by lack of 
adequate indoor plumbing) and a decrease (4.7?^) in the number of over- 
crowded residential units. ° 

In 1980, most of the regional housing units were three bedroom (40.75^), 
followed by two bedroom (33.95^). One bedroom units were 13.1 percent of 
the housing stock. 



EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT AND SPECIAL POPULATIONS 

The total population of the North Central Florida Region has completed 
less formal education than the state as a whole. All counties in the 
region except Alachua show a smaller percentage of high school and 
college graduates than the state average according to the 1980 Census. 
Despite the lower percentage of high school graduates in the region, the 
regional percentage of tenth graders passing the SSAT-II in March 1984 
was equal to the state average in mathematics (87. 05^) ajid only slightly 



II-7 



less in communication skills (89-0?^ for the region compared to 91-0^ 
statewide). 

Of the special populations in the region, the percentage of elderly to 
total population is close to the statewide percentage. However, inmates 
and patients represent 4.0 percent of the total regional population, 
compared with a state percentage of 0.4 percent of total population. 



HEALTH 

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the region, 
followed by heart disease and cajicer. Death rates from diabetes, lung 
disease and liver disease are greater thaji the statewide averages. 

In a report issued in January, 1986, the Physician's Task Force on Hunger 
in America identified the 150 worst "hunger counties" in America. Two of 
the four "hunger counties" identified in Florida are in the region. _ 
Alachua County ranked 97th in the nation in hunger, and Suwajinee raoiked 
109th. '^ 



CULTURE 

One aspect of the cultural environment of the region is the preservation 
of historic buildings. Currently, there are three historic districts 
within the region, the Northeast Gainesville Residential Historic 
District, the Micanopy Historic District, and the Call Street Historic 
District in Starke. In addition, there are numerous other buildings of 
historic value. 

Another aspect of culture is the means of communication available to the 
public. All counties in the region, except Union County, are served by a 
public library system. The Santa Fe Library in Alachua County is the 
region's largest public library with 183,805 volumes. Libraries are also 
located at the University of Florida and at the community colleges. The 
University of Florida is designated as a Federal Depository. Fifteen 
newspapers are published in the region, but only the Gainesville Sun and 
the Lake City Reporter are currently published daily. Radio ajnd televi- 
sion broadcasting within the region includes five stations in Alachua 
County, two stations in Bradford County, three in Columbia County, one 
station in Madison, one in Suwannee, and two stations in Taylor County. 



LOCAL GOVERNMENTS 

There are 44 units of general-purpose local government within the region, 
including 11 counties and 53 incorporated municipalities. Due, in part, 
to the rural nature of the region, most local governments within north 
central Florida have only recently enacted detailed land use plans and 
complementary implementation devices. Regional agencies include the 
Suwannee River Water Management District, the St. Johns River Water 



II-8 



Management District, amd the North Central Florida Regional Plajining 
Council. 

ECONOMY 

Alachua County is both the population ajid employment center of the 
region. It contains 50.8 percent of the regional population, provides 
58.35 percent of all jobs, accounts for 53.8 percent of gross sales, and 
has 60.0 percent of total income. Alachua County has the largest 
employer in the region, the University of Florida, which provides more 
thaji 13,500 jobs. Additional employment centers of regional and local 
signif icaince exist in other counties in the region, particularly 
Columbia, Suwannee ajid Taylor Counties. 



LABOR FORCE 

The region's labor force has shown rapid growth since 1970. The total 
regional labor force expanded from 80,4-60 persons in 1970 to 153,007 
persons in 1984, an increase of 90.2 percent. During this time the 
regional population increased 56.9 percent. In 1980, labor force 
participation was highest among men (61.85^) and lowest among women with 
children under six years of cige (46.85^). Statewide labor force rates 
were 67.0 percent for men and 50.7 percent for women with children under 
six years of age. Regional rates of labor participation are lower than 
the statewide rates for all groups. Minority members of the labor force 
made up 17.0 percent of the total labor force in the region. Although 
there were more black males thar. black fer.ales employed, there were more 
black females in the labor force, 10,926 to 11,023 respectively." 

Since 1970, the regional unemployment rate has been lower than the state 
average. In 1984, regional unemployment was 4.9 percent, compared to 6.3 
percent for the state and 7.4 percent for the nation.^® While the 
regional ixnemployment rate is less tham the state average, some of the 
rural counties have linemployment rates above statewide rates. The higher 
unemployment rates in the region by county in August, 1986, were 9.0 
percent in Columbia, 8.1 percent in Madison, 6.9 percent in Hamilton, and 
6.4 percent in Taylor. The problem of unemployment is the worst for 
young workers. In 1980, unemployment rates were highest for the 16-19 
and 20-24 age groups. 



INCOME CHARACTERISTICS 

Despite an overall low unemployment rate, north central Florida is the 
poorest region in the state. In 1985, the per capita income in the North 
Central Florida Region was $9 , 407--lowest in the state, a figure which 
represented only 70.0 percent of the state's per capita income of 
$13,384. While regional per capita income is increasing at a rate more 
rapid thaji that of the state, if existing trends continue, north central 
Florida will continue to be the poorest region in the state at least 
through the year 2000.^^ 



II-9 



Every county in the region is in the upper 50-0 percent of the state in 
terms of percentage of families living at or below the poverty level. 
Madison County, with 26.4 percent of total faonilies living below the 
poverty line ranks highest in the state. Madison, Dixie suid Hamilton are 
in the highest 10.0 percent of the state in terms of percentaige of 
fcimilies living below the poverty level, and Suwannee, Lafayette and 
Taylor are in the upper 20.0 percent. -^ To live below the poverty level 
is by definition to be unable to afford adequate nutrition. 

Personal income for residents of the region is considerably more depen- 
dent on wages and salaries thain it is statewide. Wages ajid salaries 
represent 58.7 percent of the total personal income in the region 
compared to 50.7 percent in the state. In the categories of "other labor 
income," "farm proprietors income" and "nonfarm proprietors income" the 
regional income is slightly greater than the state percentages. Transfer 
payments represent 17.1 percent of the total personal income of the 
region as well as the state. The percentage of personal income obtained 
from dividends, interest and rent is considerably less in the region 
(13.65^) than the state (23.1^). 



COST OF LIVING 

Price levels in the region are lower tham the state average. Union 
County is the most expensive county in the region with the highest 
consumer price level index of 98.4-6 (100.0 is the average). Madison 
County is the least expensive at 92.46. Housing prices are the lowest 
index category in the region ranging from 87.43 to 96.34. Food has the 
highest regional price level indexes, ranging from 93.63 to 102.31. Four 
counties in the region, Gilchrist, Lafayette, Taylor and Union, show 
price level indexes for food greater than the state average. ''" 



INDUSTRY EMPLOYMENT PROJECTIONS 

Historically important industries in the region include fishing, sigricul- 
ture, and forestry. However, the importance of these industries to the 
regional economy has declined over time. Agriculture, forestry, and 
fishing combined represent only 5.2 percent of total 1983 regional 
employment. Nonetheless, agricultural employment still accounts for a 
relatively large percentage of total employment in Gilchrist (11.3?^), 
Hamilton (11. 55^), and Madison ( 1 5 . 2?t ) Counties. 

Phosphate mining has held an increasingly important role in the regicr.al 
economy. Despite the low percentage of mining in the region as a whole, 
the Occidental Chemical and Agricultural Company (OXY) raining complex in 
Hamilton County is of major significance to the economies of Hamilton, 
Columbia and Suwannee Counties, as well as the economy of the state. 
Closure of the two Hamilton County mines is projected to occur within 
twenty to twenty-five years. 

Between 1982 and 1995, employment in the North Central Florida Region is 
expected to Increase to 145.000 an increase of 31.0 percent. Although 



11-10 



this is an increase of over 34,000 jobs, the increase is below the 45.0 
percent rate of increase expected to occur statewide over the same 
period. 

The Services category is both the largest and most rapidly increasing of 
all industrial categories represented in the region. It is projected 
that in 1995, employment in Services will represent 42.7 percent of total 
regional employment, representing a 38.1 percent increase in total 
employment since 1982. Four industry groups in the region are projected 
to increase employment at rates greater than 20.0 percent between 1982 
and 1995. These are Wholesale and Retail Trade (29.8?^), Government 
(28. 75^), Mining (27.35^), and Transportation, Communications and Utilities 
(26. 95^). Manufacturing is projected to decline from 11.9 percent of 
total regional employment in 1982 to 10.8 percent in 1995. Other sectors 
show little change in percentage of total regional employment. 

In 1982, the finance, insurance and real estate sector, the services 
sector and the government sector all have greater representation in the 
regional economy than in the state. By 1995, only the service sector is 
projected to have greater representation in the region than it does 
statewide . 



EMPLOYMENT BY OCCUPATION 

In 1982, the Professional, Technical and Kindred occupations represented 
23-9 percent of total regional employment. It is the region's only 
occupational group with a greater percentage than the state percent of 
17.9. Clerical workers (22.05^) and "laborers except farm" (6.35^) 
represented the same percentage of the regional workforce as the 
percentage of the state workforce in 1982. It is projected that by 1995, 
Professional, Technical and Kindred occupations will represent 24.7 
percent of regional employment. Clerical workers are projected to be 
22.3 percent of total regional employment, and service workers will 
represent 17.2 percent. 



URBAN/RURAL 

USE OF THE LAND 

Urban areas cover approximately 250 square miles of land, or about 4.0 
percent of the total land area of the region. The predominant land use 
in the region is forest production. In 1983, slightly over 80.0 percent 
of the regional was comprised of either cropland (21.65^), pastureland 
(12. 55^), or commercial forest (47.6^). -^ Of the forested areas, more 
than 60.0 percent are pine forests with 24.0 percent oak, gum and 
cypress. The balance of the forested area consists of oak-hickory and 
oak-pine. Overall, the quality of the region's forests is relatively 
good with more than half of the softwood and hardwood volumes considered 
to be of excellent quality. The second largest category of land use in 
area is agriculture in the form of croplands and pasture land. A distant 



II-1 1 



third in rank is wetlajids, including coastal marshes, followed by urban 
areas. 

As of 1984, there were 48,967 subdivided, undeveloped, single-family 
residential lots within the region. Many of these lots are located 
some distance from existing urban centers. Presently, in most counties 
in the region, areas designated in the land use plaji as agricultural can 
be subdivided as small as one-acre lots. 



TRANSPORTATION 

Interstate highways 10 auid 75 cross the region and provide automobile and 
truck transportation to south Florida, Jacksonville, Tallahassee, and 
Atlanta. In addition, all incorporated cities within the region are 
serviced by U.S. highways and roads which are part of the state highway 
system. Overall, the regional road network consists of 1,101 miles of 
rural ajid 130 miles of urban roadways. Included in this is 177 niles of 
interstate highways and 1,054 miles of state and county roads ajid 
highways. A portion of the road network is shown on Illustration I. 

The primary public transit systems serving the region are the Gainesville 
Regional TrsLnsit System (RTS) serving Alachua County, the Suwannee Valley 
Transit Authority (SVTA) serving Columbia, Hamilton, aind Suwajinee 
Counties ajid Big Bend Transit Authority serving Madison and Taylor 
Counties. In addition, majiy social service agencies provide transporta- 
tion services for their clients. However, only a small percentage of the 
region's residents use public transit. As of 1980, only 2,014 persons in 
the region (1,694 in Alachua County alone) reported public trainsportation 
as their primary or most frequent means of commuting to and from their 
place of work. 

There are nine civil airports in the region, seven of which are publicly 
owned. All but one of these facilities, the Division of Adult Correc- 
tions field in Union County, is open to the general public. Air carrier 
service to the region is provided through the Gainesville Regional 
Airport by two major airlines and three smaller shuttle/commuter air- 
lines. Airline service within the region, like other forms of public 
transit, is underutilized and ridership is declining. The number of 
enplainements has declined each year since 1980 by an average annual rate 
of 12.0 percent. 

Railroad activity in the region consists primarily of freight transporta- 
tion with a major north/south east/west Interseoticr. of .T.edlum density 
freight lines within the City of Live Oak. Passenger rail service in the 
region consists of two routes, one south to Miaani and one north through 
Jacksonville. The region's only passenger rail station is located in the 
City of Waldo (Alachua County), but use of the existing route is minimal. 



11-12 



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ELECTRICAL POVER 

The electrical power grid serving the region is owned by two private 
companies, four municipalities and four rural electric cooperatives. The 
private companies include Florida Power and Light (FPL) and the Florida 
Power Corporation (FPC). Municipal utilities include Alachua, Newberry, 
Starke and Gainesville. Of these, Gainesville Regional Utilities and the 
City of Starke generate their own power. Rural electric cooperatives 
serving the region include Central Florida Electric, Clay Electric, 
Suwannee Valley Electric and Tri-County Electric. There are only three 
existing electrical generation sites in the region. 

On the average, 41.0 percent of the total electrical consumption in the 
region is for residential use (including farms). Commercial uses 
represent 16.5 percent of total electrical consumption, and industrial 
uses represent 37.6 percent. However, the phosphate industry in Hamilton 
County skews these averages by using 89.0 percent of total county 
consumption for this industrial use. 



HEALTH CARE FACILITIES 

Hospital care is provided by numerous facilities scattered throughout the 
region. Facilities in Gainesville include the Shands Teaching Hospital 
and Clinics at the University of Florida, a major regional referral 
center, Alachua General Hospital, North Florida Regional Hospital, and 
the Veterans' Administration Medical Center. Other facilities in the 
region include Bradford County Hospital in Starke, the Lake Shore 
Hospital and the Veterans' Administration Hospital in Lake City, Family 
Medical Practice Clinic in Cross City, Hamilton County Memorial in 
Jasper, the Medical Clinic in Mayo, Madison County Memorial Hospital, 
Suwannee County Hospital in Live Oak, Doctors Memorial Hospital in Perry, 
and Union General Hospital in Lake Butler. To serve as satellites of 
Alachua General, a 4-0-bed physical rehabilitation unit and a 83-bed 
psychiatric unit are also under construction in Gainesville. The 
addition of these facilities will strengthen the area's function as a 
regional medical center. 



EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES 

There are several facilities for higher education in the region. Saiita 
Fe Community College and the Bradford Technical School are the primary 
providers of vocational and technical training. Other facilities a.-e the 
Lake City Community College, North Florida Junior College, and the 
University of Florida. 

The region contains 45 private and 96 public schools. Enrollment during 
school year 1982-83 was 51.719 in public schools and 2,822 in 
non-public schools. 

Vhile night school programs are generally available for General Education 
Diploma (GED) and high school diplomas, there is no education program 



11-14 



designed to meet the needs of daytime working adults In the region who 
wish to complete a post-secondary degree. 



PARKS AND RECREATION AREAS 

The North Central Florida Region contains portions of three large federal 
lajidholdings : the Osceola National Forest, St. Mark's National Wildlife 
Refuge, and the Lower Suwannee National Wildlife Refuge. State parks and 
recreation areas in the region include Ichetucknee Springs, Manatee 
Springs, O'Leno, Suwajinee River, Devil's Millhopper, Marjorie Kinnan 
Rawlings House, Paynes Prairie, River Rise ajid the San Felasco Hammock. 

County owned recreational lands and municipal recreation areas also 

1 7 
provide for recreational needs. 



Endnotes: 

1. Personal communication with Doug Zant, Soil Conservation Service, 
Gainesville office, 11-7-86. 



Edward A. Fernald ajid Donald J. Patton, Water Resources Atlas of 
Florida . (Tallaiaassee , Florida: Florida State University, 1985), 
p. 284. 



University of florida. Bureau of Economic and Business 
Research, 1983 Florida Statistical Abstract , (Gainesville, 
Florida: The University Presses of Florida, 1985), pp. 15-17. 



4-. North Central Florida Regional Plajining Council, unpublished 
data, 1982. 



North Central Florida Regional Planning Council, unpublished data, 
1979 and 1985. 



U.S. Department of Comjnerce, Bureau of the Census, 1 970 Census of 
Housing, Housing Characteristics for States, Cities, and Counties, 
Table 29. Selected Characteristics for Counties, (Washington, D.C.: 
United States Government Printing Office, 1970). '^';: . 1 1-125; and 
1980 Census of Housing, Detailed Housing Characteristics . Table 94-, 
Equipment and Plumbing Facilities for Counties, (Washington, D.C.: 
United Stated Government Printing Office, 1980), pp. 11-269 to 
11-174. 



7. Hunger counties are defined by the existence of two factors: (1) 

more thaji 20.0 percent of the county residents live on incomes below 
the federal poverty level; and (2) fewer than one-third of eligible 
needy residents receive the benefits of the federal food stamp 

11-15 



program . 

Physician Task Force on Hunger in America, "Hunger Counties 1986 
(Harvard University School of Public Health, Cajnbridge, MA.: 
Jainuary 1986). 



8. North Central Florida Regional Planning Council, Popul at ion /Economic 
Study, (Gainesville, Florida: 1976). 



North Central Florida Regional Planning Council, North Central 
Florida Service Delivery Area, Job Training Plan: July 1, 1984- to 
June 30. 1986 , (Gainesville, Florida: March 1986), Table 111-35- 



10. University of Florida, Bureau of Economic and Business Research, 
1985 Florida Statistical Abstract , (Gainesville, Florida: The 
University Press of Florida, 1985). 



11. Florida Department of Labor and Employment Security, Bureau of Labor 
Market Information, Labor Market Summaries Annual Averages 1980- 
1985, Months Jan. 1986 - August 1986. 



12. Minshall, et.al.. Report II: The Identification of Tari^et Ac- 
tivities for the North Central Florida Area , (Battelle Laboratori- 
es, Columbus, OH.: August, 1986), p. 1-3. 



13- Florida Department of Commerce, Division of Economic Development, 
Florida County Comparisons/ 1 984- . 



14-. University of Florida, Bureau of Economic and Business Research, 
1985 Florida Statistical Abstract , (Gainesville, Florida: The 
University Presses of Florida, 1985), Table 24-. 80. 



15. University of Florida, Bureau of Economic and Business Research, 
1985 Florida Statistical Abstract , (Gainesville, Florida: The 
University Press of Florida, 1985), table 9.29. 



16. University of Florida. Department of Urban and Regional Planning, 
Florida Land Use Inventory , [A computer program] (1985). 



17. Florida Department of Natural Resources, Outdoor Recreation in 
Florida . ( Tal laiiassee . Florida: Florida Department of Natural 
Resources, 1981), pp. 102-103. 



11-16 



Ill 

REGIONAL ISSUES ELEMENT 

INTRODUCTION 

This second major element of the North Central Florida Comprehensive 
Regional Policy Plan identifies the major issues, problems and 
opportunities facing the citizens of the region. The regional issues 
section provides the basis for the development of regional goals, 
policies and standards which are included in a separate section of the 
plan . 

As required by Chapter 27E-4, Florida Administrative Code, this section 
of the plan addresses the 26 goals established in the State Comprehensive 
Plan and the 76 policy clusters developed by the Governor's Office to 
represent major state and regional issue areas within each of the state 
plan goals. The intent of this approach is to ensure that regional plans 
are not only consistent with but, in accordance with Chapter 186, Florida 
Statutes, further the state goals adopted by the 1985 Legislature. 

Thus, the following is divided into 26 major subsections which are headed 
by a restatement of the state plan goal, followed immediately by the 
regional issues/policy clusters statements. These statements are 
followed by relatively brief background statements which address 
identified regional issues (problems/opportunities). Each of these 
subsections is concluded with a listing of regional resources which may 
either have an affect on or be affected by the issues. 



III-1 



STATE GOAL 1 : EDUCATION 

The creation of an educational environment which is intended to provide 
adequate skills and knowledge for students to develop their full poten- 
tial, embrace the highest ideas and accomplishments, make a positive 
contribution to society, ajid promote the advancement of knowledge on 
human dignity. 

1.1. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #1: Improving Student Performance 

Background Analysis: Education, both formal and informal, is the most 
important element of a democratic society. The educational system is 
responsible for teaching citizens necessary problem solving skills and 
attitudes which keep society strong and viable. History reveals that 
when education is weak, ineffective and inadequate, society decays. 

Upgrading and expanding present facilities will be required to 
accommodate the projected population increase of school-age children and 
adolescents in the region. The population of to 17 year olds is- 
expected to increase by 14.0 percent by the year 2000. The majority of 
the population growth is expected to take place in Alachua County. 
County school boards will need to ensure that population growth does not 
lower facility or educational standards in each school. 

Individual school boards are responsible for the education of students. 
It is up to the school boards to set educational goals, allocate finan- 
cial and other resources, solve problems, and oversee student academic 
achievement . 

In several counties of north central Florida, students score below the 
state average on State Student Assessment Tests ( SSAT ) . Furthermore, the 
disparity between SSAT scores of black minority and white students in the 
region is greater than statewide. The amount of money allocated per 
student in the region to administer educational programs is significantly 
below that amount allocated statewide. Teacher's salaries in the region 
fall far below the state average. 

The State Student Assessment .Test of Basic skills measures reading, 
writing and math achievement of all students in grades 5, 5, 8 and 10. 
Mastery of these basic skills must be taken into account before students 
are promoted to the next grade. Students in the 10th grade take an 
additional State Student Assessment Test, Part II (SSAT II), which 
measures applications and knowledge of skills. Mastery of standards 
assessed on the 10th grade basic skills test (SSAT I) and passing the 
SSAT II, are required for high school graduation. The SSAT tests only 
measure students' mastery of part of educational curricula and do not 
measure higher cognitive processes. Nonetheless, since SSATs are given in 
every school district, and passing the SSAT II is required for high 
school graduation, they are used in the Comprehensive Regional Policy 
Plan as a measure of region student performance. 



SSAT I test scores in 1984 indicate that in the majority of counties, 
students in grades 3, 5 and 8 scored below the state average. Several 
counties in the region, such as Lafayette and Union, ranked very low, if 

III-1-1 



not lowest in the state. Although SSAT I scores have increased in the 

region in the last seven years, the overall academic test performance of 

o 
these grades still falls far below the state average. Furthermore, in 

several counties in the region, the disparity between scores of white and 

•X. 

black students is even greater than statewide in grades 3, 5 and Q. 
Grade 10 SSAT I test results indicate that scores in 8 out of 11 counties 
fall below the state average, in spite of score improvements since 1977. 
SSAT II scores also indicate that 10th graders in the region lag behind 
statewide average performance in mathematics and communications. Grade 
10 SSAT I and II scores also demonstrate the greatest disparity between 
the scores of white and black students in the region.^ 

In the majority of counties in the region, the full-time equivalent (FTE) 
student financial expenditure is far below the state average expendi- 
ture.-' Recently, four individuals and 22 county school boards, including 
Alachua, Columbia, Gilchrist, Madison and Taylor, have sued the State 
Board of Education for failure to provide equal education opportunities 
to all students. The State Legislature is also funding a $200,000 study 
to determine whether the funding formula of the Florida Education Finance 
Program is fair." For example, in 10 out of 11 North Central Florida 
Region counties, the average expenditure per FTE student is 5.0 to 11.0 
percent below the state average for grades kindergarten through 12 
{K-12), including the alternative education programs. 

In 10 out of 11 counties. Exceptional Education FTE student expenditures 
are less than the statewide average. The disparities range from 32.0 
(Madison) to 19.0 (Columbia) to 1.0 percent (Alachua) below the state 

•n 

average expenditure. This program is designed to provide a free and 
appropriate education to exceptional students in grades K-12. The 
mentally retarded, physically handicapped, emotionally disturbed and 
gifted (extremely intelligent) students benefit from special educational 
and instructional support services. 

North central Florida FTE student allocations for Vocational (grades 7-12 
and adult) and General Adult Education Programs are approximately on par 
with the state average (see 1.3).® 

The amount of funds allocated to Chapter One programs is inadequate to 
meet the needs of the counties with large populations of economically 
deprived students. Chapter One Basic is a federally-funded program to 
improve the academic achievement of economically deprived youth. Six out 
of 11 counties in the region spend from 8.0 (Bradford), to 28.0 (Union), 
to 41.0 percent (Hamilton) below the state average of $906 expenditure 
per FTE. Hamilton County, which has the greatest population of Chapter 
One students proportionate tg the total student population, operates with 
the lowest level of funding in the region at $536 per FTE student.^ 

Career incentives for teachers in the region, especially competitive 
salaries, are essential to attract and retain high quality educators who 
enhance student learning and performance. However, in keeping with the 
historical trend, teacher's salaries in the region are substantially 
lower than statewide. In school year 1985-86, the region's average 



III-1-2 



teacher's salary ($19,964) was 10.3 percent lower than the average salary 
for the state $22,250). Salary increases have reduced the gap between 
region and state salaries, but nonetheless, teachers in the region are 
some of the lowest paid in the state. Average teacher's salaries in the 
region range from 4.9 percent (Columbia County) to 25.4 percent (Union) 
below the state average teacher's salary. Furthermore, teachers in the 
region at every academic degree level make less money than their counter- 
parts statewide. For example, teachers at the BA+ level in Union County 
earn 28.2 percent less than those teachers statewide, and teachers at the 
BA level earn 15.5 percent less than those teachers statewide. 

Individual school boards are responsible for establishing and maintaining 
a rigorous and objective evaluation of educational programs. School 
districts in the region lack a systematic, formal evaluation program to 
measure the success of educational programs. Evaluation is designed to 
assess the overall effect of a particular program and make recommenda- 
tions for its improvement. Program evaluations usually examine all 
aspects of an educational program, which include anticipated and unex- 
pected outcomes. Recent surveys of Florida school districts indicate an 
unmet need to conduct educational program evaluation on a regular, 
ongoing, systematic basis. Minimal compliance monitoring is not adequate 
to measure educational program success. 

School board superintendents also play a critical role in overall 
performance of a county's educational system. As chief administrative 
officer, they are responsible for the daily operations of the school 
district. Superintendents prepare and recommend budgets, programs, 
personnel, and other items to the local school board. 

Ten of north central Florida eleven public school districts are comprised 
of locally-elected superintendents. Only Alachua County has an appointed 
superintendent. School districts with appointed superintendents may have 
a greater chance to find qualified persons for the job. One advantage 
held by a system of appointed superintendents are that school districts 
can develop minimum job qualification standards and conduct a nationwide 
search for the most qualified applicant. Under a system of elected 
superintendents, the search is narrowed to county residents. However, 
school districts with elected superintendents may be more responsive to 
the public will as the superintendent is directly accountable to the 
electorate . 

Florida law calls for school board superintendents to be elected. 
However, state statutes provide a mechanism whereby counties may opt for 
an appointed school board superintendent. The process starts with the 
county school board requesting the board of county commissioners to put 
the issue before the voters. The m.easure becomes law if the referendum 
is approved by a majority vote of the electorate. 

In addition, the region has 95 public schools which serve approximately 
54,637 students. Recent data indicate that the schools in the region are 
not overcrowded. However, the student population is expected to increase 
by approximately 15 percent by the year 2000. To accommodate this 
growth, school facilities will need to be expanded. 



III-1 -3 



Regionally Significant Facilities: University of Florida, Santa Fe 
Community College, Bradford-Union Vocational Technical Center, Lake City 
Community College, Taylor Vocational Technical Center, North Florida 
Junior College, Suwannee-Hamilton Vocational Technical Center. 

Agencies: Executive Office of the Governor, Florida Department of 
Education, Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, county school 
boards, North Central Florida Regional Planning Council. 



1.2. Regional Issue/Cluster Title H2: Improve Student Retention and 
Completion and the Attainment of High School Diplomas and Post-Secondary 
Degrees and Certificates 

Rural counties in the region have a low rate of high school graduation, 
and consequently also have a low rate of attainment of post-secondary 
degrees. Furthermore, dropout prevention programs are lacking in the 
majority of rural school districts. Education and daycare services are 
insufficient to meet the needs of the region's large population of 
teenage mothers. The region lacks an adequate number of guidance 
counselors. The rate of recent high school graduates enrolled in post- 
secondary institutions is significantly below the statewide rate. While 
night school programs are generally available for General Education 
Diploma (GED) equivalency and high school diplomas, there is no education 
prograjn to meet the needs of daytime working adults in the region who 
wish to complete a post-secondary degree. 

Student retention has historically been a problem in the region. The 
most recent data available indicates that the rate of adult (25+ years) 
high school completion is substantially lower than statewide. The low 
rates range from 15.0 percent (Columbia County) to 53.0 percent (Madison 
County) below the rate statewide (66.7%). 

Reliable methods to count the current number of school dropouts have not 
been established. However, the best available data indicate that the 
region's dropout rate for grades 7-12 (5.4% per grade) is on par with 
the rate statewide (5-9%). ' 

National studies indicate that teenage pregnancy is the main reason 
American females drop out of high school. Eighty percent of women who 
become mothers by age 17 and drop out of high school, never complete 
their education. Pregnant 15 year olds who dropout of school are likely 
to have several more births by the age of 20, which further reduces their 
chances of completing a high school education.^ 

Dixie, Hamilton and Madison county school districts have high dropout 
rates (greater than 5.9%) and some of the highest rates of births to 
teenagers in the state. ^^ These rural counties lack educational programs 
to serve teenage mothers. Although regional -level data is unavailable, 
the inordinate number of teenage mothers in the region very likely 
constitute a large portion of the dropout population. 

The Alachua County School Board established Alachua County Continuing 
Education for Pregnant Teens (ACCEPT), a voluntary educational program to 

III-1-4 



meet the needs of pregnant school-age women. Similar programs operate in 
22 Florida and 79 U.S. school districts. ACCEPT enables the student to 
continue progress toward high school or middle school completion while 
learning parenting skills. Available only to residents of Alachua 
County, many young women from neighboring counties move to Alachua 
County to enroll. From 1980 to 1985, ACCEPT served 520 students and 
currently (spring, 1986) serves 85. 

Alachua County's ACCEPT 1980-85 repeat pregnancy rate was approximately 
13.0 percent, which is lower that the national rate of 18-25.0 percent. 
Recent research demonstrates that with an intense 18 month follow-up 
period after childbirth, the repeat teenage pregnancy rate can be reduced 
to 7.0 percent. ACCEPT plans to reduce even further the number of repeat 
pregnancies among their students. Of 520 students who attended ACCEPT, 
32.0 percent dropped out of school 18 months after giving birth. 

Ninety-five percent of the dropouts cited the lack of day care services 

1 v 
as the reason for dropping out of school. 

To address the more general dropout problem, Alachua and Columbia .county 
school boards are implementing pilot drop out prevention programs. The 
Columbia County program serves 25 students in one high school while the 
Alachua County program has an enrollment of 135 in four high schools. 
Classroom instruction pertains to finding employment, and dropout 
prevention specialists provide counseling. The dropout prevention 
program started in the spring of 1985. Statistics measuring the effec- 
tiveness of the program are unavailable. 

Guidance counselors sometimes provide counseling services to teenagers at 
risk for dropping out of school. The 1985 ratio of guidance counselors to 
students (1 to 539) in the region has decreased by 22.0 percent since 
1976 (1 to 443). Furthermore, north central Florida guidance counselors 
each serve approximately 100 more students than the average number served 
statewide (1 to 459). Currently, Dixie, Gilchrist, Hamilton, and 
Lafayette county school districts have no guidance counselors for their 
elementary or middle schools.^ In addition, Gilchrist County has no 
high school guidance counselors, the education level with the greatest 
number of dropouts. An increased number of guidance counselors may be an 
important factor in reducing the number of dropouts, especially in light 
of the fact that most of the region's school districts do not have 
dropout prevention programs. The role of the guidance counselor may be 
redefined to provide intensive counseling for pregnant teenagers and 
school-age fathers, aimed to prevent such students from dropping out of 
school. Resources should also be made available to expand life manage- 
ment classes to meet the information needs of the potential dropout (See 
Regional Issue 2.1.). 

College completion rates (4+ years) among adults (25+ years) in the rural 
counties (excluding Alachua) of the region are significantly below the 
statewide rate. In the rural counties, the rate of college completion 
ranges from one-half (Columbia) to almost three times below (Dixie) the 
rate statewide ( 1 4 . 1 5^ ) . The rate of college completion among adults in 
Alachua County (29-4^) is slightly more than twice as high as the rate 
statewide. 



III-1 -5 



The rate of recent high school graduates enrollment in post-secondary ^k 

institutions (485^) is 23.0 percent below the state average (59^). The ^^ 

rate of high school graduates entering Florida public community colleges 

and private junior colleges is comparable to the rate statewide. North 

central Florida high school graduates lag behind the rest of the state 

when comparing the number of graduates entering both public and private 

Florida colleges and universities the fall after graduation. Eight 

percent of the graduates enter these institutions, compared to 12.6 

? 1 
percent statewide. 

There is limited opportunity for working adults in the region to complete 
a post-secondary degree. The Board of Regents funded Florida Engineering 
Education Delivery System (FEEDS) is a prospective model for the develop- 
ment of such education programs in the region. FEEDS provides the 
opportunity for any engineering student living in the State of Florida to 
register for graduate engineering classes offered by the five provider 
universities (UF, UCF, USF, Florida Atlantic, and Florida International). 
The provider universities produce videotapes of engineering classes which 
are distributed to participating institutions. Universities and In- 
dustries such as Harris Corporation, utilize this education system. A 
proctor assists the students with the videotaped sessions. The provider 
university professor grades the FEEDS student's homework and examina- 
tions. Credit goes towards the completion of the graduate degree. This 
education system has the potential to be adapted to a wide curriculum and 
implemented in cooperation with community colleges or businesses anywhere 
in the State of Florida. The FEEDS model creates the opportunity for the 
attainment of post-secondary degrees in urban and rural areas alike. In ^^ 
FY 1984-85, approximately 2,000 students per semester statewide enrolled 
in FEEDS. 22 

Regionally Significant Facilities: University of Florida, Santa Fe 
Community College, Bradford-Union Vocational Technical Center, Lake City 
Community College, Taylor Vocational Technical Center, North Florida 
Junior College, Suwannee-Hamilton Vocational Technical Center, ACCEPT, 
FEEDS. 

Agencies: Executive Office of the Governor, Florida Department of 
Education, Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Department 
of Corrections, county school boards. North Central Florida Regional 
Planning Council. 

1.5. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #5: Educational Programs That Respond 
to the Needs of Society 

Background Analysis: The region is well served by adult and community 
education programs designed for adults who wish to advance their educa- 
tion. Adult Education, Community Education and Community Instructional 
Services programs are offered in every county in the region. Data which 
documents the population served by these programs is not available at 
this time. Each county is also served by a vocational- technical school 
or community college. (^^ 



III-1 -6 



Adult education is offered in every county in the region to benefit 
adults who have not finished high school. The program provides the 
opportunity for adults to acquire basic literacy skills, finish 
coursework required for the high school diploma, or qualify to take the 
GED examination and receive a GED diploma. Adult education also offers 
vocational classes, which train students for future employment. 

Community Education, offered in every county in the region, offers a vast 
curriculum. Community Education aims to improve the quality of the 
education of all citizens in the region and move Florida's educational 
ranking into the upper quartile of the states. -^ In order to achieve 
this goal, community education programs utilize: (1) maximum use of 
existing facilities; (2) inter-agency cooperative agreements; (3) 
multipurpose use of facilities; and (4) lifelong learning. Many courses 
are preparatory for GRE, SAT and civil service test taking. 

Community Instructional Services (CIS) is also a community education 
program. The administrators of CIS have documented the need for courses 
in child rearing which address child abuse and the prevention of teenage 
pregnancy. Health education is another popular class. The elderly, who 
account for a large part of the CIS enrollment, frequently request 
consumer economic courses which teach credit management and the avoidance 
of consumer fraud. ^ 

Every county in the region is served by one of six vocational technical 
schools or community colleges. The rate of enrollment of high school 
graduates in vocational schools is increasing in the region and 
statewide. '^ Vocational-technical schools offer certificates in various 
career activities, and also offer Associate of Science Degrees. 
Community colleges offer vocational certificates, Associate of Science 
degrees and Associate of Arts college preparatory degrees. 

Regionally Significajit Facilities: University of Florida, Santa Fe 
Community College, Bradford-Union Vocational Technical Center, Lake City 
Community College, Taylor Vocational Technical Center, North Florida 
Junior College, Suwannee-Hamilton Vocational Technical Center, ACCEPT, 
FEEDS, Public libraries in Alachua, Taylor, Bradford, Suwannee and 
Columbia Counties. 

Agencies: Executive Office of the Governor, Florida Department of 
Education, Department of Corrections, county school boards. North Central 
Florida Regional Planning Council. 



Endnotes: 

1. The Statewide Assessment Program was created in the 1 970 ' s to 

examine Florida's educational system. In 1976, the Legislature 
mandated the use of the SSAT I to test students on minimum math and 
communication skills in grades three, five, eight and ten. The SSAT 
II, which tests student's application of basic skills, must be 
passed for high school graduation (An Overview of Florida Public 
School Programs 1982-83). 



III-1-7 



Florida Department of Ecjucation. A Comparative Analysis of 
Attainment of Minimum Performance Standards by School - -School 
Pi St riot- -Region. 1 977-1 983-1 984 ■ 



In Florida, black students consistently score lower than whites on 
SSAT examinations, but north central Florida black students score 
lower than blacks statewide. Therefore, the gap in academic test 
performance between white and black students is even greater in the 
region than statewide. The SSAT I and II test scores of the 
Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander and American Indian/Alaskan Native 
minorities are on par with Caucasian scores. Therefore, this 
background analysis compares the test scores of Caucasian and Black 
students only. 



Florida Department of Education. Minimum Performance Standards 



The Florida Education Finance Program allocates funds for the 
kindergarten to 12, Alternative, Exceptional, Vocational and General 
Adult Education programs. "FTE" student is a term which has been 
quantified and used in the state's formula for the allocation of 
funds. A thorough investigation of the complex reasons for the 
difference in funding is beyond the scope of this background 
analysis . 



TaMahassee Democrat . June 11, 1986 and June 21, 1986; Gainesville 
Sun . June 26, 1986. 



Ibid 



Ibid 



Florida Department of Education, Chapter One Evaluation Department. 
Data provided by Mr. Bob Watson and Mr. Gerry Richardson. December, 
1985. 



10. Florida Department of Education Management Information Statistical 
Services (MIS). Data furnished by Ms. Virginia Barnes. May, 1986 



11. Department of Education Program Review and Evaluation. Telephone 
interview with Program Specialist Mr. Ron Dearden. October, 1985 



12. The rate of adult (25+ years) high school completion in Alachua 

County is 13.0^ greater than the rate statewide. U.S. Department of 
Commerce , Bureau of the Census. 1980 Census of Population: General 

III-1-8 



Social and Economic Characteristics . Florida PC 80-1-C11 cited in 
the Florida Statistical Abstract. 



15. Data pertaining to the student dropout rate in Florida is difficult 
to obtain for many reasons. Before 1975, the percent of students 
who discontinued enrollment were recorded. This data, however, does 
not distinguish dropouts from those students who relocate. After 
1975, the estimated total number of dropouts was recorded for grades 
K-12, without a breakdown by grade. In 1982, the Division of Public 
Schools recorded the number of dropouts by grade for grades 7-12. 
Even this most recent data does not distinguish students who 
withdraw and re-enroll at other institutions from students who 
completely drop out of the education system. This lack of data 
makes the establishment of historical trends impossible. 



14. Florida Center for Children and Youth. Newsl ine . "Children Having 
Children: Teen Pregnancy and Parenthood in Florida." Tallahassee, 
Florida. June-July 1985. 



15. Florida Department of Education. Students in Florida Public School 
Districts: 1982-83 and 198^-84 . Tallahassee, Florida. 1984. 



16. Alachua County Continuing Education for Pregnant Teens. Teen 
Pregnancy Fact Sheet . Gainesville, Florida. 1985. 



17. Alachua County Continuing Education for Pregnant Teens. Program 
Update . November, 1985. Gainesville, Florida. 



18. Dropout Prevention Program, Alachua County School Board. Interview 
with Director Mr. Jim Pritchett. November, 1985. 



19. Florida Department of Education. Data furnished by Virginia Barnes, 
MIS. February, 1986. 



20. U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. 1 980 Census of 
Population: General Social and Economic Characteristics . Florida 
PC 80-1-C11 cited in the 1985 Florida Statistical Abstract. 



21. Florida Department of Education. MIS Statistical Brief . 
Tallahassee, Florida. May, 1985. 



22. GENESYS, interview with Assistant Director, Mr. Bill Thames 
January, 1986. 



III-1-9 



23. Florida Department of Education. Facts About Florida's Community 
Education Program . Tallahassee, Florida. June 1984. 



24. Alachua County Community Instructional Services, 1 982-83 Annual 
Report . 



25- Region IX Coordinating Council, Alachua and Bradford Counties. 1 98^ 
Needs Assessment Study . David B. Fellows. 1985. 



III-1 -10 



STATE GOAL 2: CHILDREN 

Florida should provide programs sufficient to protect the health, safety 
and welfare of all its children. 

2.1. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #4: Prevention of Chronic Health and 
Social Problems ajid Reduction of Long-Term Disability and Dependency 

Background Analysis: North central Florida has a very high infant 
mortality rate. In fact, the rate is higher than that of majiy in- 
dustrialized nations. The region also has high rates of low-birth 
weight babies ajid births to teenage mothers. Black women in the region 
have a substantially higher incidence of infant mortality, low birth 
weight babies, ajid births to teenagers than either white women in the 
region or black women statewide. Three programs in the region are 
designed to reduce rates of infant mortality and low birth weight which 
are vital to maintain a minimum standard of health. However, due to 
inadequate funding, these prograjus are unable to meet the needs of the 
indigent population. _ 

In eight out of the region's eleven counties the infant mortality rate is 
higher than the state average of 12.67 deaths per 1,000 births. County 
infant mortality rates which are higher than statewide rajige from 18.02 
deaths per 1,000 births in Madison County to 12.85 in Columbia County. 
Furthermore, by federal guidelines, Columbia County has been designated a 
High Infant Mortality Area. Infant mortality among blacks is 2 to 2.7 
times greater in the majority of the region's counties than statewide. 

The incidence cf low birth weight babies (under 5.5 pounds) is higher 
thaji the state average of 74.90 per 1000 in 5 counties in the region. 
The high rates of low birth weight babies range from 100.10 per 1000 
(Gilchrist) to 77.25 per 1000 (Suwannee). Low birth weight is of 
particular concern as it accounts for 65.0 percent of all neonatal 
deaths. Furthermore, 25.0 percent of all low birth weight babies will 
have some kind of hajidicap or long-term disability. Low birth weight 
babies are often at high risk for abuse because their special needs take 
a great amount of parent's time and financial resources. 

North central Florida has an alarmingly high rate of births to teenagers. 
Teenage pregnancies often result in low birth weight babies. Teenage 
parents frequently drop out of school and their marriages often end in 
divorce, which increases the probability of long-term dependency and 
social problems. In 9 of the region's 11 counties the rate of births to 
women less than 19 years of age is higher than the state average of 11.0 
percent (of all births). The rates range from 18.7 percent in Hariilton 
County to 12.6 percent in Lafayette County. 

In 9 counties of the region, the black teenage pregnancy rate is higher 
than the state black teenage pregnancy rate of 19.6 percent. Births to 
black teenagers accounted for 20.9 percent (Bradford) to 28.4 percent 
(Dixie) of all black births in those counties. Statewide, the incidence 
of births to black teenagers is 2.29 times greater than births to white 
teenagers. However, the gap is even wider for 5 counties in 



:-2-l 



the region. Alachua County has the highest gap between black and white 
teenage pregnancy rates. The incidence of births to black teenagers in 
Alachua County is 19.2 percent whereas the rate for the county's white 
teenagers is 5.8 percent. 

Births to teenagers is a major socioeconomic problem which should be 
addressed by the county schools. The St. Paul, Minnesota Maternity and 
Infant Care Program is a comprehensive school-based health center which 
may serve as a model. The prograjn is jointly operated by the Minnesota 
Health Department ajid the City of St. Paul. The center is considered one 
of the state's maternity aind infant care (MIC) projects but actually 
operates as a full service clinic for teenagers, offering services such 
as athletic, job and school physicals, immunizations, a weight control 
program, venereal disease testing and treatment, pregnaincy testing, 
contraceptive information and counseling, and prenatal ajid postpartum 
care . 

The St. Paul project has reduced pregnancy rates by 75.0 percent among 
female students. Among students who did become pregnajit, 92.0 percent 
used the clinic for prenatal and postpartum care (including infajit day 
care at some sites), ajid 94.0 percent of those who received pregnancy 
care through the clinic began care prior to the their trimester of 
pregnancy. Among girls who had babies, the dropout rate was reduced by 
over 75.0 percent, and babies whose mothers delivered through the project 
were born healthier with fewer obstetrical complications.'^ 

The Alachua County School Board established Alachua County Continuing 
Education for Pregneuit Teens (ACCEPT) to meet the needs of pregnant 
school-cLge women. ACCEPT enables students to continue progress toward 
high school or middle school completion while learning parenting skills. 
Available only to residents of Alachua County, many students from 
neighboring counties move to Alachua to enroll. ACCEPT's 1980-85 repeat 
pregnancy rate was approximately 15.0 percent, which is lower than the 
state rate of 18-25.0 percent. ACCEPT plans to further reduce repeat 
pregnancy rates among students, since recent research demonstrates that 
it caji be reduced to 7.0 percent. 

In addition to human suffering and hardship, low birth weight babies 
represent aji undesirable and often preventable cost to the public. The 
cost to the State of Florida of caring for one low birth weight baby in 
the region is $15,000. However, the cost of preventative prenatal care 
is only $300 per child. ^ The incidence of low birth weight babies can be 
significantly reduced if high-risk women are identified, educated, 
frequently monitored by maternal health care professionals, and provided 
access to health care on a 24-hour basis. 

The Regional Perinatal Intensive Care Prograjn, (Shands Teaching Hospital, 
Gainesville) is underfunded ajid lacks reliable quantitative data to 
document the need to expand their facility.^ Space constraints and lack 
of beds for neonatal and obstetrical care sometimes result in the 
referral of patients to other locations. Furthermore, the program is 
located in Alachua County, and the lack of public transportation in the 



■2-2 



rural counties can prevent residents of the region from receiving needed 
maternal and infant care. Currently the progrcun serves women at 
high-risk for obstetrical care and infants needing intensive care. The 
state-funded program serves clients with and without insurance at all 
income levels, including Medicaid recipients. In FY 1984--85, 102 women 
in the region were served by the progrcun's high-risk obstetrical 
component and 292 infants were served by the neonatal component. 

Current estimates indicate that the Improved Pregnancy Outcome (IPO) 
project does not serve 52.0 percent of the indigent population.' IPO is 
an HRS prograjn which provides prenatal and perinatal care to low-income 
women with low-risk pregnancies. Women receive care in hospitals and 
county health units. In FY 1983-84-, 1,469 women in the region received 
IPO services. 

Recent estimates indicate that the Florida Department of Health and 
Rehabilitative Services (HRS) nutrition prograjn. Women, Infatnts and 
Children (WIC), does not serve 57.0 percent of the needy population. WIG 
is a supplemental food progrcun which also provides pregnant or nursing 
mothers with nutrition education. The goal is to avoid nutrition-related 
health problems during critical periods of fetal growth and improve 
overall health by providing food to women and their children until age 
five. WIC served approximately 4,557 women, infants and children in the 
region in 1985.^ 



Regionally Significajit Resources: Regional Perinatal Intensive Care 
Program, Shands Teaching Hospital, ACCEPT. 



Agencies: Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, 
Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Department of Education, 
Big Bend Health Planning Council, Inc., North Central Florida Health 
Planning Council, county school boards. Regional Perinatal Intensive Care 
Program, ACCEPT, Shands Teaching Hospital, North Central Florida Regional 
Planning Council, local governments, public libraries in Alachua, Taylor, 
Bradford, Suwajinee cuid Columbia Counties. 



2.2. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #5: Reducing the Occurrence of Abuse 
and Neglect 

Background Analysis: Children who are believed to be abused or neglected 
are referred by law enforcement, school personnel, private citizens, 
medical personnel, clergy, HRS staff, and many other sources to the 
Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Children, Youth and 
Fcimilies Dependency/Delinquency Intaike Prograjn. HRS also operates a 
24-hour Abuse Registry with a statewide toll free number to record 
reports of suspected abuse or neglect. Reports received by the Registry 
are referred to staff throughout the state for investigation. Intake 
staff are available around the clock in every county to investigate 
reports. Under Florida law, it is illegal for any citizen who has good 
reason to suspect a child is being abused or neglected to fail to report 



J. j.i-<i-;) 



the case. When Intake receives an abuse or neglect referral, a counselor 
is assigned to investigate the charge. By state statute, all abuse or 
neglect referrals alleging danger to the child must be investigated 
immediately; all other referrals must be investigated within 24 hours. 
Child abuse and neglect is generally under-reported. As residents of 
the region begin to utilize the Abuse Registry, the demajid for services 
for abused and neglected children will increase. 

Following the investigation the intake counselor determines whether the 
charge was founded or unfounded. Founded referrals may be handled 
judicially or non-judicially . HRS makes a recommendation to the State 
Attorney as to how each case should be handled. The State Attorney 
considers the HRS recommendation in the decision whether to bring a case 
to court. 

Services available for abused and neglected children include temporary 
emergency shelter in shelter facilities or shelter homes, foster care, 
adoption placement, child protective services, day care, referral to the 
Child Protection TeajB (funded by HRS) for specialized medical and 
counseling services, physical and sexual abuse treatment programs, 
intensive crisis counseling, and in-home parenting services (homemaker, 
housekeeper, parent aide). However, most of these services are only 
provided in, or available to residents of Alachua County. 

Factors associated with child neglect, such as low income and fajnily 

alcoholism, are prevalent in the region. Child neglect occurs ten 

times more frequently in homes with incomes under $7,000, compared to 

families who earn over $25,000. The region has a greater average 

nuaber of families living below the poverty level than the state average 

(9.9^). The number of families living in poverty range from 13.4 percent 

1 "^ 
in Union County to 26.4 percent in Madison County. -^ 

Fainily alcoholism, the presence of one or more alcoholic adults within a 
fajnily, is ajiother factor related to the occurrence of child neglect. 
The estimated number of alcoholic drinkers in the region (7.55^) is 
greater than statewide (6.45^).^ Approximately 25.0 percent of 
child-abusing parents have been found to be alcoholic.^ 

The region does not have enough staffed emergency shelters to serve 
abused ajid neglected children in crisis. The Interface program (Alachua 
County) provides temporary shelter to approximately 100 abused and 
runaway children per year from the region. 

The region's temporary emergency family shelters are inadequate to serve 
abused and neglected children. E-.ergency family shelters are provided by 
citizens in the community who have contracted with HRS to provide 

1 7 

short-term housing for abused or neglected children. ' 

While mental health outpatient counseling prograjns are available in each 

county in the region, funding is not adequate to meet current treatment 

1 s 
needs. Treatment programs for victims of abuse are needed to provide 

intensive outpatient counseling services to abused children and their 

fajnilies. The development of more outpatient services for victims of 

abuse is aji urgent priority (see Cluster 2.3.). 

III-2-4 



Regionally Significant Resources: Florida Department of Health and 
Rehabilitative Services Children, Youth and Family Services Program 
Offices, Community Mental Health Centers, and Interface Program (Alachua 
County) . 



Agencies: Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, 
Department of Law Enforcement, Department of Education; county school 
boards; North Central Florida Regional Planning Council; local 
governments . 



2.3. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #6: Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental 
Health Services 

Backgroiond Analysis: The Department of Health and Rehabilitative 
Services Children, Youth and Fajnilies Prograim Office mental health 
services are designed to serve the needs of those individuals 0-17 years 
of age who are experiencing psychiatric or emotional disorders, regard- 
less of the ability to pay. In 1985, the region had 86,299 juveniles of 
which aji estimated 9-2 percent needed some type of mental health service. 

However, only approximately 1.0 percent received services from HRS com- 
munity mental health services. By the year 2000, the number of juveniles 
needing mental health services is expected to increase by approximately 
14.0 percent.^ The juvenile population in need of mental health 
services is grossly underserved. The range of mental health services is 
fragmented and incomplete, which hinders successful patient treatment. 
Proposed cuts in funding to mental health services would place a great 
strain on the quality of mental health care in thr region and drastically 
reduce the already limited numbers of juveniles receiving care. 

The entire continuum of children's mental health care is underfunded and 
therefore provides limited services. Furthermore, accessibility to 
mental health care is limited by lack of transportation in the rural 
areas. Most mental health prograjns for children are limited to Alachua 
County, and children in the rural counties receive minimal treatment. 

The full range of services for children's mental health is designated as 
prevention, diagnosis and evaluation, outpatient, day treatment, crisis 
intervention, crisis stabilization, foster homes, group homes, Eckerd 
Camp, commitment prograjns, psychiatric residential and, finally, 
inpatient services. The full range of children's substance abuse 
services is defined as follows: education (school curriculum, media, 
youth groups); outreach; prevention (school-based prevention, alternative 
activities); early intervention; aftercare; outpatient; day treatment; 
residential (long and short term); detoxification/sobering up; and case 
majiagement . (See Regional Issue 2.6. for a discussion of the full 
range of children's substajice abuse services. This text deals only with 
childrens' emotional arid psychiatric needs and services.) 



III-2-5 



The service districts are as follows: Mental Health Services, Inc., of 
North Central Florida serves Alachua, Dixie, and Gilchrist Counties (also 
Levy which is outside the region); the North Florida Mental Health Center 
serves Hamilton, Suwajinee , Columbia and Lafayette Counties; the Brad- 
ford-Union Guidance Clinic serves Bradford and Union Counties; and 
Apalachee Community Mental Health Center serves Madison and Taylor 
Counties . 

The current range of mental health services is inadequate to serve the 
juvenile population in need. There are an inadequate number of preven- 
tion programs. Sufficient children's outpatient counseling services are 
lacking in the region, especially for victims of abuse. There are no day 
treatment programs for emotionally disturbed children ajid no crisis 
intervention prograjns. There is no crisis stabilization unit for 
children, which is the most urgently needed mental health prograim in the 
region. Furthermore, a large waiting list indicates that current 
psychiatric residential funding and services do not adequately serve the 
region. A residential program for the treatment of juvenile perpetrators 
of sexual offenses is also a high priority need. The following 
description underscores the inadequacy of children's mental health 
services in the region. 



Prevention 

Primary prevention programs target children at risk to develop emotional 
handicaps and aim to divert their development of mental health problems. 
Children of teenage parents or children of substance abusers are often at 
risk to develop emotional problems. Prevention saves human suffering and 
reduces the need for more intensive high-cost treatment later on. The 
number of prevention programs in the region is inadequate, especially in 
the rural counties. 

The HRS Children, Youth and Families Prevention Program served 110 
Alachua County children ages 5-5 in FY 1 984-85 . The program provides 
primary intervention for children with emotional and behavioral problems. 
Services are provided in the home, the community mental health center and 
the Title XX Day Care Center. ^^ 

ALPHA is a school dropout prevention program which provides counseling 
services to children, parents and teachers in the middle schools. ALPHA 
serves youth with academic and behavioral problems which result from 
family or personal crises. ALPHA served 30 Alachua County students in FY 
1984-85.^'^ 

The Child Abuse Prevention Plan operates district-wide to educate 
residents of the district to prevent child abuse and neglect. Prevention 
is implemented through public awareness, training professionals such as 
teachers ajid law enforcement officials, parent education, school preven- 
tion programs, community involvement, and the home visitors prograjn.'^^ 



III-2-6 



Diagnosis and Evaluation 

Diagnosis and evaluation involves conducting psychological ajid psychiat- 
ric evaluations to determine the presence and extent of emotional 
handicaps. Any child who goes through HRS intake and requires psycholog- 
ical or psychiatric diagnosis and evaluation will receive such services 
anywhere in the district. 



Outpatient 

Basic outpatient mental health services include individual, group and 
family therapy, parent education classes, outpatient drug and alcohol 
therapy aoid contracted services. Childrens outpatient services are 
available district-wide on a limited basis. The District III Mental 
Health Planning Council, as well as professionals working in mental 
health, have documented the lack of sufficient outpatient services for 
children.^' The demand for outpatient services is increasing but funding 
levels are not increasing to meet the demand. A wide gap is developing 
between outpatient demand and service capabilities. 

The HRS CREST Parent Education Training program provides outpatient 
services to families of children who have been adjudicated "dependent" 
and are participajits in the HRS "Status Offender Project" in Alachua 
County. CREST provides intensive family counseling and parent education 
in the home. CREST served 23 families in FY 1984-85.^® 

HRS Children, Youth ajid Fajnilies mental health professionals indicate 
there are an insufficient number of abused children's specialized 
outpatient counseling programs in the region. Mental Health Services 
Inc. provides intensive family counseling services for the treatment of 
physically and sexually abused children. In FY 1984-85, 100 children 
from Alachua, Levy (outside the region), Gilchrist and Dixie counties 
were served by the program. 



Day Treatment 

Day treatment provides a combination of therapeutic and educational 
services for children who have been diagnosed as emotionally disturbed 
but do not require a residential setting. Currently, there are no 
children's day treatment prograjns in the region. " 



Crisis Intervention 

Crisis intervention maintains the child in the home and school environ- 
ments during crisis situations by providing intensive counseling services 
in the home. Currently, there are no Intensive Crisis Counseling 
Prograjns in the region.^® 



Crisis Stabilization and Screening Unit 

Crisis stabilization units provide short-term residential care to 
children who are in crisis. The region's mental health professionals 
document that a crisis stabilization unit is the most urgently needed 
children's mental health service. Crisis stabilization and screening 
supports other programs such as foster homes and group therapeutic homes 
which serve emotionally handicapped children who are virtually impossible 

•z i 

to keep in times of crisis."^ 



Foster Homes 

The Department of Health ajid Rehabilitative Services contracts for 
therapeutic foster homes which provide mental health services in the 
traditional foster home setting for emotionally disturbed children. 
Therapeutic Foster Homes of North Central Florida serves 7 children 
district-wide annually. Services include individual psychotherapy, 
faunily therapy, psychiatric therapy and evaluation ajid 24--hour crisis 
intervention. There are an insufficient number of foster homes to 
adequately serve the population in need.'^ 



Group Homes 

The Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services also contracts for 
therapeutic group homes which provide mental health services in a 
residential group setting for emotionally disturbed children. Turning 
Point served nine 15-17 year old males from the region in FY 1984-85. 
Turning Point prepares participants to live independently by age 18 by 
teaching job searching skills and the development of emotional and 
behavioral skills. Turning Point has 5 beds which is inadequate to serve 
the juvenile population in need.'^^ Two additional group homes are also 
available to serve the region. 



Eckerd 

Eckerd offers a residential treatment program located in a wilderness 
environment. Eckerd camps are located outside of the region and serve 
emotionally disturbed children ages 7-17 statewide. The average length 
of stay is 12-18 months. ^^ 



Commitment 

Commitment Programs for severely emotionally disturbed children offer 
residential treatment for delinquents. 

Outward Bound, in Levy County, is a residential treatment program for 
emotionally disturbed girls between the ages of 12-18. Outward Bound 
houses 15 children at one time.^^ 



III-2-8 



Jackson Cottage, in Marianna, is a restrictive setting for severely 
emotionally disturbed youth that have been committed to Dozier Training 
School. The prograun serves 25 children from all over the state. 



Psychiatric Residential 

The region does not have adequate funding for the operation of existing 
psychiatric residential facilities. Psychiatric residential treatment 
prograjns offer intensive mental health services for children who may 
require psychiatric intervention. Thirty-four children have been on a 
waiting list for over a year to receive residential psychiatric treat- 
ment, which indicates that more funding is needed for residential and 
non-residential services.-^ 

The Eagle Bend Youth Continuum provides the only psychiatric residential 
treatment program in the region, which is not sufficient to meet the 
needs of the region. The Eagle Bend Youth Continuum, a secure residen- 
tial treatment program at the Advent Christian Village in Suwannee ., 
County, served 16 children from ages 9-17 in FY 1984-85. Individual 
counseling, social skills development, and educational services are 
provided. The facility has the capacity to serve 24- children and one 
year is the average length of stay.^ 

A residential treatment prograim for the treatment of juvenile per- 
petrators of sexual offenses (committed or non-committed) is lacking. 
These children are difficult to place, even in psychiatric residential 
treatment, since their offender status makes them inappropriate for 
placement with younger or more vulnerable children.-'^ 



State Hospital 

Daniel Memorial, Inc., provides inpatient services for severely emotion- 
ally disturbed children ages 5-13.^^ 

MacClenny, the State Hospital, has 25 beds available to adolescents. 



Regionally Significant Resources: Mental Health Services, Inc., of North 
Central Florida, North Florida Mental Health Center, Bradford-Union 
Guidance Clinic, Apalachee Community Mental Health Center, and Eagle Bend 
Suwannee County, Child Abuse Prevention Plan, Foster Homes, Group Homes, 
Eagle Bend Youth Continuum, local government. 



Agencies: Florida Department of Education, Department of Corrections, 
Department of Law Enforcement, Department of Health and Rehabilitative 
Services, Community Mental Health Centers, county school boards, local 
governments, North Central Florida Regional Planning Council. 



III-2-9 



2.4. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #7: Developmentally Disabled and 
Physically Haindicapped 

Background Analysis: Training and support services are not sufficient to 
provide needed services to all developmentally disabled and physically 
handicapped children in the region. The Children's Medical Services 
financial eligibility standard is so low that many needy children fail to 
receive care. The current financial eligibility requirement is $9,000 
for a fajnily of four. In order to effectively serve children in need 
of medical services, the financial eligibility formula should be updated. 

The Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Children's Medical 
Services (CMS) provides assistance to families with diseased or hand- 
icapped children. CMS ' s goal is to prevent or reduce handicaps ajid help 
each afflicted child lead a more normal life. Infants may qualify if 
they are born ill or with birth defects. All children, regardless of 
parents' income, are eligible for an initial exajnination conducted by a 
pediatrician, but must meet specific requirements to receive treatment by 
CMS. Children may qualify for assistance if they have heart or kidney 
disease, cancer, or other chronic diseases. Children with speech, 
hearing or vision problems and abused or neglected children can also 
receive assistance.^ In November of 1985, 3,216 children in the region 
and 40,211 statewide received CMS services.^ 

CMS provides a regional program located at Shands Teaching Hospital 
(Gainesville) which maikes available specific kinds of highly specialized 
care. In some cases, medical teams will travel to CMS appointments at 
county health departments to deliver appropriate care. Services include 
renal disease treatment, evaluation of children with possible genetic 
defects and diabetic counseling and treatment.'''^ 

The HRS Developmental Services Program directly provides or funds 
contract providers, including the Associations for Retarded Citizens, to 
provide placement, training, ajid support services to developmentally 
disabled children and adults. 

HRS Developmental Services provides training and support services to 60 
developmentally disabled pre-school children through contracts with the 
Alachua County Association for Retarded Citizens (ARC). Twenty children 
are served at Early Intervention Center and 4-0 children receive home- 
based intervention. 

The Developmental Services progreim also serves approximately eight 
percent of the non-retarded physically handicapped children in the 
region. Coionseling services are lacking for parents of children with 
epilepsy, cerebral palsy, autism or spina bifida. Case manaigement 
services, which expose clients to as many of the available developmental 
services as possible, are lacking. Ancillary medical services related to 
the disability are also lacking. ^^ 

The Alachua County ARC also has a federal grant to develop a model for 
f aimi ly-centered intervention with families of young handicapped children. 
Project STRETCH, however, ended September 30, 1986. This project 



III-2-10 



provided educational experiences for children as well as training for 
fajnily members. 

The HRS Parent Training Prograjn is designed to train families to provide 
infant stimulation ajid/or behavioral modification for developmentally 
disabled children ages 0-5. Currently, one Behavior Program Specialist 
works in the North Central Florida Region. 

The Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Developmental 
Services (DS) also provides a registry of professionals who work with 
young (ages 0-5) developmentally disabled children. Their goal is to 
prevent duplication of services and ensure that children do not "fall 
through the cracks". This group includes University of Florida 
Children's Developmental Services, the Cerebral Palsy case manager, the 
HRS Parent Training Supervisor, a representative from Shands ' Neonatal 
Intensive Care Unit, the DS Diagnosis and Evaluation Teajn and the DS 
Program Office. The group meets bi-weekly to evaluate and identify 
appropriate services for new clients eligible for Developmental Services. 

For more than a decade, decision makers in Florida have recognized the 
importance of developing community-based living alternatives for HRS 
clients, aind other persons with special living needs, outside of their 
own homes. There are several factors which led the executive and 
legislative branches of government to develop a social policy to minimize 
the use of institutions and develop the use of community-based 
residential facilities. 

It became apparent to the general public, social scientists, and 
politicians that institutions did not achieve an adequate level of 
remedial care for residents. 

Following World War II, the development of community day prograjns and 
out-patient clinics for people who otherwise would have been placed in 
institutions demonstrated that such people could, in many cases, receive 
cheaper and better care in the community than in an institution. The 
philosophy of "normalization" maintained that people should remain in as 
normal aji environment as possible, even if they are different from most 
of society. 

A series of judicial decisions determined that if the government 
undertakes to institutionalize people because of abnormalities, it has 
the responsibility to treat them so that they can return to society as 
soon as possible. Furthermore, case law has developed which indicates 
that if incarceration is necessary, it must take place in the least 
restrictive setting possible. Scientific evidence demonstrates that most 
people can overcome developmental, emotional, and intellectual deficits 
if given appropriate opportunities. The policy of deinstitutionalization 
is based on the premise that less restrictive residential settings afford 
greater opportunity for individualized activities and freedom of choice 
for residents. 

Scientific evidence also demonstrates that custodial care, which tends to 
dominate in institutional settings, produces side effects which are often 
more debilitating than the disorder initially requiring treatment. 

111-2-11 



Isolation, lack of motivation, dependency, and loss of basic social 
skills have all been seen, at least partially, as the result of institu- 
tional placement itself. In contrast, the community more often provides 
a humane, supportive atmosphere and a better quality of life. 
Community-based programs, which utilize existing community resources, 
have a less formal administrative structure and, as a result, avoid many 
of the organizational problems besetting institutions. In addition, 
community-based programs offer services that facilitate fajnily interac- 
tion, give greater access to employment opportunities, ajid increase 
chances for moving into more independent living or home care. In many 
cases, community alternative programs can be delivered at less cost than 
similar institutional programs. However, even in cases where the costs 
are equivalent, the human ajid programmatic benefits of community services 
significantly out-distance institutionalization for the vast majority of 
disabled people. 

Community-based training and support services are improving for develop- 
mentally disabled children in the region and state. Approximately 50 
Gainesville Sunland residents have been moved into 'commijinity-based 
"cluster homes", two of which are in Alachua County and one is in 
Columbia County. The homes have 24 beds each and serve a total of 72 
children ajid adults. Cluster homes aim to normalize life in 
residential neighborhoods as close to the home community as possible and 
still maintain adequate services to meet the client's special needs. The 
Pediatric Cluster in Gainesville is a specialized facility which serves 
the most severely disabled children by providing intensive medical care. 
The other Alachua County Cluster and the Columbia County Cluster are the 
more "usual" type of cluster, designed to accommodate moderate to 
severely disabled and retarded clienxs who are largely non-ambulatory. 

Sunland Center at Gainesville is a highly restrictive institutional 
setting for the most severely and profoundly retarded adults and for some 
children with complicated medical disabilities for whom no community 
based alternative placement is available or appropriate. The Gainesville 
Sunland had 753 residents as of June 50, 1986. 

The Department of Education reported 6,517 developmentally disabled and 
physically handicapped children in the region in 1984. In August, 
1986, the Alachua County school district will start to serve pre-school 
retarded handicapped children. In Florida, HRS currently serves 5,186 
retarded or physically disabled clients in institutions, community-based 
residential services, or in their homes. 



Regionally Significant Resources: Shands Teaching Hospital, Cluster 
Homes in Alachua and Columbia Counties, Gainesville Sunland, Association 
for Retarded Citizens. 



Agencies: Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, 
Department of Education, county school boards, North Central Florida 
Regional Planning Council, local governments. 



III-2-12 



2.5. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #8: Maintaining ajnd Strengthening the 
Family Unit 

Backgrovmd Analysis: Children who are believed to be abused or neglected 
are referred by law enforcement, school personnel, private citizens, 
medical personnel, clergy, other HRS staff, and many other sources to the 
Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Children, Youth and 
Families Dependency/Delinquency Intake. HRS also operates a 24-hour 
Abuse Registry with a statewide toll free number to record reports of 
suspected abuse or neglect. Reports received by the Registry are 
referred to staff throughout the state for investigation. IntaJte staff 
are available around the clock in every county to investigate reports. 
Under Florida law, it is illegal for any citizen who has good reason to 
suspect a child is being abused or neglected to fail to report the case. 
Vhen Intake receives an abuse or neglect referral, a counselor is 
assigned to investigate the charge. By state statute all abuse or 
neglect referrals alleging danger to the child must be investigated 
immediately; all other referrals must be investigated within 24 hours. 

4R 
Child abuse and neglect is generally under reported.^ As residents, of 

the region begin to utilize the Abuse Registry, the demand for services 

for abused and neglected children will increase. 

Following the investigation the Intake Counselor determ:.nes whether the 
charge was founded or unfounded. Founded referrals may be handled 
judicially or non-judicially . HRS makes a recommendation to the State 
Attorney as to how each case should be handled. The State Attorney 
considers the HRS recommendation in the decision whether to bring a case 
to court. 

Services available for abused and neglected children include temporary 
emergency shelter in shelter facilities or shelter homes, foster care, 
adoption placement, child protective services, day care, referral to the 
Child Protection Tesun (funded by HRS) for specialized medical ajid 
counseling services, physical and sexual abuse treatment programs, 
intensive crisis counseling, ajid in-home parenting services (homemaicer, 
housekeeper, parent aide). However, most of these services are provided 
in, or available to residents of Alachua County. 

Factors associated with child neglect, such as low income and family 
alcoholism, are prevalent in the region. ^^ Child neglect occurs ten 
times more frequently in homes with incomes under $7,000, compared to 
families who earn over $25,000. The region has a greater average 
number of families living below the poverty level than the state average 
(9.9^). The number of families living in poverty in the region range 
from 13.^ percent in Union County to 26.4 percent in Madison County. ^^ 

Family alcoholism, the presence of one or more alcoholic adults within a 
fajnily, is another factor related to the occurrence of child neglect and 
abuse. The estimated percent of alcoholics in the region {1 .J>%) is 
greater thaji statewide (6.45t).52 Approximately 25.0 percent of child- 
abusing parents have been found to be alcoholic . ^-^ 



J. X i-«:- I ^ 



The region does not have enough staffed emergency shelters to serve 
abused and neglected children in crisis. Children are often referred to 
foster homes due to lack of space in existing emergency shelters. The 
Interface program (Alachua County) provides temporary shelter to 
approximately 100 abused and runaway children per year from the region.^** 

The region's temporary emergency family shelters are inadequate to serve 
abused and neglected children. Emergency family shelters are provided by 
citizens in the community who have contracted with HRS to provide 
short-term housing for abused or neglected children. ^^ 

While mental health outpatient counseling prograjns are available in each 
county in the region, funding is not adequate to meet current treatment 
needs.'* Victims of abuse treatment programs would provide an intensive 
outpatient counseling service to abused children and their families. The 
District 5 HRS Children Youth and Fajnilies Program reports that the 
development of more outpatient services for victims of abuse is aji urgent 
priority (see Regional Issue 2.5.). 

Regionally Significant Resources: Florida Department of Health ajid 
Rehabilitative Services, Children, Youth aind Fajnily Services local 
offices; Community Mental Health Centers; Interface Program (Alachua 
County). 



Agencies: Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, 
Department of Law Enforcement, Department of Education; county school 
boards; North Central Florida Regional Planning Council; local 
governr-ents. 



2.6. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #9: Alcohol, Drug Abuse ajid Mental 
Health Services 

Background Analysis: The Bradford-Union Guidance Clinic and the North 
Florida Mental Health Center does not receive funding specifically for 
adolescent alcohol and drug abuse services. In each case, substance 
abuse services for children are funded by the Department of Health and 
Rehabilitative Services Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Program 
Office to provide individual and family counseling on an outpatient basis 
for children and adolescents with a wide range of problems, including 
substance abuse. Indirect funding, however, does not provide adequate 
services to juveniles in need of substance abuse treatment. 

The full range of children's substsince abuse services (service continuum) 
is defined as follows: education (school curriculum, media, youth 
groups); outreach; prevention (school-based prevention, alternative 
activities); early intervention; aftercare; outpatient; day treatment; 
residential (long and short term); detoxification/sobering up; and case 
management. The service delivery areas are as follows: Mental Health 
Services, Inc. of North Central Florida serves Alachua, Dixie, and 
Gilchrist counties (also Levy which is outside the region); The North 
Florida Mental Health Center serves Hamilton, Suwannee, Columbia amd 



III-2-14 



Lafayette counties; the Bradford-Union Guidance Clinic serves Bradford 
and Union counties; ajid the Apalachee Community Mental Health Center 
serves Madison and Taylor counties. 

The region's alcohol and drug abuse range of services is underfunded, 
fragmented and incomplete. Adequate attention and funding has not been 
available for substajice abuse prevention, intervention and treatment, and 
children in need of such services are underserved or unserved. Recent 
estimates indicate that about two percent of the juvenile population has 
a problem with substajice abuse, or about 944- youth. The downfall of 
substance abuse services is that in the rural counties, only the most 
severe cases of substance abuse receive attention. The lack of funding 
has impeded the development of substamce abuse prevention/intervention 
prograuns. The advantage of early intervention is that clients require 
fewer services and are less likely to utilize more costly intensive 
services. Primary preventive measures reduce the otherwise limitless 
population of clients in need of residential care. The front end of the 
range of services--education, outreach, prevention and intervention 
--lacks adequate funding. Such prograjns reduce the need for residential 
placements and the cost of such care to families and society.-' 

Accessibility to mental health care is limited by lack of transportation 
in the rural areas. Most children's substance abuse treatment programs 
are located in Gainesvil.e, and children in the rural counties receive 
minimal treatment. Substance abuse education, outreach and prevention 
programs are undeveloped and most serve only Alachua County residents. 
Only two caseworkers provide aftercare and case management services, 
which is not sufficient to coordinate the current caseload of juveniles. 
Outpatient services are inadequate to meet the needs of juvenile 
substance abusers. Day treatment and residential treatment facilities 
are not adequate to meet patient demand. There are no children's 
detoxification and sobering-up facilities in the region. 



Education 

The Bradford-Union Guidance Clinic and North Florida Mental Health Center 
provide education programs to local schools and other community agencies 
on request. ^° 



Outreach 

The Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services provides an outreach 
program to juveniles in detention centers. Individual and group therapy, 
substance abuse counseling, occupational and vocational counseling are 
provided.^® 



III-2-15 



Prevention 

The North Florida Mental Health Center uses some of its total drug abuse 
funding to provide a prevention/intervention prograun to all age groups. 
The demajid and need for services far exceeds the center's ability to meet 
this need due to insufficient funding. The Bradford-Union Guidance 
Clinic provides prevention programs to schools and other community 
agencies on request. 

The Corner Drugstore has an excellent substance abuse prevention program 
which serves primarily Alachua County, and upon request, Gilchrist and 
Dixie Counties. The prograjn provides drug education two nights per week 
in the Alachua County middle and high schools. Approximately 1,000 
students participate annually. 

The HRS Alpha drug ajid school dropout prevention prograun operates in one 
middle school per school year in Alachua County. The students spend 
one-half of the school day in the Alpha classroom. The prograjn teaches 
self esteem, decision-making skills, pharmacology and how to say "no.." to 
drugs. Thirty children participate in Alpha per year . -^ 

In Alachua County, the Corner Drugstore also provides drug education and 
prevention prograons at pre-existing community recreation programs during 
the summer. Prevention services also include public awareness programs 
in Alachua County such as alcohol and drug-free high school graduation 
parties . ^ 



Interventic: 



c 



Mental Health Services, Inc. provides early intervention services to 
persons under 18 and their families who are experiencing or are at 
high-risk to experience impaired ability to meet the ordinary demands of 
daily living. Children of substance abusers and teenage parents are 
often high-risk. Services are provided in the home, the Community Mental 
Health Center and in the Title XX Day Care Center. In FY 1 984-85 , 110 
children age 3-5 were served by the programs. Mental Health Services, 
Inc. also contracts services to the Alachua County School Board. ^ 



Aftercare 

Two case management staff in the region find work for children who are 
released from institutional settings. The purpose of aftercare is to 
monitor the behavior and mental health cf these clients, especially 
during the transitional period into the community, to avoid 
reinstitutionalization. 



Outpatient 

Outpatient counseling services are inadequate to meet the needs of 
Juvenile substance abusers. Mental Health Services, Inc. provided 44 



:i-2-16 



children with addictions counseling. ' The number of Juveniles receiving 
outpatient counseling for substance abuse from the other community mental 
health centers in the district is not known, since counseling is basical- 
ly limited to treating psychiatric and emotional problems. Substance 
abuse and mental health clients are not counted separately, so the data 
is not disaggregated to indicate how many received either mental health 
or substajice abuse counseling. °° 

The Outpatient Clinic, sponsored by Mental Health Services, Inc., serves 
residents of Alachua County who have problems due to alcohol abuse. 
Also, the St:dent Assistance Program serves two high schools and various 
clinics in the community. " 

Transitions, sponsored by the Corner Drugstore, is an outpatient counsel- 
ing prograim for children and adults with substance abuse problems. 
Transitions provided outpatient services to 12 juvenile substance abuser 
in FY 1984-85. The primary service counties are Alachua, Gilchrist and 
Dixie. '70 



Day Treatment 

Day Treatment facilities are not available to adequately serve the 

7 1 
region.'' Little House, in Gainesville, sponsored by Mental Health 

Services, Inc., of North Central Florida, provides day treatment to two 

juvenile female substajice abusers in the region. Day treatment provides 

a residential setting. Females often participate in day treatment since 

7? 

residential treatment is not available to them.' Day treatment, 
however, is not an appropriate substitute for females who require 
residential treatment. 



Residential Treatment 

Juvenile substaJice abusers in the region are served by Little House 
(Gainesville), which is the only residential treatment prograjn in the 
region. Rural residents who are referred for residential treatment may 
be prevented from receiving such therapy due to lack of transportation 
into Gainesville. Little House (non-secure) has space for 8 male 
children and serves approximately 18 annually. -^ Residential treatment 
is not available to female substance abusers. As an alternative, they 
are sometimes placed in day treatment which does not always meet their 
needs . 

Bridge House in Gainesville, also sponsored by Mental Health Services, 
provides non-secure residential services for male children in the region 
who are alcohol dependent. The program emphasizes long-term behavior 
stabilization and provides counseling and assistance during the community 
re-entry phase. Bridge House has 8 beds and serves approximately 8 male 
children annually. Residential services are not available to alcohol 
dependent females.'''''' 



III-2-17 



Detoxification and Sobering-up 

There are no detoxification and stabilization services for victims of 
drug abuse in the region.'^ 



Case manait^ement 

Two case majiagement professionals structure the activities of children 
who are waiting for psychiatric residential treatment. Ideally, the case 
management system is designed to expose the client to as majiy of the 
mental health service programs as possible, and to design and utilize a 
system of communication between mental health providers. Case management 
is underfunded and the professionals do not have time to coordinate 
mental health services to the children receiving care. Instead, they 
attend to children waiting for a_nd coming out of psychiatric residential 
care. '7^ 



Regionally Significajit Resources: Mental health Service, Inc., of North 
Central Florida, North Florida Mental Health Center, Bradford-Union 
Guidance Clinic, Apalachee Community Mental Health Center, The Corner 
Drugstore, Metajnorphosis . 



Agencies: County school boards; Florida Department of Health and 
Rehabilitative Services, Department of Education, Department of 
Corrections, Department of Law Enforcement; North Central Florida 
Regional Planning Council; local governments. 



2.7. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #10: Reducing the Occurrence of 
Juvenile Delinquency 

Background Analysis: Florida's Juvenile delinquency commitment programs 
are ranked by categories of restr ictiveness which refer to "constraints 
placed upon the liberty of participants." Programs available to juvenile 
delinquents ranked from the least to the most restrictive are: (1) all 
non-residential prograjns such as intensive counseling and TRY Centers; 
(2) Family Group Homes; (5) STEP, STOP, which are short-term programs; 
(4-) all other community residential programs (Halfway Houses, START 
Centers, Group Treatment Homes); and (5) Training Schools. 

Juvenile delinquent services provide a program at every level of restric- 
tiveness in the region which increases the likelihood that a juvenile 
delinquent will receive the least restrictive treatment program possible. 
Alachua County provides intensive counseling to 24 juvenile delinquents 
annually, and 4 family group homes located in Alachua County serve 
approximately 4-8 juveniles per year. Bradford County operates a STOP 
camp which serves about 120 delinquents yearly, and Alachua County hosts 
a Halfway House for 22 females. The Alachua Detention Center houses 



youth who await judicial hearings- Approximately 84.4- percent of the 
Florida juvenile delinquent commitment population is male and 54 percent 
are white. Property-related felony offenses account for 75.5 percent of 
the commitments. " 

The number of juvenile felony and misdemeanor referrals, proportionate to 
population, is lower in the region than statewide. The number of 
juvenile delinquents committed to training schools and training camps is 
decreasing. Community control programs for juveniles are expanding, 
which reduces the number committed to more restrictive HRS programs. 
Prograjns are established at every level of the service continuum for 
juvenile delinquents. 

In 1984-85, there were 1,065 felony referrals and 1,026 misdemeajior 
referrals to the HRS Children, Youth and Families program office (CYF). 
This referral rate was slightly lower than the rate statewide. Referrals 
include the number of services one person may receive from CYF. An 
unduplicated count of the number of juveniles who received CYF services 
is unavailable at this time. 

Due to the expansion of community control prograuns, there is a decreasing 
number of juvenile delinquents in the region committed to training 
schools ajid other residential programs. The number of juvenile delin- 
quents under community control is approximately 3-5 times greater than 
the number of delinquents committed to an HRS program. Also, the number 
of delinquents committed to residential programs has decreased by 33.0 
percent during the period 1983-1985.®^ 



Regionally Significant Resources: Alachua Detention Center, STOP Camp, 
Halfway House, Lancaster Youth Development Center. 



Agencies: Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, 
Department of Education, Department of Corrections; North Central Florida 
Regional Plainning Council; local governments. 



2.8. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #11: Access to Health Care 

Background Analysis: The eligibility requirements of Childrens Medical 
Services are outdated and fall substantially below the current federal 
poverty level. Consequently, many needy children are not served by the 
progrsun. Developmental Services only serves a small percentage of 
physically handicapped children. Counseling services to parents, case 
majiagement ajid ancillary medical services are needed to improve the 
quality of Developmental Services to handicapped children. 



The Department of Education reported 6,517 developmentally disabled and 
physically handicapped children in the region in 1984.®^ Statewide, HR£ 
currently serves 5,186 retarded or physically disabled clients in 



institutions, community-based residential services, or in their homes. 



III-2-19 



83 



The number of physically handicapped children in the region has not been 
estimated. 

The HRS Children's Medical Services (CMS) Program fails to serve many 
children in need due to outdated eligibility requirements. ^ Presently, 
the eligibility staJidard is $9,000 for a family of four. The 1986 
federal poverty level for a family of four is $11,004. CMS provides 
assistance to families with haindicapped children, or children with 
disabling diseases. In FY 1984-85, CMS served 5,216 children in the 
region. "-^ 

The goal of Children's Medical Services is to prevent handicaps and help 
disabled children lead a well-adjusted life. Infants may qualify if they 
are born with an illness or with a birth defect. Children may qualify 
for assistance if they have heart disease, cancer, kidney disease or 
other chronic diseases. Children with speech, hearing or vision problems 
and abused or neglected children can also receive assistance. All 
children, regardless of parents' income, are eligible for asi initial 
examination conducted by a pediatrician, but must meet specific income 
eligibility requirements to receive treatment. 

CMS also provides a regional program located at Shands Teaching Hospital 
(Gainesville) which makes available specific kinds of highly specialized 
care. In some cases, special medical teams will travel to CMS appoint- 
ments at county health departments to deliver appropriate care. Services 
include renal disease treatment, evaluation of children with possible 
genetic defects ajid diabetic counseling and treatment. 

The Developmental Services prograjn serves approximately 8.0 percent of 
the non-retarded physically hauidicapped children in the region. Counsel- 
ing services are lacking for parents of children with epilepsy, cerebral 
palsy, autism or spina bifida. Case management services, which expose 
clients to as many of the available developmental services as possible, 
are lacking. Ancillary medical services related to the disability are 
also lacking.®^ 

The Alachua County Association for Retarded Citizens (ARC) has a federal 
grant to develop a model for family-centered intervention with families 
of young hajndicapped children. Project STRETCH, however, ended September 
30, 1986. This project provided educational experiences for children as 
well as training for faonily members. 

The HRS Vocational Rehabilitation Program is targeted for persons 17+ 
years of age. However, the prograim served 16 children in the region 
under 16 years cf age, and 84-4 persons 17-r years in FY 1954-85. Voca- 
tional rehabilitation provides disabled children with job training and 
preparation to use necessary equipment on a daily basis outside of the 
sheltered environment. 



Agencies: Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, 
Department of Education; county school boards; North Central Florida 
Regional Planning Council. 



III-2-20 



Endnotes: 



I 



C. Arden Miller, "Infamt Mortality in the U.S.," Scientific 
American , Volume 253, Number 1 (July, 1985). 



North Central Florida Health Planning Council and Vital Statistics , 
1980-1984. The infant mortality rates were calculated from a 5-year 
period to statistically compensate for the small populations of some 
counties . 



The Florida Center for Children and Youth, Newsline , (Tallahassee, 
Florida: June - July 1985). 



4. Developmental Disabilities Planning Council, Florida's Children : 
Their Future is in Our Hands, (Tallahassee, Florida: 1985). 



5. Regional Prenatal Intensive Care Program. Interview with head 
pediatrician Dr. Bucciarelli. Gainesville, FL . , August, 1986. 



6. In FY 1984-85, the high-risk obstetrical component served 3,967 

statewide and the neonatal component served 6,017 infants statewide 
Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Florida 
Perinatal Intensive Care Prograim. Telephone conversation with Ms. 
Jajiet Evans, November 1985. 



7. The Department of Health ajid Rehabilitative Services, Improved 
Pregnancy Outcome Needs Summary 1986-1987. 



8. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Maternal 

and Child Health. Data furnished by Francis Storey, November, 1985. 



9. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Women, 
Infants and Children. Data furnished by Ann Load, April, 1986. 



10. Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Child Welfare 
Services in Florida , (Tallahassee, FL : August 1985). 



11. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Juvenile 
Delinquent Data Analysis Unit. Data furnished by Mr. Edward Bell, 
November, 1985. 



III-2-21 



12. Executive Office of the Governor, Trends and Conditions for Florida , 
(Tallaiiassee, Florida: April, 1985). 



13. State of Florida Division of Economic Development, Florida County 
Comparisons 1984 , (Tallaiiassee, FL : 1984). 



14. State of Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services 
Department of Alcoholic and Drug Abuse. Telephone Communication 
with Dr. Williams, 1985. 



15. Perrin, Thomas, "Research Reports: Alcohol and Family Violence," 

COA Review . Vol. 4, (July-August 1985). Cited in Newsline , "Family 
Alcoholism: The Link to Other Problems," Laurie Goldberg, 
(February-March, 1985). 



16. Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Children Youth and 
Fajnilies. Amanda Grey, April 1986. The data are not disaggregated 
by county. 



17. State of Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services 
Children, Youth and Fajnilies. Telephone interview with Mr. Jim 
Pearce. (Gainesville, FL : January, 1986). 



18. Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Children Youth and 
Families, Children's Mental Health Plan , (Tallahassee, FL: April, 
1986). 



19. Florida Consensus Estimating Conference, State of Florida Population 
and Demographic Forecast . Fall Conference FY 1985-1986 and 
1986-1987. 



20. District III Mental Health Planning Council, 1983-87 District Plan 
for Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Services , (Gainesville, 
Florida: 1985). 



21. District III Mental Health Planning Council, Update to the 1983-1987 
District III Plan, (Gainesville, Florida: 1985). 



22. Ibid, 



III-2-22 



23. The Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Children Youth 
and Families Program Office. Data provided by Mr. Jim Pearce and 
Ms. Amajida Gray. 



24. Ibid. 



25. In the Home Visitors program, HRS staff visit the homes of families 
at risk for child abuse and neglect, to monitor parents' behavior 
and growth. Telephone interview with Ms. Karen Leathers, the Corner 
Drugstore, Gainesville, Florida, April, 1986. 



26. Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Children, Youth and 
Fajnilies Prograjn Office. Telephone interview with Ms. Amanda Gray, 
April, 1986. 



27. District III Mental Health Planning Council. 1983-87 District Plan 
for Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Services . The outpatient 
prograjns exhibit a great disparity between population demand ajid 
funding resource capability. Estimates indicate that less than one 
percent of childrens' need for outpatient services is being met. In 
FY 1984--85, the North Florida Mental Health Center provided 
outpatient services to 100 children in Hamilton, Columbia, Suwannee 
and Lafayette Counties. The Bradford-Union Guidance Clinic served 
15, ajid the Apalachee Community Mental Health satellite clinics 
served approximately 53 children from Madison and Taylor counties on 
an outpatient basis. Mental Health Services of North Central 
Florida provided outpatient counseling to 4-35 children from Alachua, 
Levy (outside of the region), Dixie and Gilchrist counties. 



28. The Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Children, Youth 
and Families Prograjn Office. Data furnished by Mr. Jim Pearce and 
Ms. Amanda Gray, Gainesville, Florida, April, 1986. District II 
Mental Health Planning Council, 1983-87 District Plan for Alcohol, 
Drug Abuse and Mental Health Services , (Gainesville, Florida: 
1983). 



29. Ibid, 



30. Ibid, 



31 . Ibid. 



III-2-23 



52. Ibid. 



33. Ibid. 



34. Ibid. 



35. Ibid. 



36. Ibid. 



37. Ibid. 



38. Ibid. 



39. Ibid. 



40. Ibid. 



41. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Children's 
Medical Services, TallaJiassee . Telephone interview with Mr. Kern 
Jackson ajid Mr. Robert Sloyer . April, 1986. 



42. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Children ' s 
Medical Services, (Tallahassee, Florida: 1985). 



43. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Children's 
Medical Services Program Data Division. Telephone communication with 
Mr. Kern Jackson. 



44. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Children ' s 
Medical Services, (Tallahassee, Florida: 1985). 



45. Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Developmental 
Services. Telephone interview with Becky McQueen, Epilepsy 
Services, January, 1986. 



46. This figure includes ages 3 to 21. The data, statewide, in this age 
group, there were 200,026 developmentally disabled and physically 
hajidicapped youth. State of Florida Department of Education. 
Education Information Services. Telephone communication with Ms. 

III-2-24 



^ 



I ') 



Barbara Villiajns, January, 1986 



4-7. Executive Office of the Governor, Trends and Conditions for Florida , 
(Tallaiiassee , Florida: 1985). Once served almost exclusively in 
Florida's six Sunland Centers, the number of institutionalized 
developmentally disabled has dropped from 4,659 in 1975 to 2,128 in 
1985. The number of community-based clients has increased from 
6,915 in 1975 to 18,744- in 1985. 



48. Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Child Welfare 
Services in Florida, (Tallahassee, Florida: August, 1985). 



49. Florida Department of Health aind Rehabilitative Services Juvenile 
Delinquent Data Analysis Unit. Data furnished by Mr. Edward Bell, 
November , 1 985 . 



50. Executive Office of the Governor, Trends and Conditions for Florida , 
(Tallahassee, Florida: April, 1985). 



51. State of Florida Division of Economic Development, Florida County 
Comparisons 1984, (Tallahassee, Florida: 1984). 



52. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Department 
of Alcoholic and Drug Abuse. Data furnished by Dr. Williams, 1985. 



53. Perrin, Thomas, "Research Reports: Alcohol and Family Violence," 
COA Review . Vol. 4, (July-August 1983). Cited in Newsline , "Family 
Alcoholism: The Link to Other Problems," Laurie Goldberg, 
(February-March, 1985). 



54. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Children 
Youth emd Fajnilies Prograjn Office. Amanda Grey, April 1986. The 
data are not disaggregated by County. 



55. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Children, 
Youth and Fajnilies, Gainesville, Florida. Telephone interview with 
Mr. Jim Pearce. January, 1986. 



56. Department of Health ajid Rehabilitative Services Children, Youth and 
Families, Children's Mental Health Plan , (April, 1986). 



III-2-25 



57. District III Mental Health Planning Council, 1985 Update to the 

1983-87 District III Plan for Alcohol. Drug Abuse and Mental Health 
Services , (Gainesville, Florida: 1985). 



58. Ibid. 



59. District III Mental Health Planning Council, 1983-1987 District Plan 
for Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Services , (Gainesville, 
Florida: 1983). 



60. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Children, 
Youth and Fajnilies Prograjn Office. Interview with Ms. Amanda Gray. 
Gainesville, Florida. March, 1986. 



61. District III Mental Health Planning Council. District Plan . 



62. The Corner Drugstore. Telephone interview with Ms. Karen Leathers, 
April, 1986. 



63. Ibid. 



64. Ibid. 



65. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Children, 
Youth and Families Program Office. Data provided by Mr. Jim Pearce 
and Ms. Amajida Gray. 



66. Ibid. 



67. Mental Health Services, Inc. of North Central Florida. Data 
provided by Ms. Janet Despard. 



68. The mental health centers provided outpatient counseling for 

individuals and fajnilies to address a wide range of problems, an 
unknown number of which were substance abuse. The Bradford-Union 
Guidance Clinic served 15 Juveniles, the North Florida Mental Health 
Center served 100, and Apalachee served 53 juveniles in FY 1984-85- 



69. Clinic services include community consultation and education, 
prevention evaluation and outpatient treatment, to najne a few. 
Mental Health Services. Inc. Telephone interview with Ms. Janet 
Despard. Gainesville, Florida, April, 1986. 

III-2-26 



70. The service district includes Levy County, which is outside the 

region. Department of Health and Rehabilitative Service Children, 
Youth ajid Families Program Office. Data provided by Mr. Jim Pearce 
and Ms. Amanda Gray. 



71. District III Mental Health Planning Council, 1985 Update to the 

1983-1987 District Plan for Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health 
Services , (Gainesville, Florida: 1985). 



72. Little House. Telephone interview with Program Director, Mr 
Richard Anderson. March, 1986. 



73. Department of Health and Rehabilitative Service Children, Youth and 
Families Program Office. Data provided by Mr. Jim Pearce and Ms. 
Amajida Gray. 



74. Ibid. 



75. Ibid. 



76. Ibid. 



77. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Children, 
Youth ajid Families Program Office, Data Analysis Unit. Florida' s 
Juvenile Delinquency Commitment Programs: A Description and 
Assessment 1 984 . 



78. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Children, 
Youth and Fajnilies Program Office. Telephone Communication with Mr 
Jim Pearce, November, 1985. 



79. Ibid. 



80. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Juvenile 
Delinquent Data Analysis Division. Data furnished by Mr. Ed Bell, 
(Tallahassee, Florida: November, 1985). 



81 . Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Children 
Youth ajid Families Data Management Systems. December 9, 1985. 



III-2-27 



82. This figure includes ages 3-21. Statewide, in this group, there ( 

were 200,026 developmentally disabled and physically handicapped ^^ 

youth. This daxa should be desegregated for planning purposes. 
Developmentally disabled and physically handicapped children have 

different needs. Florida Department of Education, Education 
Information Services. Telephone interview with Ms. Barbara Villiajns, 
Tallahassee, Florida, January, 1986. 

83. Executive Office of the Governor, Trends and Conditions for Florida , 
(TallcLhassee , Florida: 1985). 



84-. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Draft 
Agency Functional Plan 1987-1991 , (Tallahassee, Florida: May, 
1986). 



85. HRS Children's Medical Services Program Data Division. Telephone 
interview with Mr. Kern Jackson, January, 1986. 



86. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, 

Childrens's Medical Services, (Tallahassee, Florida: 1985) 



87. Ibid, 



88. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services 

Developmental Services. Telephone interview with Becky McQueen, 
Epilepsy Services, January, 1986. 



V 



III-2-28 



STATE GOAL 3: FAMILIES 

Florida shall strengthen the family and promote its economic 
independence. 

3.1. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #12: Maintaining and Strengthening 
the Family Unit 

Backgroxmd Analysis: The structure of the American family is changing 
rapidly. Nationally, the number of single-parent families increased by 
97.0 percent from 1970 to 1981. Recent estimates indicate that by 1990, 
only 56.0 percent of children in America will spend their childhood 
living with both natural parents. In addition, out-of-wedlock births as 
a proportion of live births nationwide, climbed from less than 11.0 
percent in 1970 to almost 19.0 percent in 1981. Eighty-seven percent of 
those fajnilies who receive Aid to Fajnilies with Dependent Children ( AFDC ) 
payments do not have fathers present in the home to provide support. As 
a result, mothers and children are left to their own resources, which 
often results in what is frequently called "the feminization of poverty." 
Furthermore, estimates indicate that single-parent families receiving 
government assistance cost the taxpayers $20 to $30 billion a year. 

Several programs in the region are designed to strengthen and maintain 
the fajnily unit. Reports of incidences of child abuse and neglect are 
increasing as reporting methods are developed and become accessible to 
the public. There are an insufficient number of temporary shelters 
which provide "cooling off periods" and therapeutic counseling services 
to abused and neglected children. The opportunity to keep families 
together should be maximized through such services. The problem of 
alcoholism, which is correlated with the occurrence of child abuse ajid 
neglect, is not adequately addressed by community mental health centers 
due to lack of funding for outpatient counseling and other treatment 
prograjns. An alcoholic fajnily member is often a source of stress to the 
family unit, ajid social services designed to meet the needs of alcoholics 
and to maintain the fajnily unit should be readily accessible. Social 
services in the region are not prepared to meet the demands for programs 
which serve victims of family violence, such as spouse abuse. Spouse 
abuse shelters provide important "cooling off" periods and protection 
services which caji sometimes help to keep the fajnily unit in tact. In 
broken families of all incomes, neglect of child support payment disrupts 
emotional and economic functions of the single-parent family unit. The 
Child Support Enforcement Program has been created to enforce the payment 
of child support ajid therefore minimize fajnily stress. Fajnily mediation 
centers are being created to resolve family disputes, and strengthen and 
maintain the far.ily unit. Children's substance abuse and mental health 
prevention, education and intervention programs which address family 
crises are also designed to keep the family together are inadequate to 
meet service demands in the region. 

Factors associated with child neglect, such as low income and fajnily 
alcoholism, are prevalent in the region.^ Child neglect occurs ten times 
more frequently in homes with incomes under $7,000, compared to families 
who earn over $25,000. The region has a greater average number of 



III-3-1 



families living below the poverty level than the state average (9.95^). 
The rate of fajnilies living in poverty ranges from 15.4 percent in Union 
County to 26.4 percent in Madison County.^ 

North central Florida is the poorest region in the state. Low capita 
income, and the large population of food stajnp and AFDC recipients 
reflect trends which jeopardize the strength of the fajnily unit. In 
1985, the per capita income in the region was $9,407 — the lowest in the 
state and 50-0 percent lower than the state's per capita income of 
$15,584.'''" Alachua and Suwannee County have been named "hunger counties" 
by a Harvard research team.^ Although 12,567 fajnilies received food 
stamps in the region in FY 1984-85, many families and individuals who are 
eligible for food stamps do not receive them.^ In FY 1984-85, 99,506 
families in the region received Aid to Families with Dependent Children. 

Family alcoholism, the presence of one or more alcoholic adults within a 
fcunily, is also correlated with the occurrence of child neglect and 
abuse. The estimated number of alcoholic drinkers in the region (7.5/f) 
is greater than statewide (6.4?^).° Approximately 25.0 percent of 
child-abusing parents have been found to be alcoholic. ° Due to a lack of 
funding, community mental health centers are unable to provide adequate 
services for adult drug and alcohol abusers (see Regional Issue 6.5.). 
Alcohol abuse prevention, outpatient counseling, day treatment, case 
management and non-residential programs and family assistance and support 

services are not sufficient to meet the demand for such services in the 

1 
region . 

Children who are believed to be abused or neglected are referred by law 
enforcement, school personnel, private citizens, medical personnel, 
clergy, HRS staff, and majiy other sources, to the Department of Health 
and Rehabilitative Services Children, Youth and Families 
Dependency/Delinquency Intake Program Office. HRS also operates a 
24-hour Abuse Registry with a statewide toll-free number to record 
reports of suspected abuse or neglect. Reports received by the Registry 
are referred to staff throughout the state for investigation. Intake 
staff are available around the clock to investigate reports. Under 
Florida law, it is illegal for any citizen who has good reason to suspect 
a child is abused or neglected to fail to report the case. When Intake 
receives an abuse or neglect referral, a counselor is assigned to 
investigate the charge. By state statute, all abuse or neglect referrals 
alleging danger to the child must be investigated immediately; all other 
referrals must be investigated within 24 hours. Following the 
investigation, the Intake counselor determines whether the charge was 
indicated or unfounded. Indicated referrals may be handled judicially or 
non-judicially . HRS makes a reccrr.-.endation to the State Attorney as to 
how each case should be handled. The State Attorney considers the HRS 
recommendation in the decision whether to bring a case to court. 

Child abuse and neglect is generally under-reported. As residents of 
the region begin to utilize the Abuse Registry, the demand for services 
for abused and neglected children will most likely Increase. Services 
available for abused and neglected children include temporary emergency 



III-5-2 



shelter, foster care, adoption placement, child protective services, day 
care, referral to the Child Protection Team (funded by HRS ) for 
specialized medical and counseling services, physical ajid sexual abuse 
treatment prograjns, intensive crisis counseling, and in-home parenting 
services (homemaker, housekeeper, parent aide). Most of these services, 
however, are only available to residents of Alachua County. 

There are not an adequate number of staffed emergency shelters to serve 
abused and neglected children in crisis. The Interface program (Alachua 

County) provides temporary shelter to approximately 100 abused and 

1 ? 
runaway children per year from the region. There are also an 

inadequate number of temporary emergency family shelters to serve abused 

and neglected children. Temporary emergency fajnily shelters are provided 

by citizens in the community who have contracted with HRS to provide 

1 3 
short-term housing for abused or neglected children. '^ 

V/hile mental health outpatient counseling programs are available to 
children in each county in the region, funding is not adequate to meet 
current treatment needs for juvenile victims of abuse and neglect.^- The 
development of more outpatient services for victims of abuse is an urgent 
priority for the HRS Children, Youth and Families Prograjn Office (see 
Regional Issue 2.3.). Mental Health Services, Inc. provides intensive 
family counseling services for the treatment of physically ajid sexually 
abused children. In FY 1984-85, 100 children from Alachua, Levy (outside 
the region), Gilchrist and Dixie counties were served by the program. 

The Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention Programs educate residents of the 
region to prevent child abuse and neglect. Prevention is implemented 
through public awareness, training ajid awareness for teachers, law 
enforcement officials and other professionals, parent education, school 
prevention prograjns, community involvement, and the Home Visitors 
program. ^ ^ 

The Department of Health ajid Rehabilitative Services also provides 
community-based shelters for victims of spouse abuse. Currently, 
numbers of abused spouses in each county are not available. However, in 
the Alachua County area in 1984-85, the Sexual ajid Physical Abuse 
Resource Center (SPARC) housed 114 women and children, counseled 265 
women out-of-shelter , provided information and referral services for 
approximately 600 persons and reached about 580 persons through 63 public 
presentations.^ ' Due to the Gainesville location and the lack of 
transportation services, SPARC is somewhat inaccessible to residents of 
rural counties in the region. Furthermore, SPARC is often filled to 
capacity and is not equipped to meet the needs of the entire region. 

The Child Support Enforcement Prograjn was created by the federal 
government to enforce support obligations owed by absent parents to their 
children, locate absent parents, establish paternity and obtain child 
support. Newly enacted legislation puts more emphasis on prograjn 
management and incentives for states to do a better job of collecting 
child support payments from both AFDC and non-AFDC families. With 
stronger enforcement provisions, child support agencies caji now use 



III-3-3 



various methods to collect support payments, including the interception 
of tax refund checks, mandatory income withholding aind liens against 
property ajid security. Within the region in June, 1986, 1,496 collected 
court-ordered child support payments averaged $105 each, which totalled 
$157,269.81. Court orderd child support payments which were not 
collected numbered 1,950. 

Family dispute resolution centers are new to Florida but could be made 
available to mediate fajnily disputes to maintain and strengthen the 
fajnily unit. Alachua County Court Services operates a family mediation 
center to provide professional mediation to families engaged in child 
custody disputes. Currently, Family Mediation operates in the form of a 
pilot prograun available to residents of Alachua County, funded by Alachua 
County and the Florida Bar Foundation. The program must demonstrate a 
need for services before being funded on a full-time basis. 

Various children's mental health education, prevention and intervention 
programs are designed to keep families together by teaching parents and 
children how to work together to manage mental health and substance abuse 
problems. However, prevention, education and crisis intervention 
programs are underfunded and therefore the provision of such services is 

1 R 

limited. Furthermore, accessibility to mental health and substajice 
abuse services provided by Community Mental Health Centers is limited by 
lack of transportation in the rural areas. Most mental health programs 
for children are limited to Alachua County, and children in the rural 
counties receive minimal treatment amd services (see Regional Issues 2.3. 
and 2.6. ). 

The full range of services for children's mental health is designated as 
prevention, diagnosis and evaluation, outpatient, day treatment, crisis 
intervention, crisis stabilization, foster homes, group homes, Eckerd 
Camp, committment prograims, psychiatric residential and, finally, 
inpatient services. The full range of children's substance abuse 
services is defined as follows: education (school curriculum, media, 
youth groups); outreach; prevention (school-based prevention, alternative 
activities); early intervention; aftercare; outpatient; day treatment; 
residential (long amd short term); detoxification/sobering up; and case 
msmagement . " 

Primary mental health and substance abuse prevention prograims identify 
children at risk to develop such problems and aim to prevent their 
development. Prevention saves human suffering aind reduces the need for 
high-cost intensive treatment at a later date. The number of prevention 
prograims in the region is inadequate, especially in the rural counties.^® 

The MRS Children, Youth and Faimilies Prevention Prograun served 110 
Alachua County children aiges 3-5 in FY 1984-85. The program provides 
primary intervention for children with emotional and behavioral problems 
and faimilies who experience Impaired ability to meet the ordinary demands 
of daily living. Children of substance abusers and teenage parents are 
often at high risk for such problems. Services are provided in the home, 
the Community Mental Health Center and the Title XX Day Care Center. ^^ 
ALPHA, a school dropout prevention prograun, provides counseling services 



III-3-4 



to children, parents and teachers in the middle schools. ALPHA serves 
youth with academic and behavioral problems which result from family or 
personal crises. ALPHA served 30 Alachua County students in FY 
1984-85.^^ 

Basic outpatient mental health services include individual, group and 
family therapy, parent education classes, outpatient drug and alcohol 
therapy and contracted services. Children's outpatient services are 
available district wide on a limited basis. The lack of sufficient 
outpatient services for children has been extensively documented. -^ A 
wide gap is developing between outpatient demand and service 
capabilities. 

The HRS CREST Parent Education Training program provides outpatient 
services to families of children who have been adjudicated "dependent" 
and are participants in the HRS "Status Offender Project" in Alachua 
County. CREST provides intensive family counseling and parent education 
in the home. CREST served 23 families in FY 1 984-85. ^''' 

Day treatment provides a combination of therapeutic and educational 
services for children diagnosed as emotionally disturbed but do not 
require a residential setting. Day treatment allows the child to live at 
home and receive treatment services during the day while parents are at 

work. Currently, there are no children's day treatment prograuns in the 

25 
region . '-'' 

Crisis intervention maintains the child in the home and school 
environments during crisis situations by providing intensive counseling 
services in the home. Currently, there are no Intensive Crisis 
Counseling Prograjns in the region.^" 

Crisis stabilization units provide short-term residential care to 
children who are in crisis. A crisis stabilization unit is the most 
urgently needed children's mental health service. Crisis stabilization 
and screening supports other prograuns such as foster homes and group 
therapeutic homes which serve emotionally handicapped children who are 
virtually impossible to keep in times of crisis. 

There are no detoxification and stabilization services for juvenile 
victims of drug abuse in the region. Sufficient mental health, alcohol 
and drug abuse day treatment, residential prograuns, case management and 
aftercare services are also lacking. 

Day treatment facilities are not available to adequately serve the 
region. Little House, in Gainesville, sponsored by Mental Health 
Services, Inc., of North Central Florida, provides day treatment to two 
juvenile female substance abusers in the region. Females often 
participate in day treatment since residential treatment is not available 
to them. Day treatment, however, is not an appropriate substitute for 
females who require residential treatment. 



f 



III-5-5 



The Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services contracts for 
therapeutic foster homes which provide mental health services for 
emotionally disturbed children. Therapeutic Foster Homes of North 
Central Florida serves seven children . district-wide annually. Services 
include individual psychotherapy, family therapy, psychiatric therapy and 
evaluation and 24-hour crisis intervention. There are an insufficient 
number of foster homes to adequately serve the population in need. 

The Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services also contracts for 
therapeutic group homes which provide mental health services in a 
residential group setting for emotionally disturbed children. Turning 
Point served nine 15-17 year old males from the region in FY 1984-85. 
Turning Point prepares participants to live independently by age 18 by 
teaching job searching skills and the development of emotional and 
behavioral skills. Turning Point has five beds which is inadequate to 
serve the juvenile population in need. Two additional group homes are 
also available to serve the region. 

Eckerd offers a residential treatment program located in a wilderness 
environment. Eckerd camps are located outside of the region and serve 
emotionally disturbed children ages 7-17 statewide. The average length 
of stay is 12-18 months. 

Juvenile substance abusers in the region are served by Little House 
(Gainesville), which is the only residential treatment prograjn in the 
region. Rural residents who are referred for residential treatment may 
be prevented from receiving such therapy due to lack of transportation 
into Gainesville. Little House (non-secure) has space for 8 male 
children ajid serves approximately 18 annually. Residential treatment is 
not available to female substance abusers. As an alternative, they are 
sometimes placed in day treatment which does not always meet their needs. 

Bridge House, located in Gainesville, also sponsored by Mental Health 
Services, provides non-secure residential services for male children in 
the region who are alcohol dependent. The prograjn emphasizes long-term 
behavior stabilization and provides counseling and assistance during the 
community re-entry phase. Bridge House has 8 beds and serves 
approximately 8 male children annually. Residential services are not 
available to alcohol dependent females in the region. 

The region does not have adequate funding for the operation of existing 
psychiatric residential facilities. Psychiatric residential treatment 
programs offer intensive mental health services for children who may 
require psychiatric intervention. Thirty-four children have been on a 
waiting list for over a year to receive residential psychiatric 
treatment, which indicates that more funding is needed for residential 
and non-residential services. 

A residential treatment prograjn for the treatment of juvenile 
perpetrators of sexual offenses (committed or non-committed) is lacking. 
These children are difficult to place, even in psychiatric residential 
treatment, since their offender status make them inappropriate for 
placement with younger or more vulnerable children. 



III-3-6 



t 



r 



Two case management staff in the region provide aftercare services by 
finding work for children who are released from institutional settings. 
The purpose of after care is to monitor the behavior ajid mental health oi 
these clients, especially during the transitional period into the 
community, to avoid reinstitutionalization. 



Regionally Significant Resources: HRS Children, Youth and Family 
Services Local Offices, Community Mental Health Centers, Interface 
Prograun (Alachua County), SPARC, Family Mediation. 



Agencies: Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services 
Office of Child Support Enforcement, Department of Education, Department 
of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Department of Law Enforcement, 
Department of Corrections, North Central Florida Regional Planning 
Council, community mental health centers, county school boards, local 
governments . 



3.2. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #15: Maximum Self-Suf f iciency , 
Self-Support ajid Personal Independence 

Background Analysis: Job training is essential to persons who receive 
government assistance to develop self-sufficient and self-supporting 
behaviors. HRS employment and training programs help people find jobs by 
providing training in job hunting, making use of social services, and 
coordinating services with other agencies. 

The Work Incentive Demonstration Prograjn (WIN) provides employment and 
training services to applicants and recipients of Aid to Fajnilies with 
Dependent Children (AFDC).^^ Mandatory and voluntary participants in 
this program receive a variety of services which may include program 
orientation, job search assistance, support services and employment 
referral and training opportunities. WIN operates in Alachua, Columbia, 
Madison and Taylor counties. In Fiscal Year 1985-86, 394- job placements 
were obtained through the WIN program serving these four counties.^ 

The Job Training Partnership Act Program (JTPA) is a federally-funded 
prograjn channeled through the states which establishes a partnership 
between the private and public sectors to train economically 
disadvantaged individuals or individuals who experience barriers to 
employment. In this region, JTPA is administered by the North Central 
Florida Regional Planning Council. JTPA includes an Adult and Youth 
Progra.-::, and a Sur..-ner Youth E-.plcyr.snt and Training Program. Businesses 
and organizations interested in job training programs work together to 
strike a balance between the needs of the labor market for skilled 
workers, and the needs of the unemployed for jobs. JTPA operates in 
every county in the region.'^ 

Job Service is a federally-funded, state-administered public service 
agency that serves as a link between applicants seeking employment and 
employers seeking workers. Currently, Job Service is available in most 



III-3-7 



counties, but does not operate in Suwannee, Haimilton and Madison 
counties. Prospective applicants, however, may receive services from 
nearby counties. 

To increase the likelihood of maintaining self-sufficiency, HRS purchases 
nonresidential day care for children of low income parents who are 
employed, in training, or who are unable to obtain private child care. 
These services are provided either in licensed day care centers or small 
family day care homes. ^^ 

Displaced homemaker programs are designed to increase self-support, self- 
sufficiency and personal independence. The Displaced Homemaker Program 
operates out of Santa Fe Community College in Alachua County. The HRS 
funded program offers a 5-week course to women 35 or more years of age in 
transition who are seeking work for the first time following separation, 
divorce, disability or death of spouse. Training includes self-esteem 
building, resume writing, job hunting, and career decision-making. 
Displaced homemakers in rural counties are provided with one- to two-day 
seminars. 



Agencies: Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, 
Florida Department of Law Enforcement, Department of Education, county 
school boards, health plajining councils, North Central Florida Regional 
Planning Council. 



Endnotes: 



1. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Juvenile 
Delinquent Data Analysis Unit. Data furnished by Mr. Edward Bell, 
November, 1985. 



2. Florida Executive Office of the Governor, Trends and Conditions for 
Florida (Tallahassee, Florida, April, 1985). 



3. Florida Division of Economic Development, Florida County 
Comparisons , 1 984 . 



4. Minshall, et.al.. Report II: The Identification of Target 

Activities for the "crth Central Florida Area , (Columbus, Ohio 
Battelle Laboratories, August, 1986), p. 1-3-4. 



5. Physician Task Force on Hunger in America, Hunger Counties 1986 
The Distribution of America's High Risk Areas , (Cambridge, MA: 
Harvard University School of Public Health, January, 1986.) 



III-3-8 



Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Food Stamp 
Issuance Section. Telephone Communications with Ms. Marlene Manke 
(Gainesville) and Mr. Jim Payne (Tallahassee), November, 1985. 



Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Aid to 
Families with Dependent Children. Data furnished by Mr. Seville, 
Tallahassee, Florida, November, 1986. 



8. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Alcohol 
and Drug Abuse Program Office. Data furnished by Dr. Williams. 
December, 1985. 



9. Thomas Perrin, "Research Reports: Alcohol and Fajnily Violence," 
COA Review . Vol. 4, July-August 1985- Cited in Newsline , "Faunily 
Alcoholism: The Link to Other Problems." Laurie Goldberg. 
February-March, 1985. 



10. District II Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Planning Council, 
Alcohol , Drug Abuse and Mental Health 1985-1986 Interim District 
Plan , Tallahassee, Florida, 1985. 

District II, Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Planning Council, 
The District Plan for Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Services 
1 983-87, Gainesville, Florida, 1983. 



11. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Chi Id 
Welfare Services in Florida , August, 1985. 



12. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Children 
Youth and Families. Telephone interview with Amanda Grey, April 
1986, Gainesville, Florida. The data are not disaggregated to the 
county level. 



13. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Children, 
Youth and Families. Telephone interview with Mr. Jim Pearce, 
JaJiuary, 1986, Gainesville, Florida. 



14. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Children, 
Youth and Families, Children's Mental Health Plan , April, 1986. 



15. In the Home Visitors program, HRS staff visit the homes of fajnilies 
at risk for child abuse and neglect to monitor parent behavior and 
growth. Telephone interview with Ms. Karen Leathers, the Corner 
Drugstore, Gainesville, Florida, April, 1986. 



III-5-9 



16. Statewide, from 1979 to 1980, 4,544 persons were served by spouse 
abuse shelters, a population which increased to 7,989 by 1985. 



17. Sexual and Physical Abuse Resource Center, Gainesville, Florida, 
January, 1986. 



18. District III Mental Health Planning Council, 1983-87 District Plan 
for Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Services , Gainesville, 
Florida, 1983. 



19- District III Mental Health Planning Council. Update to the 
1983-1987 District III Plan, Gainesville, Florida, 1985. 



20. Ibid, 



21. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Children 

Youth and Families Program Office. Data provided by Mr. Jim Pearce 
and Ms. Amanda Grey. 



22. Ibid. 



23. District III Mental Health Planning Council, 1983-87 District Plan 
for Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Services . The outpatient 
prograjns exhibit a great disparity between population demand and 
funding resource capability. Estimates indicate that less than one 
percent of children's need for outpatient services is being met. In 
FY 1984-85, the North Florida Mental Health Center provided 
outpatient services to 100 children in Hamilton, Columbia, Suwannee 
and Lafayette Counties. The Bradford-Union Guidance Clinic served 
15, and the Apalachee Community Mental Health satellite clinics 
served approximately 53 children from Madison and Taylor Counties on 
an outpatient basis. Mental Health Services of North Central 
Florida provided outpatient counseling to 435 children from Alachua, 
Levy (outside of the region), Dixie and Gilchrist Counties. 

District II Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Planning Council, 
Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health 1985-1986 Interim District 

1 965 . 



24. The Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Children, 

Youth and Fajnilies Program Office. Data furnished by Mr. Jim Pearce 
and Ms. Amanda Grey, Gainesville, Florida, April, 1986. 

District II Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Planning Council, 
1983-87 District Plan for Alcohol. Drug Abuse and Mental Health 
Services , Gainesville, Florida, 1983. 

III-3-10 



25 
26 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 



27 



Ibid. 



28. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Economic 
Services Program, Tallahassee, Florida, 1985. 



29- Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, WIN 
Demonstration Project Handbook , October, 1985. 



50. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, District 
III Economic Services Program Office, Gainesville, Florida, August, 
1986. 



31. North Central Florida Regional Planning Council, The Employment and 
Training Plan for July 1, 1986 to June 50, 1988 fcr the North 
Central Florida Service Delivery Area , August, 1986, Gainesville, 
Florida. 



52 



Ibid. 



55. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Children 
Youth and Families Program, Tallahassee, Florida, 1985. 



:-5-' 



STATE GOAL 4: THE ELDERLY 

Florida shall improve the quality of life for its elderly citizens by 
promoting improved provision of services, with an emphasis on 
independence and self-sufficiency. 

Background Analysis: The projected increase (35.05^) in the region's 
elderly population (65+ years) from 1985 to 2000 is on par with the 
state's (37.0^). The increases in the elderly population by age group 
from 1985 to 2000 are projected to be as follows: 35.0 percent for 65+ 
year olds, 60.0 percent for 75+ year olds and 87.0 percent for 85+ year 
olds. Providing adequate social services to the growing elderly 
population may be difficult due to recent federal budget cuts for such 
prograjns. Twice as many elderly in the region live in poverty than 
statewide, which further exacerbates the problem. The median income of 
elderly in the region is substantially lower than the elderly mediaji 
income statewide. Housing standards, including adequate as plumbing and 
kitchen facilities, are more than twice as low as statewide. Lack of 
public transportation limits the number of elderly who receive their due 
share of medical ajad social services. Social service agencies which 
provide various types of transportation to the hindered by suffering from 
the high costs of liability insurance. The fact that the number of 
elderly who live alone in poverty increases with age demonstrates that 
the private sector and public agencies have not adequately planned 
comprehensive care for the elderly. 

Population estimates indicate that the number of elderly (65+ years) in 
the region will increase by 35.0 percent by 2000. The region's estimated 
1985 elderly population of 33,166 persons, is expected to increase to 
44-, 762, or 10.3 percent of the total population. Statewide, the 1985 
elderly population will increase by 37.0 percent, from 18.4 percent of 
the total population to 19.3 percent. 

A greater population increase is projected for the region's 75+ ajid 85 + 
year olds. The 75+ year olds are expected to increase by 60.0 percent by 
2000, or from 3.8 percent (12,803) to 4.7 percent (20,454) of the 
region's total population. Statewide, the 75+ year old population is 
expected to increase by 66.0 percent. The number of 85+ year olds in the 
region are expected to increase by 87.0 percent by 2000, or from 0.8 
percent (2,722) to 1.2 percent (5,091) of the entire population. 
Statewide, estimates indicate that the population of 85+ year olds is 
expected to increase by 105.0 percent. 

Approximately 25.0 percent of persons age 60 and over have incomes below 
the poverty level, which is over twice the rate statewide (12.05t). Of 
the elderly living below poverty, 22.0 percent are age 60-64 and 78.0 
percent are 65+ years. Of the population of elderly who live in poverty 
and are 60 years and over, the majority are white (14. 05^), followed by 
blacks (9.9?t) and hispajiics (0.25/^). However, within each racial group 
proportionate to population, only 18.0 percent of the total white 60+ 
years population live in poverty, compared to 46.0 percent of blacks and 
almost 40.0 percent of hispajiics. 



III-4-1 



The median income of elderly in the region ia substantially lower than 
statewide. In 1980, the 55-64 year olds in 10 out of 11 counties had 
median incomes rajiging from 13.0 to 40.0 percent less than the state 
median income ($18,942). The mediam incomes of elderly 65+ years ranged 
from 14.0 to 42.0 percent less thaji the state mediaji income ($12,713). 

A survey of housing characteristics such as complete plumbing amd heating 
systems indicate that the stajidard of living of most elderly residents is 
lower thaji their elderly counterparts statewide. Of all housing units 
occupied by a householder or spouse age 65 and over, 5.5 percent do not 
have complete plumbing compared to 1.1 percent of that age group 
statewide while 3.7 percent lack complete kitchen facilities compared to 
1.5 percent statewide. At least half of the housing units occupied by 
elderly lack complete heating systems compared to 23.3 percent statewide 
and 45.0 percent lack air conditioning compared to 15.4 percent 
statewide. Elderly residents have more telephones (14.95^) than elderly 
statewide (5.7^) aind access to vehicles is about on par with the state 
average (22.25^). 

The number of elderly who live with their faimilies, as well as the number 
of elderly householders (or spouses of householders), decreases with age. 
On the other hajid, the number of elderly who live with families in 
poverty increases with age. Recent data also indicate that the 
likelihood of older persons to live with other relatives, or to live 
alone, also increases with age. Very few of the region's elderly live in 
nursing homes or other group quarters, such as boarding houses. 

Approximately 82.0 percent of persons age 60-64 live in a fajnily unit of 
which 77.0 percent are householders or spouses of householders, and 5.0 
percent live with other relatives. Approximately 15.0 percent of this 
age group live alone. The rate of 60-64 year olds who live with families 
in poverty is at least twice as great as statewide (6.75^). The rate of 
pover'-y for elderly who live alone without families is much greater in 10 
out of 11 counties in the region than statewide (26.7?t). The high rates 
of 60-64 year olds who live alone in poverty rajige from 29.8 percent in 
Taylor County to 62.7 percent in Hamilton County. Very few persons 
(1.0^) in this a^e group live in group quarters, including nursing homes 
(0.25t). 

Approximately 72.0 percent of persons age 65-74 live in a family unit, of 
which 66.0 percent are householders or spouses of householders, and 6.0 
percent live with other relatives. Approximately 24.0 percent of this 
age group live alone. The rate of 65-74 year olds who live with fajnilies 
in poverty is greater than the rate statewide (6.6^). The rates range 
from 11.4 percent in Union County to 28.1 percent in Madison County, the 
latter of which is four times as great as the occurrence statewide. The 
rate of poverty is also very high for those who live alone statewide 
(25. 05^), but in eight out of eleven counties in the region, the incidence 
is almost twice as high. The rates range from 25.0 percent in Gilchrist 
County to 61.0 percent in Hamilton County. Very few persons {2.Q%) in 
this age group live in group quarters and only 194 persons (1.15^) live in 
homes for the elderly. 



III-4-2 



Approximately 62.0 percent of persons 75 years and over live in a family 
unit. Approximately 46.0 percent of this age group are householders or 
spouses of householders, and 16.0 percent live with other relatives. 
Thirty percent live alone. The rate of poverty of those who live with 
families in the region far exceeds the rate statewide (8.05^). The high 
rates ramge from 15.6 percent in Alachua County to 40.3 percent in 
Lafayette County, the latter of which is five times the state rate. Five 
counties have rates almost four times the rate statewide. The 75+ year 
olds who live alone (50.0?^) have the highest poverty rates of all age 
groups, which also exceed the rates statewide (28.5^). The rates of 75+ 
year olds who live alone in poverty range from 42.8 percent in Alachua 
County to 95.9 percent in Union County, which is over three times the 
rate statewide. Five percent of 75+ year olds live in group quarters and 
4.8 percent live in homes for the aged. 

Lack of public transportation limits access to medical care, social 
activities and even grocery shopping. The lack of public trajisportation 
in rural counties especially restricts the activity of elderly persons 
since, according to the most recent available data, over half of the. 
elderly population in the region live in rural areas. 

Approximately one-fifth of the elderly (65+ years) in the region have a 
public transportation disability due to health reasons, compared to 15.4 
percent of elderly statewide. Union County has the greatest population 
(38.2^) of elderly lacking access to public transportation. 

A number of social service agencies provide transportation services to 
elderly clients (See Regional Issue 19.1: Trajisportation). However, the 
high cost cf liability insurance prohibits adequate provision and 
expansion of such services. The local Area Agency on Aging has 
emphasized the need to address the negative impact that high costs of 
liability insurajice have on the delivery of transportation services to 
the elderly. ^ 

Elderly can sustain self-sufficiency and independence by having the 
choice to continue working as long as health and desire permits. The 
most recent available data indicate that the number of employed persons 
age 55 to 64 is on par with those employed statewide, which accounts for 
approximately 37.0 percent of females and 58.0 percent of males. The 
region has a slightly greater number of persons 65 and over in the work 
force (8.0 percent of females and 18.0 percent of males) than statewide. 
Overall, the number of older persons in the work force has increased 
since 1970. 

The Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services District 3 Aging and 
Adult Services Prograjn directly provides protective services for elderly 
and/or disabled adults at risk of abuse or neglect; licenses and inspects 
nursing homes. Adult Congregate Living Facilities (ACLFs), and adult 
foster homes; provides placement services for elderly and/or disabled 
adults in nursing homes, ACLFs, and adult foster homes; provides case 
management and support services to elderly or disabled adults at risk of 
needing placement due to deteriorating health or other conditions; and 
provides limited income support and transportation services.^ The 



III-4-5 



Department also contracts with area and local service providers such as 
the Area Agency on Aging, Older Americans Council, and other 
orgajiizations which offer a wide variety of services to the elderly. 

The state has authorized the Area Agency on Aging to develop and maintain 
an areawide system of coordinated and comprehensive services for the 
elderly. The Older Americans Council and other community organizations 
provide such services. To majcimize independence and self-sufficiency, 
the Area Agency on Aging develops appropriate support services to elderly 
persons capable of living at home. The Area Agency on Aging also removes 
social barriers to the economic and personal independence for older 
persons by creating opportunities for employment and volunteer activities 
at the community level. 

Community support services provided by the Area Agency on Aging include 
in-home services, counseling, transportation, education, legal and 
housing assistance and health-related services. Two nutrition prograjns 
designed for persons 60+ years provide wholesome meals. Most of the 
programs are free for those who are unable to pay, but cost-sharing - 
contributions are requested of most participants. Elderly participants 
may also use food stamps to pay for group and home delivered meals. 

The rate of needing help with at least one physical activity increases 
with age. In 1979 an estimated 3.4 million adults in the United States 
needed help from another person or special equipment to walk, bathe, 
dress, eat, get out of bed or a chair, or use the toilet. The national 
figures indicate that 5.3 percent of 65-74 year olds needed some kind of 
help, as well as 16.0 percent of 75+ year olds. If the same rates are 
used to predict elderly in need of some kind of help in the region by the 
year 2000, there would be a 20.0 percent increase in the number (12,883) 
of 65-74 year olds and a 52.0 percent increase in the number (2,458) of 
75+ year olds. 

Although data are currently unavailable, it is very likely that the 
actual elderly population in need of assistance will be greater than 
national rates due to the substajitial numbers who live in poverty. 



4.1. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #14: Reducing the Occurrence of 
Abuse ajid Neglect 

Background Analysis: Population estimates indicate that the number of 
elderly (65+ years) in the region will increase by 35.0 percent by 2000. 
The region's estimated 1985 elderly population of 33,166 persons, is 
expected tc increase to 44,762, or 10.5 percent of tne total population. 
Statewide, the 1985 elderly population will increase by 37.0 percent, 
from 18.4 percent of the total population to 19-3 percent. 

A greater population increase is projected for the region's 75+ ajid 85 + 
year olds. The 75+ year olds are expected to increase by 60.0 percent by 
2000, or from 3.8 percent (12,803) to 4.7 percent (20,454) of the 



III-4-4 



region's population. Statewide, the 75+ year olds are expected to 
increase by 66.0 percent. The number of 85+ year olds in the region are 
expected to increase by 87.0 percent by 2000, or from 0.8 percent (2,722) 
to 1.2 percent (5.091) of the entire population. Statewide, estimates 
indicate that the population of 85+ year olds is expected to increase by 
105.0 percent . 

The North Central Florida Planning Council, local governments and several 
state agencies will be involved in planning activities to accommodate 
elderly population growth. For example, new development should address 
the needs of the elderly population to minimize the substandard housing 
discussed in the general background statement for State Goal #4: The 
Elderly. Affordable housing is also a problem for elderly persons (see 
State Goal #5: Housing). 

In 1985, the HRS Aging and Adult Services Program reported approximately 
11,000 cases of elderly abuse in the state of Florida. During FY 85-86, 
515 cases of adult abuse or neglect were reported within nine of the 
region's counties served by HRS District 3 (which excludes Madison and 
Taylor Counties). According to national statistics, approximately 2.0 
percent (708 persons) of the region's elderly population is at risk for 
abuse or neglect. 

HRS is responsible for investigating reports of abuse or neglect of 
elderly or disabled adults, securing alternate placement for persons 
deemed to be abused or neglected and/or at substantial risk of abuse or 
neglect, and providing continuing supervision and support services 
necessary to prevent further abuse or neglect. HRS also operates the 
statewide Abuse Registry. 

Through provider agencies, the Area Agency on Aging will support public 
education to identify ajid prevent abuse and initiate the participation of 
the elderly in social service referral and outreach programs for the 
abused.-^ The Area Agency on Aging provides training for an adult 
protection ajid abuse prevention service to ensure identification and 
appropriate referral of complaints to law enforcement or HRS adult 
protective service units. 



Regionally Significant Resources: HRS Adult and Aging Services, area 
agencies on aging, older ajnericans councils. 



Agencies: Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, 
Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Area Agency on Aging, 
Older Americans Council, North Central Florida Regional Planning Council, 
local governments. 



:-4-5 



4.2. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #15: Achieving Maximum 
Self -Sufficiency , Self-Support and Personal Independence 

Background Analysis: Medical transportation is needed to increase the 
self-sufficiency and independence ajnong the region's elderly. A great 
number of elderly in the region live in poverty and also live in rural 
areas, which increases the need for the delivery of medical 
transportation services. Due to health reasons, one-fifth of the elderly 
have a public transportation disability. Furthermore, according to the 
federal government, the majority of counties have inadequate numbers of 
physiciajis and are also medically underserved areas, which compounds the 
problem of elderly's access to medical services. 

Community Care for the Elderly (CCE), a state-funded prograim, provides 
medical trajisportation services, as well as mamy other services to the 
elderly. Medical trainsportation is provided to seniors through CCE in 
Columbia, Dixie, Gilchrist, Suwannee and Taylor Counties. Approximately 
0.8 percent (386) of senior citizens received medical transportation 
services in 1985. This figure includes senior citizens in Levy County, 
which is outside of the region, but inseparable from the total. A 
disproportionately large number (about 40.05^) of medical transportation 
recipients were residents of Dowling Park in Suwannee County.^ 

The District 3 Area Agency on Aging has emphasized that the high cost of 
liability insurajice premiums prohibits adequate provision aind expansion 
of the CCE's medical transportation program. If medical transportation 
is to continue to be a successful component of the CCE program, the 
liability insurajice issue must be addressed.^ Recently the Coordinating 
Council on Trcinsportaticn Disadvantaged has lobbied in the Legislature 
for a transportation providers insurance pool. The Department of 
Transportation, however, has primary responsibility for coordinating 
transportation disadvantaged services. 

The inaccessibility of primary medical services decreases the opportunity 
and the likelihood of the elderly to receive due medical care. The 
federal government has designated Columbia, Dixie, Gilchrist, Lafayette, 
Madison, Suwajinee eUid Union Counties as Health Manpower Shortage Areas 
(HMSAs). A ratio of one physiciain to every 2,500 to 3,000 persons is 
usually considered ain adequate physician to population ratio. Lafayette 
County did not have a resident private physiciaji in 1983, and Dixie and 
Gilchrist Counties each had only one. The provision of medical 
trajisportation services to the elderly is an essential component of 
comprehensive health care service. 

The federal government has designated eight counties in the region as 
medically underserved areas (MUAs). Madison and Taylor have not been 
officially designated as MUAs but exhibit characteristics similar to the 
MUA counties, such as large numbers of elderly citizens who live in 
poverty.® 



Ill- 



) 



With the possible exception of Alachua County, lack of public 
transportation limits the elderly's access to medical care, social 
activities and even grocery shopping. According to the most recent 
available data, over half the elderly population live in rural areas. ^ 

To maintain self-sufficiency and self-support among the elderly 

10 
population, transportation services are essential. 

Approximately one-fifth of the elderly (65+ years) in the region have a 
public transportation disability due to health reasons, compared to 13.4- 
percent of elderly statewide. Union County has the greatest population 
(38.25^) of elderly lacking the ability to utilize public 
transportation. 

Approximately 2.7 percent of elderly (1,209) received transportation 

services from the Area Agency on Aging administered Title III-B program, 

1 ? 
which is funded by the federal Older Americans Act. 



Regionally Significant Resources: Home Health Care, Meals on Wheels. 



Agencies: Area agencies on aging, older ajnericajis councils, Florida 
Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Department of 
Employment Services, ajid Department of Agriculture and Consumer Affairs, 
Coordinated Transportation Services, Coordinating Council for 
Transportation Disadvantaged, North Central Florida Regional Planning 
Council . 



4.3. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #16: Community-Based Health, Social, 
ajid Rehabilitative Services 

Background Analysis: Several community-based programs which serve the 
elderly are designed to maximize individual independence and prevent 
premature institutionalization. Such programs are cost-effective 
community alternatives to long-term institutional care. 

Home Care for the Elderly (HCE) is designed to subsidize care given in 
the comfort of the home in a cost-effective manner. Home Care for the 
Elderly is an HRS prograjn targeted for persons age 65+ who are homebound, 
functionally impaired, live with a caregiver and receive economic public 
assistance such as Social Security Insurance. •^ 

Community for the Elderly (CCE) is also designed to provide long-term 
care to optimize the functioning cf the elderly (6C+ years) in all 
aspects of life. CCE prevents premature or unwanted institutionalization 
by providing support services such as home delivered meals, homemaker 
services, home health aides, respite care, personal care, medical 
transportation and case management. Fees are collected on a sliding 
scale depending on income. Those elderly receiving Social Security or 
Medicaid are not charged. ^'^ 

The federally funded Older Americans Act provides three types of services 
to 60+ year olds. Title III-B offers services such as companionship, 

III-4-7 



education, health support, horaemaker , legal services and transportation. 
The Title III-C1 program provides congregate meals, nutrition education 

ajid outreach to senior participants. Home delivered meals and outreach 

1 "5 
services are provided by the Title 111-C2 program. ^ 

In FY 1985, approximately 21.0 percent (9,369) of the age 60+ population 
(45,471) were served by one of the three community-based programs. CCE 
operates in every county ajid HCE operates in 9 out of 11 counties, 
excluding Madison and Taylor. Title II-B operates in 10 out of 11 
counties, excluding Suwannee. Title III C-1 ajid Title C-2 , the meal 
prograjns, however, do not operate in Dixie, Gilchrist, Lafayette, 
Suwannee or Union Counties. 



Agencies: Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, 
Department of Agriculture ajid Consumer Services, area agencies on aging, 
older aonericans councils. North Central Florida Regional Planning 
Council . 



4.4. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #17: Coordination of Access to Health 
Care 

Background Analysis: Case majiagement provides information and referral 
services with the purpose of linking the elderly population with 
appropriate services. Case majiagement workers assist the elderly with 
applications for services and coordinating transportation to those 
services. Presently, there are limited case management services for 
the elderly provided by the Ccnimunity Care for the Elderly prograjn and 
the HRS Adult Congregate Living Facilities. 

Medical trajisportation services provide the key to coordinating access to 
health care for the elderly population, especially in rural areas. 
Several groups of elderly in the region have special needs which require 
a coordinated prograjo of access to health care. Almost one-fourth of the 
region's elderly live in poverty, which is twice the rate statewide. 
For this reason, finajicial and physical access to medical services a 
problem for this portion of the elderly population .' ^ Almost one-half of 
the elderly in the region live in rural areas, which increases the need 
for of medical transportation services. Lack of public transportation, 
especially in rural areas, limits the elderly's access to medical care, 
social activities and even grocery shopping. Due to health reasons, 
one-fifth of the elderly have a public transportation disability compared 
to 13.4 percent statewide.^ Union County has the greatest population 
(38. 25^) of elderly lacking the ability to utilize public 
trajisportation.^ A coordinated transportation system is necessary to 
meet the needs of the special subpopulations of elderly in the region. "^"^ 

Community Care for the Elderly (CCE) provides the elderly with medical 
trajisportation services, as well as many other services. However the 
program is not sufficiently serving the large numbers of elderly in need 
of medical transportation services. Medical transportation is provided 



:i-4-8 



to seniors in Columbia, Dixie, Gilchrist, Suwannee ajid Taylor Counties. 
Approximately 586 seniors, or 0.8 percent of the elderly population, 
received medical transportation services in 1985- This figure includes 
seniors in Levy County, which is outside the region, but inseparable from 
the total. A disproportionately large number (about 4-0. 05^) of the 
recipients were residents of Dowling Park in Suwannee County.^' 



The high cost of liability insurance premiums prohibits adequate 
provision aind expansion of the CCE's medical transportation program. 
Inadequate state funding also impedes proper prograim administration, 



24 



Agencies: Area agencies on aging, older americans councils. Coordinating 
Council for Transportation Disadvantaged, Coordinated Trajisportation 
System, Florida Department of Trajisportation, Department of Health and 
Rehabilitative Services, North Central Florida Regional Plajining Council. 



4-. 5. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #18: A Comprehensive Health Care.. 
Service Delivery System 

A comprehensive health care service delivery system for the elderly has 
not been formally established.^^ A continuum of comprehensive health 
care is designed to allow the senior citizen to maintain aji independent 
lifestyle for as long as possible, and to remain in the home community as 
dependent needs increase. The continuum of comprehensive health care 
services for the elderly would consist of simple support services such as 
Community Care for the Elderly, Home Care for the Elderly and Title 
III-B, Title III C-1 and Title C-2 , adult congregate living facilities, 
adult day care, home health care with skilled nursing assistance, respite 
care, acute care facilities and institutional nursing home care. 

The Advent Christiaui Village (ACV), located in Dowling Park in Suwannee 
County, was one of the first institutions designated by the state to 
serve senior citizens. ACV provides a variety of living facilities that 
are designed to maintain self-sufficiency aunong the elderly by providing 
various levels of care in each facility. ACV offers private dwellings, 
mobile homes, retirement apartments, residence halls, ajid a 
fully-certified nursing home. Support services are provided by the 
Community Care for the Elderly program, which include congregate meals, 
delivered meals, homemaker services, day care, transportation to the day 
care program, counseling and home care by a registered nurse. 

Due to the wide rsinge ajid high quality of its programs, the Advent 
Christiaui Village has become a valued educational resource. Currently, 
the ACV has affiliations with the University of Florida College of 
Medicine ajid with nursing schools at the University of Florida and Santa 
Fe Community College in Gainesville, Lake City Community College, 
Suwannee-Hamilton Area Vocational-Technical School in Live Oa^ and the 
North Florida Junior College in Madison.^® 



■4-9 



The Geriatric Center at the Veterans Administration Medical Center 
specializes in geriatric research and education. The Geriatric Center is 
a leading regional resource for specialized care of elderly patient 
research concerning age-related health' problems, development of 
innovative approaches to treatment and rehabilitation ajid educational 
programs for students and practitioners in medicine, nursing and other 
health professions. The Geriatric center also specializes in improving 
the use of medicines in the treatment of diseases in the elderly. ^^ 
The Geriatric Center, along with existing University of Florida programs, 
make the partner institutions national leaders in geriatrics. Programs 
designed to assist the elderly include the following: increasing 
geriatric medicine in the medical curriculum; fellowship training in 
geriatrics for physiciajis; and education for persons providing at-home 
care for elderly relatives with senile dementia.^ 

Regionally Significant Facilities: Advent Christian Village at Dowling 
Park (Suwannee County), Geriatric Research Center, Veterans 
Administration Medical Center (Gainesville), University of Florida 
College of Nursing and College of Medicine. 



Agencies: Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, area 
agencies on aging, older ajnericans councils. Advent Christian Village at 
Dowling Park (Suwannee County), Geriatric Research Center, Veterans 
Administration Medical Center (Gainesville), University of Florida 
College of Nursing and College of Medicine, North Central Florida 
Regional Planning Council. 



Endnotes ; 



For example, in 1985, 15.0 percent of the Suwajinee Valley Transit 
Authority budget for elderly transportation was spent for liability 
insurance . 



2. More than three people maintained and given personal care constitute 
an Adult Congregate Living Facility. Three or fewer people can be 
legally given personal care without an ACLF license. Jajnes Godwin, 
Senior Human Services Program Manager, Aging and Adult Services, 
Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services. 



3. District III Area Agency on Aging, Area Plan on Aging 1986 , 
Gainesville, Florida, 1985. 



Area Agency on Aging. Data provided by Ms. Carol Collins, January, 
1986. 



5. District 3 Area Agency on Aging. Interview with program Director 
Dr. Carolyn Nickens, Gainesville, Florida, April, 1985. 



T T T < f n 
J. J. » - T— I <U 



6. North Central Florida Health Planning Council. District III Health 
Plan , Gainesville, Florida, 1985. 

Big Bend Health Council, Inc., 1985 District Two Health Plan , 
Panama City, Florida, 1985. 



7. Ibid . 

8. Ibid . Four factors contribute to the making of a MUA: high infajit 
mortality rate; ratio of primary care physicians to population; 
percentcLge of the population 65 years of age or older; ctnd the 
percent of elderly residents below the poverty level. 



9. Frances V. Terhune (ed.), 1980 Census Handbook: Florida Counties . 
Gainesville, Florida, Bureau of Economic and Business Research,,. 
College of Business Administration, University of Florida, 1984. 

10. Many of the policies aimed at providing a coordinated trajisportation 
system for the elderly are excerpts from Specialized Transportation 
for Rural Elderly Floridians: A Coordinated Approach by William G. 
Bell and Associates, Multidisciplinary Center on Gerontology and 
Institute for Social Research at Florida State University, July, 
1985. 



11. Terhune (ed.), 1980 Census Handbook. 



12. District 3 Area Agency on Aging. Data provided by Ms. Carol 
Collins, January, 1986. 



13. North Central Florida Health Planning Council, District III Health 
Plan, Gainesville, Florida. 1985. 



U. Ibid. 



15. District III Area Agency on Aging, Area Plan cr. Aging, 1986 , 
Gainesville, Florida. 



16. District III Area Agency on Aging. Data provided by Ms. Carol 
Collins, January, 1986. 



17. Ibid. 



:i-4--1 1 



18. Advent Christian Village, Untitled manuscript, June, 1986 



19. Frajices V. Terhune (ed.). 1980 Ce.nsus Handbook: Florida Counties 
Bureau of Economic and Business Research, College of Business 
Administration, University of Florida, Gainesville, 1984. 



20. Ibid. 



21. Ibid, 



22. The policies under Goal 4.4.2. are excerpts from Specialized 
Transportation for Rural Floridians: A Coordinated Approach . 
William Bell and Associates. Multidisciplinary Center on 
Gerontology Institute for Social Research at the University of South 
Florida, July, 1985. 



25. District III Area Agency on Aging. Data provided by Ms. Carol 
Collins . 



24. District III Area Agency on Aging. Interview with Director Dr 
Carolyn Nickens, January, 1986. 



25. The University of Florida Department of Gerontology is currently 

conducting research to develop a formal continuum of comprehensive 
health care for the elderly. Interview with Director Dr. Otto von 
Mering, May, 1986. 



26. North Central Florida Health Plajining Council. Interview with 
Director Carol Gormley, Gainesville, Florida, May, 1986. 



27. Advent Christian Village, Description of the Organization and 
Development of Advent Christian Home, Inc, 1986. 



28. Ibid, 



29. University of Florida Health Center, Health Center Update , 
Gainesville, Florida, Jajiuary, 1984. 



50. Ibid. 



III-4- 



STATE GOAL 5: HOUSING 

The public and private sectors shall Increase the aff ordability and 
availability of housing for low-income and moderate income persons, 
including citizens in rural areas, while at the same time encoursiging 
self-sufficiency of the individual and assuring environmental and 
structural quality and cost-effective operations. 



5.1. Regional Issue/Policy Cluster #19: Availability and Affordability 
of Housing 

Background Analysis: The quantity of housing units in the region is 
increasing, but most units are designed for middle and high income 
groups. The number of housing units increased by 106.0 percent from 1970 
to 1985.^ In addition, the quality of housing improved, due to a 60.0 
percent decline in the number of substandard housing units (measured by 
the availability of indoor plumbing) and decrease (4.75^) in the number of 
overcrowded residential units. 

In 1985, only two local governments in the region had adopted minimum 
housing ordinances. However, the Southern Standard Building Code, a 
state requirement for county adoption of building codes, has a 
significcuit impact on the quality of new construction aind development.^ 
Furthermore, local governments have not required construction of housing 
units for low and moderate income households.* Few, if any, private 
builders construct housing units for low income groups without government 
assistance . 

Adequate housing is increasingly inaccessible to low-income groups due to 
recent cuts in federal housing programs and the increasing gap between 
housing costs and average household income. From 1970 to 1980, the 
average value of owner-occupied housing units jumped from $8,4-27 to 
$23,857 (am increase of 318.55^). Furthermore, average mediaui contract 
rent increased 174.5 percent (from $55.54 to $96.91), but average median 
household income only increased by 157.8 percent.^ 

Approximately 4.0 percent (5,749 units) of the housing stock is 
federally- assisted housing. Assistance programs include public housing, 
HUD Section 8 housing, FmHA Section 515 and Section 502 housing, as well 
as other federally-subsidized progreims. 

Federally-assisted housing units for low-income households as a 
percentage of total housing stock increased from 3.8 percent in 1980 to 
4.0 percent in 1985. The majority of new government subsidized rental 
units are located in urban areas and utilize existing infrastructure. 
Estimates indicate that the region will need an additional 11,400 
subsidized units by the year 2010.° 

Availability of affordable housing for low-income groups may be limited 
by their unequal distribution. Alachua County, for example, has a higher 
percentage of federally-assisted housing than other counties. In 1979, 
federally-assisted housing units comprised 6.36 percent of Gainesville's 



III-5-1 



total housing stock compared to less than two percent in Dixie, 
Gilchrist, Lafayette, Suwannee, Taylor, and Union Counties. 

For most low-income groups, mobile homes appear to be the only viable 
home ownership option. Between 1970 and 1985, the number of mobile homes 
increased 510.0 percent, from 6,135 units to 31,551, or from 8.8 to 21.9 
percent of total housing stock. ^ 

Present trends indicate that low-income families who want to own their 
own homes may be forced to live in mobile homes in rural unincorporated 
areas. Some local government zoning ordinances have limited mobile homes 
to mobile home parks or excluded them altogether. Most mobile homes 
located within the region are placed on individual lots in unincorporated 
rural areas. Other factors which may increase home ownership in rural 
areas include high costs of land ajid taxes within urbaji areas. 

No local government in north central Florida requires the construction of 
low and moderate income housing units by private developers. However, 
given declines in federal public housing expenditures, it appears that 
this technique may be the only way low and moderate income housing will 
be constructed in the future. Such requirements have been used by local 
governments in other states with mixed results. The technique has been 
particularly difficult to use with private housing sales, as opposed to 
rentals. After the initial sale of the unit to a low ajid moderate income 
household, the unit is almost always resold at market rates, forever 
removing the unit from the price rainge of the low and moderate income 
households for whom it was originally intended. 

Another technique requires the low and moderate income units be turned 
over to the local public housing authority as rental units. While this 
technique assures that the unit will remain in use as low and moderate 
income housing, it is not without problems. Maintenance costs caji often 
be beyond the reach of low income households. In addition, developers 
often feel that the inclusion of low and moderate income housing detracts 
from the marketability of their development. Other possible approaches 
include a mandatory cash set aside for the construction of low and 
moderate income housing by residential developments and non-residential 
developments alike for construction in other housing types and locations 
within a community. 

Housing is lacking for adult and juvenile mental health and substance 
abuse clients undergoing various phases of therapy such as evaluation, 
treatment and rehabilitation (See Regional Issues 2.3, 2.6, and 6.3). 
Sufficient housing is also lacking for victims of spouse and child abuse 
(See Regional Issues 2.2 and 5.1). To improve housing and therapeutic 
conditions for developmentally disabled persons, community-based training 
and support services are now provided in "cluster homes". Two are 
located in Alachua County, and one is in Columbia County. Cluster homes 
are designed to normalize life as much as possible in residential 
neighborhood locations while still maintaining adequate services to meet 
clients' special needs (See Regional Issues 2.4, 2.6 and 6.4). 



:-5- 



Regional Facilities: 

Local government public housing authorities 

Agencies: U.S. Congress, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 
Department of Energy, Florida Department of Community Affairs, 
Department of Health amd Rehabilitation Services, local governments. 
Northwest Florida Regional Housing Authority, Alachua County Housing 
Authority, Gilchrist County Housing Authority, Columbia County Housing 
Authority, Live Oak Housing Authority, Gainesville Housing Authority, 
Community Action Agency, Alachua County Neighborhood Housing Service, 
United Gainesville Community Development Corporation, United Way, local 
boards of realtors, Florida Homebuilders Association, private builders. 
University of Florida College of Architecture. 



Endnotes: 



1. University of Florida, Bureau of Economic and Business Research, 

unpublished data. The number of houses (69. 4-4-5) in 1970 increased 
to 142,952 by 1985, which resulted in a 105.9 percent increase. 



2. U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 1 970 Census of 

Housing. Housing Characteristics for States, Cities, and Counties , 
(Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office), Table 29, 
Selected Characteristics for Counties, pp. 11-105; and 1 980 Census 
of Housing, Detailed Housing Characteristics , (Washington, D.C.: 
U.S. Government Printing Office), Table 94, Equipment and Plumbing 
Facilities for Counties, pp. 11-269 to 11-174. 



Local governments are required to adopt and enforce a minimum 
building code by action taken by the 1974 Legislature. 
Municipalities within the region should evaluate whether current 
zoning practices tend to exclude mobile homes from locating within 
their jurisdictions. 



A few local governments in Florida have required private developers 
of renter ajid owner-occupied housing units to construct a minimum 
percentage of housing units for low and moderate income households. 



5. North Central Florida Regional Planning Council, unpublished data, 
1982. 



North Central Florida Regional Planning Council, unpublished data, 
1985. 



III-5-3 



7. North Central Florida Regional Planning Council, unpublished data, 
1979 and 1985. 



8. Ibid. 



9. University of Florida, Bureau of Economic and Business Research, 
unpublished data. 



III-5-4 



STATE GOAL 6: HEALTH 

Florida shall cultivate good health for all its citizens, promote 
individual responsibility for good health, assure access to affordable, 
quality health care and reduce health care costs as a percentage of the 
total financial health care costs as a percentage of the total financial 
resources available to the state and its citizens. 



6.1. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #20: Prevention of Chronic Health and 
Social Problems and the Reduction of Long-Term Disability and Dependency 

Background Analysis: Until adequate funding is available to research, 
design and implement prevention programs, there is little opportunity to 
reduce chronic health and social problems and minimize long-term 
disability and social dependency. County health units are not able to 
provide sufficient public health screening and prevention services. 
Public health education and information services are also limited in the 
region. The region's high rates of infant mortality and low birth weight 
indicate that effective prenatal, maternal and perinatal care is not 
available to the population in need. Early prenatal care significantly 
reduces incidences of chronic health conditions and handicaps among 
infants, and is therefore a prevention method to reduce social dependency 
and long-term disability. However, programs which provide prenatal care 
in order to reduce rates of infant mortality and low birth weight are 
inadequately funded and unable to meet demand for services. The region 
also has an extremely high rate of births to teenagers, a problem which 
is not adequately addressed by the schools nor by public health programs. 
Sufficient prenatal care and health prevention and education services are 
not available to the population of teenage mothers and fathers. Training 
and support services which include teaching behaviors to prevent long- 
term disability and social dependency are not sufficient to serve all 
developmentally disabled and physically handicapped children in the 
region. The availability of services to handicapped children is 
especially limited. The Children's Medical Services financial 
eligibility standard is so low that many needy physically handicapped 
children fail to receive care. The current financial eligibility 
requirement is $9,000 for a family of f our . ^ In order to effectively 
serve handicapped children and their families in need of medical services 
and counseling, the financial eligibility formula should be updated. 
Mental health and alcohol and drug abuse education, prevention, 
intervention and treatment programs are underfunded, fragmented and 
insufficient to serve the juvenile population in need of such services. 
The availability of mental health, alcohol and drug abuse education and 
prevention programs are extremely limited in the schools. 

Various behaviors can reduce the occurrence of heart disease, cancer and 
stroke which are the three leading causes of deaths in the region, state 
and nation. For example, reducing cigarette smoking, stress and blood 
pressure, increasing exercise and improving dietary habits can help to 
prevent heart disease, cancer and stroke. Cigarette smoking is 
considered by health authorities as the largest single preventable cause 



III-6-1 



of illness and premature death in the United States. Statistics show an 
increase in the number of women, teenagers and children who smoke. 
Breast and genital cancers are also a leading cause of death in the 
region, both of which can be treated and survived if detected in the 
early stages. 

County health units (formerly called health departments) located in each 
county, offer several vital services at low-cost to prevent or detect and 
reduce the occurrence heart disease, cancer and stroke. County health 
unit services include monitoring hypertension, pre-cancer and 
cardiovascular conditions; providing PAP smears and immunizations; 
providing diabetes, epilepsy, and rheumatic fever medicines at low cost; 
and providing vitamins and iron for anemia. However, due to lack of 
funding, sufficient health screening and education services are not 
available through each county health unit in the region. For example, 6 
out of 11 counties have no cancer screening or education services.^ 
Education programs are lacking which teach self -monitor ing , self- 
improvement and health prevention behaviors such as blood pressure 
checks, self-breast examination, diet planning, exercise and smoking 
management. County health units also lack outreach programs and 
consequently the general public lacks information pertaining to available 
services . 

The Florida Health and Rehabilitative Services Early and Periodic 
Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT) Program increases access to 
preventive health care for Medicaid recipients under age 21. Screening 
is done at county health units for general health, nutrition, 
development, vision, hearing and dental problems.^ Health care costs are 
also minimized by diagnosing problems early. In FY 1984-85, EPSDT 
screened 14-, 961 children, or 18 percent of the region's juvenile 
population . ^ 

Another HRS health prevention effort is the monitoring of children's 
hearing, vision, growth and development in the public schools. In FY 
1985-84, 18,105 (215^) children in the region were tested for vision 
acuity, 15,998 (17%) children were tested for hearing, and 15,065 (185^) 
children were monitored for growth and development. 

Florida's infants are also screened at county health units for conditions 
which can threaten normal development. In 1984, 255,000 screenings were 
conducted in Florida, a factor which contributed, in part, to the 
reduction of statewide infant mortality rate from 17.7 per 1,000 live 
births to 10.9, in 1984.'^ In 1984, 5,585 infants were screened in the 
region, in six different counties. No infant screening services are 
available in the remaining five counties. ° 

Incidences of infant mortality, low birth weight babies and births to 
teenagers which are greater in the region than statewide indicate that 
adequate prenatal care is not available to the population in need. In 8 
out of the region's 11 counties, the infant mortality rate is higher than 
the state average of 12.67 deaths per 1,000 births. The rates range from 
18.02 deaths per 1,000 births (Madison County) to 12.85 (Columbia 
County)." Furthermore, by federal guidelines, Columbia County 



III-6-2 



m 



has been designated as a High Infant Mortality Area. Infant mortality 
among blacks is 2 to 2.7 times greater in the majority of the region's 
counties than statewide. 

The incidence of low birth weight babies (under 5.5 pounds) is higher 
than the state average of 74.90 per 1000 in five counties in the 
region. The high rates of low birth weight babies range from 100.10 per 
1000 (Gilchrist) to 77.25 per 1000 (Suwannee). Low birth weight is of 
particular concern as it accounts for 65.0 percent of all neonatal 
deaths. Furthermore, 25.0 percent of all low birth weight babies will 
have some kind of handicap or long-term disability. Low birth weight 
babies are often at high risk for abuse because their special needs take 
a great amount of parent's time and financial resources. 

The region has an alarmingly high rate of births to teenagers. Teenage 
pregnancies often result in low birth weight babies. Teenage parents 
frequently drop out of school and their marriages often end in divorce, 
which increases the probability of the development of long-term 
dependency and social problems. In 9 of the region's 11 counties,, the 
rate of births to women less than 19 years of age is higher than the 
state average of 11.0 percent (of all births). The rates range from 18.7 
percent in Hamilton County to 12.6 percent in Lafayette County. 

Births to black teenagers occur at an even higher rate. The black 
teenage pregnancy rate is higher than the state black teenage pregnancy 
rate of 19.6 percent. Births to black teenagers accounted for 20.9 
percent (Bradford) to 28.4 percent (Dixie) of all black births in those 
counties. Statewide, the incidence of births to black teenagers is 2.29 
times greater than births to white teenagers. However, the gap is even 
wider for five counties in the region. Alachua County has the highest 
gap between black and white teenage pregnancy rates. The incidence of 
births to black teenagers in Alachua County is 19-2 percent whereas the 
rate for the county's white teenagers is 5.8 percent. 

Births to teenagers is a major health and socioeconomic problem which 
should to be addressed by the county schools and public health programs. 
The St. Paul, Minnesota Maternity and Infant Care Program, a 
comprehensive school-based health center, may serve as a model for the 
development of teenage pregnancy prevention programs. The program is 
jointly operated by the Minnesota Health Department and the City of St. 
Paul. The center is part of the state-funded Maternity and Infant Care 
(MIC) project but actually operates as a full service clinic for 
teenagers. Services offered include job and school physicals, 
immunizations, weight control, venereal disease testing and treatment, 
pregnancy testing, contraceptive information and counseling, and prenatal 
and postpartum care. The program operates health clinics in four St. 
Paul high schools.^ 

The St. Paul project has reduced pregnancy rates by 75.0 percent among 
female students. Among students who did become pregnant, 92.0 percent 
used the clinic for prenatal and postpartum care (including infant day 
care at some sites), and 94.0 percent of those who received pregnancy 
care through the clinic began care prior to the third trimester of 



III-6-3 



pregnancy. Among girls who had babies, the dropout rate was reduced by- 
over 75.0 percent, and babies whose mothers delivered through the project 
were born healthier with fewer obstetrical complications. 

The Alachua County School Board established Alachua County Continuing 
Education for Pregnant Teens (ACCEPT) to meet the education needs of 
pregnant school-age women. ACCEPT enables students to continue progress 
toward high school or middle school completion while learning parenting 
skills. Available only to residents of Alachua County, many students 
from neighboring counties move to Alachua to enroll. ACCEPT's 1980-85 
repeat pregnancy rate was approximately 13.0 percent, which is lower than 
the state rate of 18-25.0 percent. ACCEPT plans to further reduce repeat 
pregnancy rates among students, since recent research demonstrates that 
it can reduced to 7.0 percent. 

In addition to human suffering and hardship, births to teenagers and low 
birth weight babies represent an undesirable and often times preventable 
cost to the public. The cost to the State of Florida to care for one low 
birth weight baby is $15,000. However, the cost of preventive prenatal 
care is only $300 per child. The incidence of low birth weight babies 
can be significantly reduced if high-risk women are identified, educated, 
frequently monitored by maternal health care professionals, and provided 
access to health care on a 24-hour basis. Cost comparisons between 
teenage pregnancy prevention and prenatal care prograjns are presently 
unavailable . 

The Regional Perinatal Intensive Care Program (Shands Teaching Hospital, 
Gainesville) serves women at high-risk for obstetrical care and low birth 
weight infants in need of intensive care. The state-funded program 
serves clients with and without insurance at all income levels, including 
Medicaid recipients. The Regional Perinatal Intensive Care Program lacks 
resources to conduct a needs assessment to document the need to expand 
their facility. ■^ Space constraints and lack of beds for neonatal and 
obstetrical care sometimes result in the referral of patients to other 
locations. Furthermore, the program is located in Alachua County, and 
the lack of public transportation in the rural counties can prevent 
residents of the region from receiving needed maternal and infant care. 
In FY 1984-85, 102 women in the region were served by the program's 
high-risk obstetrical component while 292 infants were served by the 
neonatal component . 

Current estimates indicate that the Improved Pregnancy Outcome (IPO) 
project does not serve 32.0 percent of the indigent statewide 
population.^ There is a need to expand IPO programs to each county in 
the region.'" IPO is an HRS program which provides prenatal and 
perinatal care to low-income women with low-risk pregnancies. Women 
receive care in hospitals and county health units. In FY 1983-84, 1,469 

1 7 

women in the region received IPO services. 

Recent estimates indicate that the Florida Department of Health and 
Rehabilitative Services (HRS) nutrition program. Women, Infants and 
Children (WIC), does not serve 57.0 percent of the needy population. WIC 



III-6-4 



is a supplemental food program which also provides pregnant or nursing 
mothers with nutrition education. The goal is to prevent 

nutrition-related health problems during critical periods of total growth 
and improve overall health by providing food to women and their children 
until age five. VIC served approximately 4,557 women, infants and 

1 R 

children in the region in 1985. 

The Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Children's Medical 
Services (CMS) provides assistance to families with diseased or 
handicapped children. CMS ' s goal is to prevent or reduce handicaps and 
help each afflicted child lead a more normal life. Infants may qualify 
if they are born ill or with birth defects. All children, regardless of 
parent's income, are eligible for an initial examination conducted by a 
pediatrician, but must meet specific requirements to receive treatment. 
Children may qualify for assistance if they have heart or kidney disease, 
cancer, or other chronic diseases. Children with speech, hearing or 
vision problems and abused or neglected children can also receive 
assistance. ° In November of 1985, 3,216 children in the region and 
40,211 statewide received CMS services. 

CMS provides a regional program located at Shands Teaching Hospital 
(Gainesville) which makes available specific kinds of highly specialized 
care. In some cases, medical teams will travel to CMS appointments at 
county health departments to deliver appropriate care. Services include 
renal disease treatment, evaluation of children with possible genetic 
defects and diabetic counseling and treatment. 

The Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Developmental 
Services Program also serves approximately eight percent of the 
non-retarded physically handicapped children in the region. Counseling 
and education services to teach management of chronic health conditions 
are lacking for parents of children with epilepsy, cerebral palsy, autism 
or spina bifida. Case management services which coordinate available 

developmental services are also lacking as well as ancillary medical 

22 
services . 

The Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Developmental 
Services provides an early intervention program which offers training and 
support services to 60 developmental ly disabled pre-school children 
through contracts with the Alachua County Association for Retarded 
Citizens (ARC). The Early Intervention Center serves 20 children and 40 
children receive home based intervention. 

The HRS Parent Training Program trains families to provide infant 
stimulation and/or behavioral modification for developmental ly disabled 
children ages 0-5. Currently, one Behavior Program Specialist works in 
the region. 

Community-based training and support services are improving for 
developmental ly disabled children. Approximately 50 Gainesville Sunland 
residents have been moved into community-based "cluster homes", two of 
which are in Alachua County and one is in Columbia County. The homes 
each have 24 beds and serve a total of 72 children and adults. Cluster 



III-6-5 



homes aim to normalize life in residential neighborhoods near the home /^ 

community and still maintain adequate services to meet the client's 

special needs. The Pediatric Cluster in Gainesville is a specialized 

facility which serves severely disabled children by providing intensive 

medical care. The other Alachua and Columbia County clusters are 

designed to accommodate moderate to severely disabled and retarded 

clients who are largely non-ambulatory. 

Adequate attention and funding has not been available for substance abuse 
education, prevention, intervention and treatment, and children in need 
of such services are underserved or unserved.^ In rural counties, only 
the most severe cases of substance abuse receive attention. The lack of 
funding has impeded the development of substance abuse prevention/ 
intervention programs. Primary prevention reduces the otherwise 
limitless population of clients in need of residential care. The 
advantage of early intervention is that clients access fewer services and 
are less likely to utilize more costly intensive services. 

The Bradford-Union Guidance Clinic and North Florida Mental Health. Center 
provide drug abuse education and prevention programs to schools and other 
community organizations on request.^ Due to insufficient funding, the 
NFMHC is unable to meet the demand for education and prevention services. 

The Department of Health and Rehabilitative Service provides an outreach 
program to juveniles in detention centers. Individual and group therapy, 
substance abuse counseling, occupational and vocational counseling are 
provided.^ ^^s- 

The Corner Drugstore has an excellent substance abuse prevention program 
which serves primarily Alachua County, and upon request, Gilchrist and 
Dixie Counties. The program provides drug education two nights per week 
in the Alachua County middle and high schools. Approximately 1,000 
students participate annually. 

In Alachua County, the Corner Drugstore also provides drug education and 
prevention programs at pre-existing community recreation programs during 
the summer. Prevention services also include public awareness prograjns 
in Alachua County such as alcohol and drug-free high school graduation 
parties . '- ' 

The HRS Alpha drug and school dropout prevention program operates in one 
middle school per school year in Alachua County. The students spend one- 
half of the school day in the Alpha classroom. The program teaches self 
esteem, decision-making skills, pharmacology and how to say "no" to 
drugs. Thirty children participate in Alpha per year.'^" 

Mental Health Services, Inc. provides early intervention services to 

persons under 18 and their families who are experiencing or are at 

high-risk to experience impaired ability to meet the ordinary demands of 

daily living. Children of substance abusers and teenage parents are 

often high-risk for such problems. Services are provided in the home, 

the Community Mental Health Center and in the Title XX Day Care Center. S^ 



III-6-6 



In FY 1984-85, 110 children age 5-5 were served by the programs. Mental 
Health Services, Inc. also contracts services to the Alachua County 
School Board. ^^ 

Children's mental health prevention and education programs are also 
underfunded and fragmented. Primary prevention programs identify and 
work with children at risk to develop emotional problems such as children 
of teenage parents or children of substance abusers. Prevention saves 
human suffering and reduces the need for high-cost intensive mental 
health treatment later on. The number of mental health prevention 
programs in the region is inadequate, especially in the rural counties.'' 

The Child Abuse Prevention Plan operates district-wide to educate 
residents of the district to prevent child abuse and neglect. Prevention 
is implemented through public awareness, training professionals such as 
teachers and law enforcement officials, parent education, school 

prevention programs, community involvement, and the home visitors 

31 
program. -' 

Diagnosis and evaluation involves conducting psychological and 
psychiatric evaluations to determine the presence and extent of emotional 
handicaps. Psychological or psychiatric diagnosis and evaluation 
services are available to residents in each county.'^ 

Basic outpatient mental health services include individual, group and 
family therapy, parent education classes, outpatient drug and alcohol 
therapy and contracted services. The lack of sufficient outpatient 
services for children has been extensively documented but are available 
on a limited basis. ^-^ 

The HRS CREST Parent Education Training program provides outpatient 
services to families of children who have been adjudicated "dependent" 
and are participants in the HRS "Status Offender Project" in Alachua 
County. CREST provides intensive family counseling and parent education 
in the home. CREST served 23 families in FY 1984-85.^^ 

The Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Children, Youth and 
Families mental health professionals indicate there are an insufficient 
number of victims of abuse outpatient counseling programs in the region. 
Mental Health Services provides intensive family counseling services for 
the treatment of physically and sexually abused children. In FY 1984-85, 
100 children from Alachua, Levy (outside the region), Gilchrist and Dixie 
counties were served by the program. 

Day treatment provides a combination of therapeutic and educational 
services for children who have been diagnosed as emotionally disturbed 
but do not require a residential setting. Currently, there are no 
children's day treatment programs in the region. ^^ 

Crisis intervention maintains the child in the home and school 
environments during crisis situations by providing intensive counseling 
services in the home. Currently, there are no intensive crisis 
counseling programs in the region.'^ 



III-6-7 



Crisis stabilization units provide short-term residential care to 
children who are in crisis. A crisis stabilization unit is the most 
urgently needed children's mental health service in the region. Crisis 
stabilization and screening supports other programs such as foster homes 
and group therapeutic homes which serve emotionally handicapped children 
who are virtually impossible to keep in times of crisis.'^ 

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has arisen as a new health 
concern at state and national levels. Table 6.1 indicates the rate of 
mortality due to AIDS is significantly lower in north central Florida 
counties than statewide. 

TABLE 6.1 

MORBIDITY: REPORTED ADULT CASES OF ACQUIRED IMMUNE DEFICIENCY SYNDROME 

(AIDS), JULY 1, 1989 AND CUMULATIVE CASES 

JANUARY 1, 1980 THROUGH JULY 1, 1989 







CUMULATIVE 


, 1980 - 


1989 




NO. OF 






RATE PER 




CASES 




PERCENT 


1 00 , 000 


AREA 


1989 


NUMBER 


OF TOTAL 


POPULATION 


Florida 


827 


7982 


100 


64.5 


Alachua 


3 


55 


0.1 


30.1 


Bradford 


1 


2 


0.0 


8.2 


Columbia 


3 


6 


0. 1 


14.3 


Dixie 








0.0 


0.0 


Gilchrist 





1 


0.0 


13.5 


Hamilton 








0.0 


0.0 


Lafayette 





1 


0.0 


19.1 


Madison 


1 


2 


0.0 


12.5 


Suwannee 





5 


0. 1 


18.7 


Taylor 


1 


4 


0. 1 


21 .2 


Union 








0.0 


0.0 


Source : 


Florida Statistical 


Abstract , 


1989. 



Although north central Florida is experiencing a lower-than-average 
incidence of AIDS infection, the potential exists for a dramatic upturn 
in infection rates. 



Regionally Significant Resources: Regional Perinatal Intensive Care 
Program, Shands Teaching Hospital, county health units. Early and 
Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment Program, School Screening 
Program, and Cluster Homes, Public libraries in Alachua, Taylor, 
Bradford, Suwannee and Columbia Counties. 



III-6-8 



Agencies: County health units, Planned Parenthood, Healthy Mothers 
Healthy Babies Coalition, Florida Center for Children and Youth, ACCEPT, 
University of Florida, Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative 
Services, Department of Education, county school boards. Big Bend Health 
Planning Council, Inc., District III Health Planning Council, Regional 
Perinatal Intensive Care Program, Shands Teaching Hospital, Alachua 
General Hospital Staff and Administrators, Florida Legislature, Community 
Mental Health Centers, North Central Florida Regional Planning Council, 
the Corner Drugstore, public and private television and radio stations. 



6.2. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #21: Reducing the Occurrence of Abuse 
and Neglect 

Background Analysis: In 1985, the HRS Aging and Adult Services Program 
reported approximately 11,000 cases of elderly abuse in the State of 
Florida. During FY 85-86, 515 cases of adult abuse or neglect were 
reported within nine region counties served by HRS District 3 (which 
excludes Madison and Taylor Counties). According to national statistics, 
approximately 2.0 percent (708 persons) of the region's elderly 
population is at risk for abuse or neglect. 

The Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services is responsible for 
investigating reports of abuse or neglect of elderly or disabled adults, 
securing alternate placement for persons deemed to be abused or neglected 
and/or at substantial risk of abuse or neglect, and providing continuing 
supervision and support services necessary to prevent further abuse or 
neglect. HRS also operates the statewide Abuse Registry which records 
the report of abuse and notifies appropriate investigative HRS 
authorities. 

Through provider agencies, the Area Agency on Aging supports public 
education to identify and prevent abuse, initiates the participation of 
the elderly in social service referral and outreach programs for the 
abused and provides training for an adult protective and abuse prevention 
service to ensure identification and appropriate referral of complaints 
to law enforcement or HRS adult protective service units. ^ 



Regionally Significant Resources: Florida Department of Health and 
Rehabilitative Services, Adult and Aging Services; area agencies on 
aging, older americans councils. 



Agencies: Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, 
Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, area agencies on aging 
and older americans councils, North Central Florida Regional Planning 
Council, District II and III Health Planning Councils, 



III-6-9 



Due to inadequate funding, the Bradford-Union Guidance Clinic (Starke, 
Bradford County and Lake Butler, Union County), like the other mental 
health providers in the region, meets only a small portion of the need 
for mental health services. The Bradford-Union Guidance Clinic documents 
an inadequate number of case management and treatment staff. Alcohol and 
drug outpatient, residential and detoxification services are inadequate. 
Outpatient mental health counseling services are especially inadequate to 
meet the large demand placed on the facility by employees from the four 
prisons and the nine group homes for persons with developmental 
disabilities located in the area. 

In FY 1985-86, the Bradford-Union Guidance Clinic provided outpatient 
services to 186 of the priority alcoholic population, and served 915 
persons with mental health counseling. Bradford-Union refers clients in 
need of crisis stabilization, inpatient psychiatric, alcohol 
detoxification and alcohol halfway house services to NFMHC . Clients in 
need of drug abuse and drug halfway house services are referred to 
Metamorphosis, in Gainesville. 

The mental health priority populations of Taylor and Madison Counties are 
served by satellite clinics of Apalachee Community Mental Health 
Services. In FY 1984-85, the clinics served a total of 437 outpatient 
clients with mental health treatment, 22 for drug abuse, and 101 adults 
for alcohol abuse. Madison and Taylor Counties each have a 
gerontological group home which served a total of 67 seniors in FY 
1984-85. 

The Corner Drugstore in Gainesville (Alachua County) provides outpatient 
substance abuse prevention and treatment for the entire region, but does 
not have the funding to provide adequate services the populations in 
need. In FY 1984-85, 130 adult drug abusers received outpatient 
counseling. 

Metamorphosis, located in Gainesville (Alachua County), has a large 
waiting list which reflects the need to increase facilities to adequately 
serve the population in need of substance abuse services. In FY 1984-85, 
with 18 beds. Metamorphosis (18 beds) served 70 clients in need of 
residential drug abuse treatment. 



Regionally Significant Facilities: Mental Health Services, Inc., of 
North Central Florida; North Florida Community Mental Health Center; 
Bradford-Union Guidance Clinic; Apalachee Community Mental Health Center; 
The Corner Drugstore; Metamorphosis. 



Agencies: Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, 
Department of Transportation, North Central Florida Regional Planning 
Council, Executive Office of the Governor. 



III-6-12 



6.4. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #25: Developmentally Disabled and 
Physically Handicapped 

Background Analysis: Training and support services are not sufficient to 
provide needed services to all developmentally disabled and physically 
handicapped children in the region. The Children's Medical Services 
financial eligibility standard is so low that many needy children fail to 
receive care. The current financial eligibility requirement is $9,000 
for a family of f our . ^° In order to effectively serve children in need 
of medical services, the financial eligibility formula should be updated. 

The Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Children's Medical 
Services (CMS) provides assistance to families with diseased or 
handicapped children. CMS ' s goal is to prevent or reduce handicaps and 
help each afflicted child lead a more normal life. Infants may qualify 
if they are born ill or with birth defects. All children, regardless of 
parents income, are eligible for an initial examination conducted by a 
pediatrician, but must meet specific requirements to receive treatment. 
Children may qualify for assistance if they have heart or kidney disease, 
cancer, or other chronic diseases. Children with speech, hearing or 
vision problems and abused or neglected children can also receive 
assistance.^' In November of 1985, 5,216 children in the region and 



40,211 statewide received CMS services. 



50 



CMS provides a regional program located at Shands Teaching Hospital 
(Gainesville) which makes available specific kinds of highly specialized 
care. In some cases, medical teams will travel to CMS appointments at 
county health departments to deliver appropriate care. Services include 
renal disease treatment, evaluation of children with possible genetic 
defects and diabetic counseling and treatment.-' 

The HRS Developmental Services Program directly provides or funds 
contract providers, including the Associations for Retarded Citizens, to 
provide placement, training, and support services to developmentally 
disabled children and adults. 

The Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Developmental 
Services provides training and support services to 60 developmentally 
disabled pre-school children through contracts with the Alachua County 
Association for Retarded Citizens (ARC). The Early Intervention Center 
serves 20 children and 40 children receive homebased intervention. 
The HRS Parent Training Program is designed to train families to provide 
infant stimulation and/or behavioral modification for developmentally 
disabled children ages 0-5. Currently, one Behavior Program Specialist 
works in the North Central Florida Region. 

Health and Rehabilitative Services Developmental Services (DS) also 
provides a registry of professionals who work with young (ages 0-5) 
developmentally disabled children. Their goal is to prevent duplication 
of services and ensure that children do not "fall through the cracks." 
This group includes University of Florida Children's Developmental 
Services, the Cerebral Palsy case manager, the HRS Parent Training 
Supervisor, a representative from Shands Regional Perinatal Intensive 
Care Unit, the DS Diagnosis and Evaluation Team and the DS Program 

III-6-15 



r 



Office. The group meets bi-weekly to evaluate and identify appropriate 
services for new clients eligible for Developmental Services. 

For more than a decade, decision makers in Florida have recognized the 
importance of developing community-based living alternatives for the 
clients of the Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, and 
other persons with special living needs outside of their own homes. 
There are several factors which led the executive and legislative 
branches of government to develop a social policy to minimize the use of 
institutions to house human beings and develop the use of community- 
based residential facilities: 

It became apparent to the general public, social scientists, and 
politicians that institutions did not achieve an adequate level of 
remedial care for residents. 

Following World War II, the development of community day programs 
and out-patient clinics for people who otherwise would have been 
placed in institutions, demonstrated that such people could, in 
many cases, receive cheaper and better care in the community 
than in an institution. The philosophy of "normalization" 
maintained that people should remain in as normal an 
environment as possible even if they are different from most of 
society . 

A series of judicial decisions determined if the government 

undertakes to institutionalize people because of abnormalities, it ( 

has the responsibility to treat people so that they can return to 

society as soon as possible. Furthermore, case law was developing 

which indicated that if incarceration is necessary, it must take 

place in the least restrictive setting possible. Scientific 

evidence demonstrates that most people can overcome developmental, 

emotional, and intellectual deficits if given appropriate 

opportunities. The policy of deinstitutionalization is based on the 

premise that less restrictive residential settings afford greater 

opportunity for individualized activities and freedom of choice for 

residents . 

Scientific evidence also demonstrates that custodial care, which 
tends to dominate in institutional settings, produces side effects 
which are often more debilitating than the disorder initially 
requiring treatment. Isolation, lack of motivation, dependency, and 
loss of basic social skills have all been seen, at least partially, 
as the result of institutional placement itself. In contrast, the 
community more often provides a humane, supportive atmosphere and a 
better quality of life. 

Community-based programs, which utilize existing community 
resources, have a less formal administrative structure and, as a 
result, avoid many of the organizational problems besetting 
institutions. In addition, community-based programs offer services 
that facilitate family interaction, give greater access to 
employment opportunities, and increase chances for moving into more 
independent living or home care. In many cases, community 

III-6-14 



r 



1 



alternative prograjns can be delivered at less cost than similar 
institutional programs. However, even in cases where the costs are 
equivalent, the human and programmatic benefits of community 
services significantly outdistance institutionalization for the vast 
majority of disabled people. 

Community-based training and support services are improving for develop- 
mentally disabled children in the region and state. Approximately 50 
Gainesville Sunland residents have been moved into community-based 
"cluster homes", two of which are in Alachua County and one is in 
Columbia County. The homes have 24 beds each and serve a total of 72 
children and adults. The Pediatric Cluster in Gainesville is a 
specialized facility which serves the most severely disabled children by 
providing intensive medical care. The other Alachua County Cluster and 
the Columbia County Cluster are of the more "usual" type of cluster, 
designed to accommodate moderate to severely disabled and retarded 
clients who are largely non-ambulatory. The homes aim to normalize life 
in residential neighborhoods as close to the home community as possible 
and still maintain adequate services to meet the client's special needs. 

Sunland Center at Gainesville is a highly restrictive institutional 
setting for the most severely and profoundly retarded adults and for some 
children with complicating medical disabilities for whom no community 
based alternative placement is available or appropriate. The Gainesville 
Sunland had 753 residents as of June 30, 1986. 

The Department of Education reported 6,517 developmental ly disabled and 
physically handicapped children in the region in 1984.^^ The trend in 
services to pre-school handicapped children is for the school districts 
to serve 3-5 year old retarded children. Many school districts now serve 
such children, and Alachua County will begin to do so in August, 1986. 
In Florida, HRS currently serves 5,186 retarded or physically disabled 
clients in institutions, community-based residential services, or in 
their homes. ^ 



Regionally Significant Resources: Shands Teaching Hospital, Cluster 
Homes in Alachua and Columbia Counties, Regional Perinatal Intensive Care 
Program, Gainesville Sunland. 



Agencies: Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, 
Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Department of Education, 
county school boards, North Central Florida Regional Planning Council, 
Shands Teaching Hospital, Regional Perinatal Intensive Care Program. 



6.5. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #24: Maintaining and Strengthening 
the Family Unit 

Background Analysis: The HRS Women, Infants and Children (VIC) program 
does not serve 57.0 percent of the eligible population . ^^ VIC provides 
food, nutrition education, and health care to pregnant or nursing mothers 



III-6-15 



during critical periods of fetal and child development. VIC's goal is to 
prevent nutrition-related health problems, and to improve overall health 
by providing food to women and their children until the age of five. The 
average monthly cost for food is $51.36 for each participant which is 
paid by the Department of Agriculture and the federal government.^ VIC 
served 5,059 women, infants and children in the region in the latest 
6-month service contract (1985). 

Recently, the effectiveness of the Food Stamp Program is has been 
questioned. The Food Stamp Program provides coupons to needy families or 
individuals to increase the amount of food that can be purchased.^ An 
investigation on hunger in America, conducted by Harvard University 
School of Public Health, indicates that Alachua and Suwannee counties 
have disproportionately hi^-.h numbers of persons living in poverty who do 
not receive food stamps. The reasons for low level of participation in 
the Food Stamp Program are not known at this time, but require further 
investigation.-'' An interagency task force has been organized to assist 
with this investigation. Agencies involved include Community Action, 
Mental Health Services, Alachua County Court Services, Three Rivers Legal 
Services, Family Medical Practice, the Anthropology Department of the 
University of Florida, Catholic Charities, Older Americans Council, 
Alachua County Health Department, Job Training Partnership Act, Alachua 
County Social Services, Alachua County Extension Services, Health and 
Rehabilitative Services, Information and Referral, and the United Vay. 
In FY 1984-85, 12,567 households in the region and 50,565 individuals 
received food stamps. 

The HRS Aid to Families with Dependent Children Program (AFDC) also 
provides subsistence financial assistance to ensure basic needs are met. 
In 1985, 4,475 families in the region received direct AFDC assistance. 
Statewide, in FY 1984-85, AFDC paid a monthly average of $74.92 per 
person to 270,877 individuals who comprised 97,506 families. In FY 
1985-86, this monthly average increased to $77.02 per person for 273,462 
individuals who comprised 96,611 families. 

Job training is essential to persons who receive government assistance to 
develop self-sufficient and self-supporting behaviors. HRS employment 
and training programs help people find jobs by providing training in job 
hunting, making use of social services, and coordinating services with 
other agencies. 

The Work Incentive Demonstration Program (WIN) provides employment and 
training services to applicants and recipients of Aid to Families with 
Dependent Children (AFDC).^ Mandatory and voluntary participants in 
this program receive a variety of services which may include program 
orientation, job search assistance, support services and employment 
referral and training opportunities. WIN operates in Alachua, Columbia, 
Madison and Taylor Counties. In Fiscal Year 1985-86, 394 job placements 
were obtained through the WIN program serving these four counties. 

The Job Training Partnership Act Program (JTPA) is a federally-funded 
program channeled through the states which establishes a partnership 
between the private and public sectors to train economically disad- 



III-6-16 



r 



r 



) 



vantaged individuals or individuals who experience barriers to employ- 
ment. In this region, JTPA is administered by the North Central Florida 
Regional Planning Council. JTPA includes an Adult and Youth Program, and 
a Summer Youth Employment and Training Program. Businesses 
and organizations interested in job training programs work together to 
strike a balance between the needs of the labor market for skilled 
workers, and the needs of the unemployed for Jobs. JTPA operates in 
every county in the region. °^ 

Job Service is a federally-funded, state-administered public service 
agency that serves as a link between applicants seeking employment and 
employers seeking workers. Currently, Job Service is available in most 
counties, but does not operate in Suwannee, Hamilton and Madison Coun- 
ties. Prospective applicants, however, may receive services from nearby 
counties . 

To increase the likelihood of maintaining self-sufficiency, HRS purchases 
nonresidential day care for children of low income parents who are 
employed, in training, or who are unable to obtain private child care. 
These services are provided either in licensed day care centers or small 
family day care homes. 



Agencies: Florida Department of Agriculture, Department of Health and 
Rehabilitative Services, Department of Employment Service, Department of 
Law Enforcement, Department of Education, Community Action, Mental Health 
Services, Alachua County Court Services, Three Rivers Legal Services, 
Family Medical Practice, University of Florida Anthropology Department, 
Catholic Charities, Older Americans Council, county health departments 
JTPA, Alachua County Social Services, Alachua County Extension Services, 
Information and Referral and the United Way, Department of Agriculture 
and Consumer Service, volunteer and charitable organizations, county 
school boards, health planning councils. North Central Florida Regional 
Planning Council. 



6.6. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #25: Self-Suf f iciency , Self-Support , 
and Personal Independence 

Backgroimd Analysis: Medicaid offers many services, one of which is 
providing eligibles, or recipients, with pharmaceuticals and drugs at 
reduced prices. This benefit is especially advantageous to the elderly. 
Several factors reduce the number of Medicaid eligibles who actually 
receive medical services. These factors include physician shortages, 
limited services from rural practitioners, the lack of outreach programs, 
failure of persons potentially eligible for Medicaid to apply for 
benefits, and physicians' refusal of Medicaid patients. Medicaid 
reimbursement levels to physicians are inadequate since they are based on 
1975 health care costs. As a result, many physicians in the region do not 
accept Medicaid patients. 

The majority (635^) of Medicaid eligibles (12,962) in FY 1985-86, pur- 
chased prescribed drugs at reduced prices.^ Every Medicaid client is 



III-6-17 



eligible for $22 worth of prescribed medicine each month, and clients /^ 

with chronic diabetes or kidney disease can receive insulin and dialysis 
at reduced rates. 



Agencies: Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, 
health planning councils, North Central Florida Regional Planning 
Counci 1 . 



6.7. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #26: Community-Based Health, Social 
and Rehabilitative Services 

Background Analysis: Community Support Centers (CSCs) for chronically 
mentally ill adults are lacking in the region. CSCs provide an oppor- 
tunity for volunteer and professional case management workers to teach 
clients social and self-help skills. The facility also serves as a 
visiting center for clients and their families. 

The HRS Adult Residential and Treatment System (ARTS) Extended Care Group 
Homes serve clients unable to graduate quickly to less structured 
community programs after being discharged from the state hospital. 
Extended Care Group Homes reduce the frequency of crisis unit and 
inpatient admissions, and allow greater placement potential for clients 
discharged from the state hospital. Utilization of the present ARTS 15 
bed group home is high and there has been an extensive waiting list for 
admission. The Legislature recently approved funding for another 
Extended Care Group Home for 1987. In FY 1884-85, ARTS served 111 
persons in the region, the majority of which were residents of Alachua 
(48), Suwannee (31) and Columbia (21) Counties.''^ 

The Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services also provides 
community-based shelters for victims of spouse abuse. Statewide, from 
1979 to 1980, 4,544 persons were served by these shelters, a population 
which increased to 7,989 by 1985. Currently, numbers of abused spouses 
by county are not available. However, in the Alachua County area in 
1984-85, the Sexual and Physical Abuse Resource Center (SPARC) sheltered 
114 women and children, served 265 women out of shelter with counseling 
services, provided information and referral services for approximately 
600 persons and reached about 580 persons through 63 public presenta- 
tions. Due to the Gainesville location, SPARC, is inaccessible to 
residents of rural counties in the region. 

To serve the elderly, the HRS Geriatric Residential and Treatment System 
(CRTS) treats chronically mentally ill clients over age 55. CRTS 
provides a temporary residential facility to assist the senior client 
discharged from the intensive residential setting. 

Deinstitutionalized mentally ill clients need a full range of services to 
allow for re-entry into the community. In FY 1984-85, only five seniors 
in the region received CRTS services.'' 



III-6-18 



) 



) 



In addition to increasing mental health community-based services to the 
elderly, there is also a need to establish Consultation and 
Education/Outreach Services to the aging who may otherwise resist seeking 
traditional mental health or substance abuse services. 

Recent estimates indicate that approximately one-third of nursing home 
residents have mental illnesses which require mental health services. 
Because such services are not provided, many individuals deteriorate 
physically and mentally to the point of needing lengthy and costly 
hospitalization.^ 

The Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Aging and Adult 
Services programs are community-based and serve indigent elderly through 
the following programs. 

Home Care for the Elderly provides cost-effective care to the elderly in 
the comfort of the home. The HRS program targets persons age 65+ who are 
homebound, functionally impaired, live with a care giver and receive 
economic public assistance, such as Social Security Insurance. 

Community Care for Elderly (CCE) provides long-term care to optimize the 
functioning of the elderly in all aspects of life. CCE serves persons 
age 60+ by preventing premature or unwanted institutionalization. Fees 
are collected on a sliding scale, and Social Security and Medicaid 
recipients are not charged. CCE recipients get preventive, maintenance 
and restorative services such as medical transportation, homemaking and 
home health aide.'' 

The Older Americans Act provides supportive services (Title III B), 
congregate (Title III C-1) and home delivered (III C-2) meals. 

Approximately 21.0 percent (9,569) of the region's 60+ population 
(4-5,471) were served in FY 1985 by one of the three above described 
prograjns for the elderly. Home Care for the Elderly operates in nine out 
of eleven counties, excluding Madison and Taylor. Community Care for the 
Elderly and Title III B operate in each county. Title III C-1 and Title 
C-2, the meal programs, are provided in few counties, excluding Dixie, 
Gilchrist, Lafayette, Suwannee and Union. '^® 



Agencies: Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, area 
agencies on aging, older americans councils. North Central Florida 
Regional Planning Council. 



6.8. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #27: Reducing the Occurrence of 
Juvenile Delinquency 

Background Analysis: Under Florida law children through age 17 charged 
with crimes are handled through the juvenile justice system rather than 
through the adult court system.'''^ The Florida Department of Health and 
Rehabilitative Services provides to juveniles, directly or through 
contracted vendors, a range of community-based non-residential and 



III-6-19 



residential programs. The programs are characterized by varying degrees f^ 
of restr ictivenesti , which refers to "constraints placed upon the liberty ^ 
of participants." Generally speaking the community-based residential 
programs are more restrictive than the non-residential programs. 

Children enter the HRS delinquency programs through the Dependency 
Delinquency Intake Program upon referral from law enforcement agencies. 
While awaiting resolution of the charges the child may be released to the 
parents or guardian, or detained in non-secure or secure detention. 
After investigating the charge(s). Intake makes a recommendation to the 
State Attorney that the case be handled judicially or non- j udicial ly . 
More serious or repeat cases are more likely to be handled judicially 
through the juvenile courts. 

Non-residential delinquency programs include Community Control, Juvenile 
Alternative Services Program (JASP), Intensive Counselling, the Florida 
Marine Institute, and TRY Centers. Residential delinquency programs are 
Family Group Homes, STEP, STOP Camps, Youth Homes of Florida, Group 
Treatment Homes, Halfway Houses, Start Centers, STAY Centers, Broward 
Control Treatment Center, Biscayne Bay Marine Institute, and the Training 
Schools at Marianna and Okeechobee. 

The region has access to the statewide comprehensive range of juvenile 
delinquency programs with the exception of TRY Centers and the non- 
residential Marine Institute. Non-residential delinquency programs 
providing services to each county include intake, non-secure detention, 
community control, and Juvenile Alternative Services Prograjn. In ' 

addition the Intensive Counseling Program is available in Alachua County, 
serving approximately 24- juveniles per year. 

There are four different types of residential programs located within 
the region. These include four family group homes, serving approximately 
four to eight juveniles per year; the 48-bed Regional Juvenile Detention 
Center in Gainesville, serving juveniles awaiting judicial dispositions; 
a 20 bed halfway house for girls, also in Gainesville; and the Alligator 
Creek Stop Camp in Bradford serving about 120 boys each year. 

Approximately 84.4 percent of the Florida juvenile delinquent commitment 
population is male and 54.0 percent is white. Property related felony 
offenses account for 75.5 percent of the commitments. 

The number of juvenile felony and misdemeanor referrals, proportionate to 
population, is lower in the region than statewide. The number of juvenile 
delinquents committed to training schools and STOP camps is decreasing. 
Community control prograjns for juveniles are expanding, which reduces the 
number committed to more restrictive HRS programs. Programs are available 
in the region at every level of the service continuum for juvenile 
delinquents. Due to the expansion of community prevention programs, a 
decreasing number of juvenile delinquents in the region are committed to 
training schools and other residential programs. The number of juvenile 
delinquents under community control in the region is approximately 5-5 
times greater than the number of delinquents committed to an HRS r^ 

program . ° 



III-6-20 



In FY 1984-85, there were 1,065 felony referrals and 1,026 misdemeanor 
referrals to HRS Children, Youth and Families (CYF). This referral rate 
was slightly lower than the rate statewide. Referrals count the services 
one individual receives from CYF. HRS will soon make available an 
unduplicated count of the number of juveniles who received CYF 

op 

services . 



Regionally Significant Resources: Alachua Detention Center, STOP Camp, 
Halfway House. 



Agencies: Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, 
Department of Education, Department of Law Enforcement, county school 
boards, Executive Office of the Governor, North Central Florida Regional 
Planning Council. 



6.9. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #28: Access to Health Services. 

Background Analysis: Based on federal standards, there are an 
insufficient number of medical doctors and dentists in the region. At 
least 8 out of 11 counties are federally-designated Medically Underserved 
Areas. Each county of the region has a greater number of families who 
live below the poverty level than the state average, which reduces 
financial access to health care. Many physicians in the region are not 
willing to accept Medicaid patients. Several needy rural counties in the 
region are not served by the federally-funded Rural Health Initiative 
Program. Lack of public transportation often prevents access to health 
care. The region's high infant mortality rate indicates a need to 
increase prenatal, maternal and infant preventive health services. The 
region also has a high incidence of low birth weight babies, and births 
to teenage mothers. The incidence of infant mortality, births to 
teenagers and low birth weight babies is substantially greater for black 
women in the region than in the state. These data demonstrate a need to 
increase access to prenatal and perinatal care throughout the region. 

Access to primary care is a problem in the region. From 1980 to 1985, 
Columbia, Dixie, Gilchrist, Lafayette, Madison, Suwannee and Union Coun- 
ties were designated by federal standards as Health Shortage Manpower 
Areas. Bradford and Hamilton Counties also had physician shortages prior 
to 1980, so the situation has recently improved. Access to health care 
is often measured by the numbers and distribution of resident personnel 
who diagnose and treat the most common illnesses or conditions. 
Lafayette County did not have a resident physician in 1983, and Dixie and 
Gilchrist Counties each had only one. A ratio of one physician to every 
2,500 to 3,000 persons is usually considered an adequate ratio. This 
standard is used by the federal government to identify health shortage 
manpower areas (HSMAs).®-^ 

The National Health Service Corps (NHSC) is a federally-funded program 
which underwrites scholarships for students in the health professions in 
return for service in identified HSMA . By law, NHSC personnel must 



III-6-21 



r 



charge fees to those able to pay in order to recover reasonable costs; 
however, no patient can be refused service because of inability to pay. 
Nationwide, the retention rate of NHSC personnel in assigned communities 
is about 20.0 percent. '^^ 

Columbia, Dixie, Gilchrist, Hamilton, Lafayette and Madison Counties have 
been federally-designated dental HSMA ' s since 1980. Dental HMSAs , 
measured by the population-to-dentist ratio, are another measure of 
manpower resources used to access primary care availability.^ 

Eight out of eleven counties in the region are Medically Underserved 
Areas (MUAs). Data are unavailable for Madison and Taylor Counties.® A 
MUA is based on four factors: infant mortality rate; ratio of primary 
care physicians-to-population ; population of elderly; and population 
below poverty. Federally-designated MUAs are eligible to receive rural 
health initiative grants and other federal funds to provide access to 
primary care services. 

The entire region has a greater number of families living below the 

poverty level than the state average (9.95^). The range extends from 13.4 

percent (Union County) to 26.4 percent (Suwannee County). Financial 

access to health care is a problem in the region. Many primary care 

physicians have not been willing to accept new Medicaid patients, due to 

delays in reimbursement, and unacceptable reimbursement levels which are 

based on 1975 health care costs. Also, many Medicaid clients are unable 

to access medical services because of physician shortages and limited ^ 

services from rural practitioners. ' Lack of personal and public \ 

transportation to access medical services is also a problem in the 

region . 

Q0 
The majority of counties, such as Bradford, Hamilton, Suwannee, Union, ^" 

Madison and Taylor, ^^ are not served by the Rural Health Initiative 

Program (RHI). The Department of Health and Human Services ( DHHS ) 

provides funds for RHI community health centers in Medically Underserved 

Areas. RHI clinics are usually non-profit, private corporations run by 

local community boards and managed in accordance with federal guidelines. 

DHHS requires RHI clinics to provide certain core services including 

well-baby care, immunizations, family planning, and dental services. 

County health units (formerly called county health departments) are 
located in each county to provide minimum primary care services such as 
blood pressure monitoring, immunization, nutrition counseling and 
epidemiology . '^ 

The infant mortality rate in the region is higher than the state average 
(12.0 per 1,000) in 8 out of 11 counties. Infant mortality ranges from 
18.02 deaths per 1,000 in Madison County to 12.83 in Columbia County.^' 
Furthermore, by federal guidelines, Colombia has been designated a High 
Infant Mortality Area. Infant mortality among blacks is substantially 
greater in the region than statewide. The infant mortality rate among 
blacks is 2-2.7 times greater among blacks in 6 out of 11 counties. The 
Significantly high infant mortality rate demonstrates a need to increase 
access to prenatal and perinatal health care services to women and 
infants . ^* 

III-6-22 



C 



The incidence of low birth weight babies (under 5-5 pounds) is higher 
than the state average (74.90 per 1000) in five counties. The high rates 
of low birth weight babies range from 100.10 per 1000 (Gilchrist) to 
77.25 per 1000 (Suwannee). Low birth weight accounts for 65.0 percent of 
all neonatal deaths. Furthermore, 25.0 percent of the low birth weight 
population will have some kind of handicap or long-term disability. Low 
birth weight babies are often at high risk for abuse because their 
special needs take a great ajnount of parent's time and financial resour- 
ces. Low birth weight can be significantly reduced if high-risk women 
are identified, educated, frequently monitored by maternal health care 
professionals and if access to health care is available around the clock. 
The cost of caring for one low birth weight baby is $15,000 but the cost 

of preventative prenatal care is $300 (see Regional Issues 2.1 and 
6.1). 95 

The region has a high rate of births to teenagers. Teenage pregnancies 
often result in low birth weight babies which increases the probability 
of the development of chronic health problems and child abuse or neglect. 
Teenage parents frequently drop out of school and marriages often ^nd in 
divorce, which often leads to long-term social dependency. Nine out of 
eleven counties have rates of births to women less than 19 years old 
higher than the state average {^^%). The high rates range from 18.6 
percent (Hamilton County) to 12.6 percent in Lafayette County. In 9 out 
of 11 counties, births to black teenagers occur at a higher rate higher 
than statewide (19-65^). For example, high rates of births to black women 
under 19 years of age range from 20.9 percent (Bradford County) to 28.4 
percent (Dixie County). The incidence of births to black teenagers is 
2.29 times greater than births to white teenagers statewide, but in five 
counties of the region, the gap is wider. Births to black teenagers in 
Alachua County (19-25^) is three times as high as the rate for whites 
(5.85t). 

The Regional Perinatal Intensive Care Program lacks resources to document 
the growing demand for services and the need to expand facilities and 
increase program funding."" The lack of transportation in rural counties 
can prevent residents from receiving needed maternal and infant care. 
Space constraints and lack of beds for neonatal and obstetrical care 
sometimes result in the referral of patients to other locations. Current- 
ly the prograjn serves women at high-risk for obstetrical care and low 
birth weight infants in need of intensive care. In FY 1984-85, 102 women 
in the region were served by the high-risk obstetrical component, and 292 
infants were served by the neonatal component. 9' 

The Florida Regional Perinatal Intensive Care Program also provides 
genetic counseling for parents, automatic eligibility of newborns for 
Medicaid when the mother is eligible, increased prenatal care for high- 
risk women and sex education in the schools. 9® The HRS operated 
Regional Perinatal Program is also producing public awareness campaigns 
for the prevention of handicapped children and developing teaching 
materials for the schools. ^^ 

Current estimates indicate the Improved Pregnancy Outcome project (IPO) 
does not serve 32.0 percent of the indigent population.^®® There is a 
need to expand IPO services to each county. ^®^ IPO is an HRS program 

III-6-23 



which provides prenatal and perinatal care to low-income women with low- 
risk pregnancies. Women receive care in hospitals and county health 
units. In FY 1985-84, 1,469 women in the region received services from 
the IPO program as well as 29,716 women statewide. 

The Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services also hosts a 
nutrition prograjn. Women, Infants and Children (WIC), to provide pregnant 
or nursing mothers with supplemental food and nutrition education. The 
program goal is to avoid nutrition-related health problems during 
critical periods of growth and improve overall health by providing food 
to women and their children until age 5. Statewide, WIC served 94,000 
low income, high risk pregnant women, infants and children in 1 985 . ^ 
The WIC program served a total of 5,039 women, infants and children in 
the region in the latest six month service contract. ''' 



Regionally Significant Resources: Regional Perinatal Intensive Care 
Program . 



Agencies: Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, 
North Central Florida Health Planning Council, county school boards, 
ACCEPT, Regional Perinatal Intensive Care Center, Shands Teaching 
Hospital, Florida Center for Children and Youth. 



6.10. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #29: Comprehensive Health Care 
Service Delivery System 

Background Analysis: High rates of poverty in the region reduce the 
chance that such populations will receive comprehensive health care. 
Many physicians in the region are not willing to accept Medicaid 
patients, which is essential to the provision of comprehensive health 
care. Several needy rural counties in the region are not served by the 
federally funded Rural Health Initiative Program which serves Medically 
Underserved Areas. A comprehensive health care delivery system is 
restricted by the lack of public transportation in rural areas. The 
region's high infant mortality rate, and high rate of low birth weight 
babies and births to teenage mothers, indicates a need to increase 
preventive maternal and infant care health services. Furthermore, the 
incidence of infant mortality, births to teenagers and low birth weight 
babies is substantially greater for black women in the region compared to 
the same rate statewide. These data demonstrate a need to develop a 
comprehensive prenatal and perinatal care health care system throughout 
the region targeted for high-risk populations. 

The entire region has a greater average number of families living below 
the poverty level than the state average. The range extends from 15.4 
percent (Union County) to 26.4 percent (Suwannee County) of families in 
poverty, compared to 9.9 percent, which is the state average. '' 
Therefore, financial access to health care is a problem in the region. 

Many Medicaid clients are unable to access medical services because of 
health manpower shortages, and limited services from rural practi- 
tioners. Many primary care physicians have not been willing to accept 

III-6-24 



r 



^ 



) 



) 



new Medicaid patients, primarily due to inadequate financial reimburse- 
ment levels which are based on health care costs from 1975. 

A recent statewide survey indicates that 75.0 percent of the medically 
needy population are children under 21 years of age. Currently, 
statewide, 58.0 percent of Medicaid eligibles (recipients) are 
children. ^^' Statistics describing medically indigent children in the 
region are not available. However, statistics from the HRS Medicaid 
program office indicate that proportionately, there are about three times 
as many juvenile Medicaid recipients in the region than statewide. In 
a typical month in 1985 (November), proportionately, almost twice as many 
adults (age 18-85) in the region (12,913 persons or 5 . 1 5^ ) received 
Medicaid as statewide (587,506 or 2.95^). 

Numerous counties, such as Bradford, Hajnilton, Suwannee, Union, and 
Taylor, are not served by the Rural Health Initiative Program (RHI). ^ 
Suwannee County, however, will have access to the Madison County RHI 
Tri-County Community Center in October, 1986.^ The Department of 
Health and Human Services (HHS) provides funds for community health 
centers in medically underserved areas. RHI clinics are usually non- 
profit, private corporations run by local community boards and managed in 
accordance with federal guidelines. HHS requires RHI clinics to provide 
certain core services including well-baby care, immunizations, family 
planning, and dental services. 

County health units (formerly called county health departments), located 
in each county, provide primary care such as blood pressure monitoring, 
immunization, nutrition counseling, family planning, prenatal care, 
pediatric follow-up and epidemiology. 

Lack of personal and public transportation to health care services is 
also a problem in many counties in the region. The growing elderly 
population is especially in need of a comprehensive medical transporta- 
tion network. 

The infant mortality rate in the region is higher than the state average 

(12.0 per 1,000) in eight out of eleven counties. Infant mortality 

ranges from 18.02 deaths per 1,000 in Madison County to 12.85 in Columbia 

11? 
County. '^ Furthermore, by federal guidelines, Colombia has been 

designated a High Infant Mortality Area. Infant mortality among blacks 
is substantially greater in the region than statewide. The infant 
mortality rate among blacks is 2-2.7 times greater among blacks in 6 out 
of 11 counties. The significantly high infant mortality rate demon- 
strates a need to increase access to prenatal and perinatal health care 
services to women and infants. -^ 

The incidence of low birth weight babies (under 5.5 pounds) is higher 
than the state average (74.90 per 1000) in five counties . The high 
rates of low birth weight babies range from 100.10 per 1000 (Gilchrist) 
to 77.25 per 1000 (Suwannee). Low birth weight accounts for 65.0 
percent of all neonatal deaths. Furthermore, 25.0 percent of the low 
birth weight population will have some kind of handicap or long-term 
disability. Low birth weight babies are often at high risk for abuse 
because their special needs take a great amount of parent's time and 

III-6-25 



r 



financial resources. The incidence of low birth weight can be sig- 
nificantly reduced if high-risk women are identified, educated, 
frequently monitored by maternal health care professionals and if access 
to health care is available around the clock. The cost of caring for one 
low birth weight baby is $15,000 but the cost of preventive prenatal care 
is $500. ^ ^^ 

The region has a high rate of births to teenagers. Teenage pregnancies 
often result in low birth weight babies which increase the probability of 
the occurrence of chronic health problems and child abuse or neglect. 
Teenage parents frequently drop out of school and their marriages often 
end in divorce, which frequently leads to long-term social dependency. 
Nine out of 11 counties have rates of births to women less than 19 years 
higher than the state average (115^). The high rates range from 18.6 
percent (Hamilton County) to 12.6 percent in Lafayette County. In 9 out 
of 11 counties, births to black teenagers occur at a higher rate higher 
than statewide (19.65^). For example, Bradford has 20.9 percent and Dixie 
County has 28.4- percent rate of births to black women under 19 years of 
age. The incidence of births to black teenagers is 2.29 times greater 
than births to white teenagers statewide, but in five counties the gap is 
wider. Births to black teenagers in Alachua County (19.25^) is three 
times as high as the rate for whites (5.8^). 

The Regional Perinatal Intensive Care Program (Shands Teaching Hospital, 
Gainesville) lacks resources to document the need to expand their 

facility. Space constraints for neonatal and obstetrical care sometimes ^ 
result in the referral of patients to other locations. -^ Lack of y 

transportation in rural counties can prevent residents from accessing 
needed maternal and infant care. Currently, the program serves women at 
high-risk for obstetrical care and infants in need of intensive care. In 
FY 1984-85, 102 women in the region were served by the high-risk obstet- 
rical component, and 292 infants were served by the neonatal com- 
ponent. '' ^ ^ 

Current estimates indicate the Improved Pregnancy Outcome (IPO) program 

1 1 7 
does not serve 52.0 percent of the indigent population. There is a 

118 

need to increase IPO services to each county in the region. IPO, an 
HRS program, provides prenatal and perinatal care to low-income women 
with low-risk pregnancies in hospitals and county health units. In FY 
1985-84, 1,469 women in the region received services from the IPO program 
as well as 29,716 women statewide. ^^ 

The HRS nutrition program, Women, Infants and Children (WIC), does not 
serve 57.0 percent of the indigent population. WIC is a supplemental 
food program which provides pregnant or nursing mothers with nutrition 
education. The goal is to avoid nutrition-related health problems during 
critical periods of growth and improve overall health by providing food 
to women and their children until age 5. WIC served approximately 4,557 
women, infants and children in the region in the latest six month service 
contract . ^ ^® 

Florida's infants are screened at county health units for conditions ^ 

which can threaten normal development. In 1984, 255,000 screenings were ^^ 
conducted in Florida, a factor which contributed, in part, to the 

III-6-26 



reduction of statewide infant mortality rate from 17.7 per 1,000 live 
births to 10.9 in 1984.^^^ In 1984, 5,583 infants were screened in the 
region, in 6 different counties. No infant screening services are 
available in the remaining five counties. 

The Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT) Program 
increases access to health care for Medicaid recipients under age 21 . 
Health care costs are also minimized by diagnosing problems early. 
Screening is done at county health units for general health, nutrition, 
development, vision, hearing and dental problems. '^'^ In FY 1984-85, 
EPSDT screened 14,961 children or 18.0 percent of the region's juvenile 
population . ^ 

Another HRS preventive effort is the monitoring of children's hearing, 

vision, growth and development in the public schools. In FY 1983-84, 

18,105 (215^) children in the region were tested for vision acuity, 13,998 

(175^) children were tested for hearing, and 15,065 (18^) children were 

monitored for growth and development. Age groups differ for each 
test. 125 

Florida's immunization program administered 950,000 vaccines against 
diseases such as mumps, measles and rubella in 1985, a 3.5 percent 
increase since 1984. HRS reports that 75,062 immunizations were given to 
children in the region in FY 1984-85 (89%).'^^^ 



Regionally Significant Resources: Regional Perinatal Intensive Care 
Program. 



Agencies: Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, 
county health units. Regional Perinatal Intensive Care Program, U.S. 
Department of Health and Human Services, Rural Health Initiative Clinics, 
county school boards. Districts 2 and 3 Health Planning Councils. 



6.11. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #30: Environmental Health Care 
Protection 

Background Analysis: The State of Florida is in the process of providing 
environmental health care protection by legislating stringent regulations 
which will prevent residents from exposure to environmental toxins and 
hazardous wastes. During recent Spring Cleaning Days in Alachua County, 
citizens and small businesses produced 100,000 pounds of hazardous 
wastes, which indicates the need for regulating the disposal of such 
waste. County governments and regional planning councils are conducting 
hazardous waste management assessments to identify hazardous waste 
generators and disposal methods. The Florida Department of Environmental 
Regulation ( DER ) is offering seed grants to counties to start construc- 
tion of hazardous waste transfer /temporary storage facilities. The grant 

is intended to work as an incentive to counties to start the construction 
of these facilities. However, at this time (May, 1986) no counties have 
accepted the $50,000 offer. 

III-6-27 



The region has approximately 1,000 businesses which produce small ^ 

quantities (less than 2 ,2<}i<i) lbs per month) of hazardous waste and 55 V 

companies which generate large quantities. Each county is required by 
Section 405.7225, F.S., (Water Quality Act) to designate within the 
county areas where a hazardous waste transfer /temporary storage facility 
may be located. This facility would be a staging area for the transfer 
and temporary storage (under 90 days) of hazardous wastes. Counties are 
required to hold at least two public hearings to allow public comment on 
the areas under consideration. 

The Water Quality Assurance Act of 1985 also requires each regional 
planning council to designate one or more sites in the region where 
hazardous waste storage or treatment facilities could be located. A 
storage facility is a warehouse-type operation where contained wastes are 
held for short periods of time, usually less than 90 days. A treatment 
facility processes hazardous wastes to reduce the volume, render wastes 
non-hazardous or stabilize waste for safe management. 

The regional hazardous waste storage/treatment facility site selection 
process will use a systematic method similar to the county selection 
process to determine the optimum site in the region. The designated site 
must be socially acceptable, environmentally licensable, and located in 
an economically feasible site within the region. 



State permits are required for the construction, operation, and closure 
of hazardous waste storage facilities and DER has adopted U.S. Environ- 
mental Protection Agency standards for these facilities. Standards 
require a primary containment device designed to prevent leakage and 
overflow while wastes are in storage facilities. Also required is an 
inspection program to monitor deterioration in the primary containment 
system, so that repairs can be made or leaks detected before they result 
in significant contamination of soil, groundwater and surface water. 

The hazardous waste transfer /temporary storage selection is regulated by 
DER guidelines. The recommended sites are discussed at public hearings, 
held at two County Commission hearings. The county designation of 
hazardous waste transfer /storage facility occurs at the conclusion of the 
second hearing. 

Hazardous waste will be collected from transfer /temporary storage 
facilities and transported out of the state. Although landfill disposal 
of hazardous waste is illegal in Florida, many states have recently 
indicated that they will not accept hazardous waste from out-of-state on 
a permanent basis. Consequently, Florida may be forced to develop a plan 
to dispose of hazardous waste within the state in the near future. 

Currently, four hazardous waste disposal operations serve the region. 
Amnesty Days (one-time event) and Spring Cleaning Days (annual in Alachua 
County), provide for the collection of hazardous wastes and out-of-state 

disposal. The other two operations primarily involve the recycling of 

127 

used motor oil, lead-acid batteries and cleaning solvents. 



r 



III-6-28 



Agencies: Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, Department of 
Health and Rehabilitative Services, local governments, U.S. Environmental 
Protection Agency, North Central Florida Regional Planning Council. 



6.12. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #51: Health Education, Training and 
Research 

Background Analysis: The area agencies on aging provides geriatric 
health services which promote health care and self-sufficiency. State- 
funded Title III C-1 services often implement health awareness and 
promotional activities at elderly congregate meal sites. Health care 
programs include monthly blood pressure checks with related diet informa- 
tion, colon and rectal cancer screening tests, hearing tests, cancer risk 
reduction information, care of the heart, and vision screening. Title 
III and Community Care for the Elderly (CCE) programs also teach or- 

1 ?R 

ganized medicine-taking procedures. 

Home Care for the Elderly provides cost-effective care for the elderly in 
the comfort of the home. The HRS program targets persons age 65+ who are 
homebound, functionally impaired, live with a care giver and receive 
economic public assistance such as Social Security Insurance. -^ 

Community Care for the Elderly (CCE) provides long-term care to optimize 
the functioning of the elderly (60+ years) in all aspects of life. CCE 
prevents premature or unwanted institutionalization by providing support 
services such as home delivered meals, personal care and medical trans- 
portation. Fees are collected on a sliding scale, depending on income. 
Those elderly receiving Social Security or Medicaid are not charged. -^ 

The Older Americans Act provides three types of services. Title III-B 
offers services such as companionship, education, health support, 
homemaker, legal services and transportation. The Title III-C1 program 
provides congregate meals and nutrition education to senior participants. 
Home delivered meals and outreach services are provided by the Title III 
C-2 program. ' '^ 

In FY 1984--85, approximately 21.0 percent (9,369) of the region's senior 
(60+ years) population (45,471) were served by one of the three com- 
munity-based programs.^ Home Care for the Elderly operates in nine 
counties, excluding Madison and Taylor. Community Care for the Elderly 
and Title III-B operate in each county of the region. Title III C-1 and 
Title C-2, the meal programs, however, do not operate in Dixie, 
Gilchrist, Lafayette, Suwannee or Union Counties. 

Several research and education programs in the region specialize in 
age-related diseases. The University of Florida's Health Science Center 
and Veteran's Administration Medical Center specializes in research of 
numerous diseases which affect the elderly and also provides gerontology 
education for physicians and nurses. 

The Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center (Gainesville) is 
one of two centers in the Southeast which specializes in treatment of 



III-6-29 



elderly patients and research of age-related health problems. The center 
receives about $2 million in funding annually from the Veteran's Ad- 
ministration. The Center teaches students, nurses and medical 
practitioners innovative approaches to elderly treatment and rehabilita- 
tion. The Center also specializes in geropharmacology , to 
improve use of medicines in the treatment of diseases in the elderly. 
The Geriatric Medicine Academic Award from the National Institute on 
Aging is funding curriculum revision at the University of Florida College 
of Medicine to give greater attention to geriatric medicine. ^^ 

Fellowship training in geriatrics is offered to physicians through a 
VA-funded program in conjunction with the University of Florida College 
of Medicine. To date (spring 1986), a total of 7 physicians have 
completed the training. The Robert Vood Johnson Foundation supported 
project to educate persons providing at-home care for elderly relatives 
who have Alzheimers disease. The prograjn aimed to minimize caretaker's 
stress to improve the ability to cope with caretaking and consequently 
delay institutionalization. Although this research has been phased out, 
a 4-year follow-up program is currently in progress.^ Also, Alzheimers 
support groups in the region teach coping skills to families to minimize 
the impact of Alzheimers. 

The University of Florida's College of Nursing has initiated a graduate 
program in gerontology nursing to increase Florida's supply of nurse 
specialists to care for elderly patients and to expand efforts to keep 
senior citizens healthy. Approximately ten nurses have completed the 
program, which is the only gerontology nursing program in the State of 
Florida. 

The Climacteric Center (Gainesville) researches and provides educational 
programs to help women minimize or prevent health problems associated 
with aging, such as osteoporosis. 



Regionally Significant Resources: The University of Florida College of 
Medicine, University of Florida Health Science Center, University of 
Florida College of Nursing, Veteran's Administration Medical Center, 
Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, Climacteric Center. 

Agencies: Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, 
Department of Education, Executive Office of the Governor, North Central 
Florida Regional Planning Council, health planning councils. 



6.15. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #32: Health Care Cost Containment 

Background Analysis: Consumers and purchasers of health care have 
identified escalating costs as a major problem of the 1980s. The 
Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services purchases millions of 
dollars of health services in the region, and more than $2 billion 
statewide. Medicaid purchases approximately one-half of HRS health 
services provided to clients. Future budget cuts for such services, and 
the need for the state to provide more health services to the medically 
indigent population, requires that health care costs be minimized. 

III-6-30 



r 



Alternative health care systems which emphasize health prevention can 
reduce costs. Most of these plans have fixed per person rates. If 
providers can keep clients healthy and prevent use of intensive and 
expensive medical treatment, then a profit may be realized. Examples of 
alternative health delivery systems or reimbursement methods which 
promote health care cost containment include health maintenance organiza- 
tions and preferred provider organizations. '^'^ 

Health maintenance organizations (HMOs) provide and pay for comprehensive 
health benefits. HMOs are paid at a fixed, per person rate and there- 
fore, benefits are realized by keeping the clientele healthy. Currently 
there are 5 HMOs in the region, and approximately 43 statewide.^ 

Funded by a grant from the federal government to develop alternatives to 
cost-effective health care delivery, Medicaid has negotiated HMO con- 
tracts in some parts of the state. The Medicaid Program Office Alterna- 
tive Health Plan Program is to enroll 500,000 Medicaid eligible recipi- 
ents in prepaid health plans within the next five years, for an estimated 
savings of over $26.8 million. ^^"^ 

Preferred Provider Organizations (PPOs) are an important alternative 
health delivery system available to health care purchasers. In the PPO 
system, the patient selects a primary care physician from a list of 
preferred providers who have contracted to provide services at a reduced 
rate. The current number of PPOs in the region and state are unavailable 
at this time. 

Competition in the health care market and consumers' knowledgeabi 1 ity of 
health care costs are also methods which can be used to contain such 
costs . 

The Maternal and Child Health Program calculated the savings from 
providing comprehensive preventive prenatal health care to all pregnant 
women in the state who live at or below 150 percent of the poverty level. 
The estimates showed that $25.8 million dollars could be saved every year 
with comprehensive prenatal health care.^' 

The HRS Improved Pregnancy Outcome (IPO) Program provides prenatal care 
to low-income women with low-risk pregnancies for approximately $340. 
However, current estimates indicate that IPO does not serve 32.0 percent 
of the indigent population. Also, there is a need to expand IPO services 
to each county of the region. ^^^ In FY 1983-84, 1,469 women in the 
region received IPO services as well as 29,716 statewide . ^ ^^ 

The Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT) 
Program, which serves children who receive Medicaid, identifies potential 
problems early on to prevent the use of more intensive and costly medical 
treatment. In FY 1984-85, EPSDT screened 14,961 children in the region 
and 101,692 statewide .'' ^^ 

Agencies: Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Task 
Force on Competition and Consumer Choices in Health Care, county health 
units. 



III-6-31 



6.14. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #33: Maximizing the Use of Existing 
Public Facilities 

Background Analysis: Unlike the Sunlands located in Tallahassee and 
Orlando, no plans exist to close the Gainesville Sunland (Alachua 
County). Vacant Sunland units cannot be anticipated in Alachua County 
for the next 15-20 years. ^^ Furthermore, there are no plans to dein- 
stitutionalize other state facilities in the region. 

The Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Children, Youth and 
Families Program Office has expressed interest in using the vacant 
building across from the Gainesville Regional Airport as a residential 
facility for juvenile sex offenders. These children are hard to find 
placements for since their offender status makes them inappropriate for 
placement with younger or more vulnerable children. ''^■^ A residential 
program for the treatment of juvenile perpetrators of sexual offenses 
(committed or non-committed) is a high priority need in the region. 

All hospitals licensed under Florida law are required to provide the 
following services: physician and nursing, pharmacy, diagnostic radiol- 
ogy, clinical laboratory, food and other services which support the 
operation of the hospital and patient needs. Some hospitals in the 
region have unoccupied beds. In order to maximize the use of these 
facilities it has been suggested that the beds be used for step-down care 
which requires a lower level of medical service, fewer support services 
and staff. Hospitals are reticent to make step-down care beds available 
because it changes their license status. Recently, however, HRS has been 
looking into the possibility of establishing rules that would allow 
hospitals to make available step-down care beds without altering the 
status of the hospital license. 



Regionally Significant Resources: Alachua Juvenile Detention Center 
(currently vacant). 



Agencies: Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services 



Endnotes : 

1. C. Arden Miller, "Infant Mortality in the U.S.," Scientific 
American . July, 1985, Volume 253, Number 1, (July 1985)- 



2. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Children's 
Medical Services, Tallahassee. Telephone interview with Mr. Kern 
Jackson and Mr. Robert Sloyer, April, 1986. 



Alachua County Health Unit. Data furnished by Mr. Thomas Belcoure 
and Roger McCullum, September, 1986. 



c 



c 



III-6-32 



4. Florida Department of Health an Rehabilitative Services, Toward a 
Healthier Florida 1975-1985 . (Tallahassee, Florida: 1985). 



5. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services. Data 
furnished by EPSDT staff. Tallahassee, Florida, December, 1985. 



6. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services. Data 
provided by HRS staff. Tallahassee, Florida, December 1985. 



7. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Toward a 
Healthier Florida 1975-1985 . (Tallahassee, Florida: 1985) 



Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Children's 
Medical Services. Data furnished by Ms. Mittee Moffett, RN , ,. 
December , 1 985 . 



North Central Florida Health Planning Council and Florida Department 
of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Office of Vital Statistics, 
Vital Statistics . 1980-1984. The infant mortality rates were 
calculated from a 5-year period to statistically compensate for the 
small populations of some counties. 



10. The St. Paul Infant Care Project, Adolescent Health Services 

Project. Telephone interview with Ms. Ann Ricketts, September, 
1985. 



11. The Florida Center for Children and Youth, Newsline . (Tallahassee, 
Florida: June - July 1985.) 



12. Developmental Disabilities Planning Council, Florida's Children : 
Their Future is in Our Hands . (Tallahassee, Florida: 1985). 



13. Regional Perinatal Intensive Care Program. Interview with head 

pediatrician Dr. Bucciarelli. Gainesville, Florida, August, 1986. 



14. In FY 1984-85, the high-risk obstetrical component served 5,967 

statewide and the neonatal component served 6,017 infants statewide 
Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Florida 
Perinatal Intensive Care Program. Telephone conversation with Ms. 
Janet Evans, November, 1985. 



III-6-33 



15. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Improved 
Pregnancy Outcome, Needs Summary 1986-1987. 



16. Residents of Taylor County must travel to Madison County to receive 
IPO services. Myrna Archer, Taylor County Health Unit, September, 
1986. 



17. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Maternal 

and Child Health. Data furnished by Francis Storey, November, 1985 



18. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Vomen, 

Infants and Children Program Office. Data furnished by Ann Load, 
April, 1986. 



19. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Children ' s 
Medical Services . (Tallahassee, Florida: 1985). 



20. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Children's 
Medical Services Program Data Division. Telephone communication with 
Mr. Kern Jackson. Tallahassee, Florida, November, 1985. 



21. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Chi Idren ' s 
Medical Services , public information brochure, 1985. 



22. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services 

Developmental Services. Telephone interview with Becky McQueen, 
Epilepsy Services, January, 1986. 



25. Recent estimates indicate that about two percent of about 944 of the 
juvenile population has a problem with substance abuse. 



24. District III Mental Health Planning Council, 1983-1987 District Plan 
for Alcohol. Drug Abuse and Mental Health Services . (Gainesville, 
Florida: 1985). 



25. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Children, 
Youth and Families Program Office. Interview with Ms. Amanda Gray 
March, 1986, Gainesville, Florida. 



26. The Corner Drugstore. Telephone interview with Ms. Karen Leathers, 
April, 1986. 



III-6-34 



r 



r 



c 



27. Ibid 



28. Ibid. 



29. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Children, 
Youth and Families Program Office. Data provided by Mr. Jim Pearce 
and Ms. Amanda Gray. Gainesville, Florida, April, 1986. 



50. Ibid. 



31. In the Home Visitors program, HRS staff visit the homes of families 
at risk for child abuse and neglect to monitor parent's behavior and 
growth. Telephone interview with Ms. Karen Leathers, The Corner 
Drugstore, Gainesville, Florida, April, 1986. 



32. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Children, 
Youth and Families Program Office. Telephone interview with Ms. 
Amanda Gray, April, 1986. 



33. District III Mental Health Planning Council, 1983-87 District Plan 
for Alcohol. Drug Abuse and Mental Health Services . The outpatient 
programs exhibit a great disparity between population demand and 
funding resource capability. Estimates indicate that less than one 
percent of children's need for outpatient services is being met. In 
FY 1984-85, the North Florida Mental Health Center provided 
outpatient services to 100 children in Hamilton, Columbia, Suwannee 
and Lafayette Counties. The Bradford-Union Guidance Clinic served 
15, and the Apalachee Community Mental Health satellite clinics 
served approximately 53 children from Madison and Taylor Counties on 
an outpatient basis. Mental Health Services of North Central 
Florida provided outpatient counseling to 435 children from Alachua, 
Levy (outside of the region), Dixie and Gilchrist Counties. 



34. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Children, 

Youth and Families Program Office. Data furnished by Mr. Jim Pearce 
and Ms. Amanda Gray, Gainesville, Florida, April, 1986. District II 
Mental Health Planning Council, 1983-87 District Plan for Alcohol. 
Drug Abuse and Mental Health Services . (Gainesville, Florida). 



35. Ibid. 



36. Ibid, 



III-6-35 



37. Ibid . 



38. District III Area Agency on Aging, Area Plan on Aging. 1986 
(Gainesville, Florida: 1985). 



59. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services. Interview 
with Mary Hawks and Dr. Judy Phillis, January, 1986. 



4-0. There are an estimated 24,032 alcoholics in the region, and 704,376 
statewide. However, the designated number of the priority 
populations of public inebriates and marginally functional 
alcoholics is unknown and has not been estimated. (State of Florida 
Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Mental Health. 
Telephone communication with Mr. Johnson, November, 1985, 
Tallahassee, Florida). 

The number of drug abusers has been estimated at 7,388 persons in 
the region, and 246,303 statewide. The designated priority 
population of chronic opiate addicts and poly-drug users is unknown 
and has not been estimated. (State of Florida Department of Health 
and Rehabilitative Services Mental Health Unit. Telephone 
communication with Mr. Ed Steigers, November, 1985, Tallahassee, 
Florida) . 



41. To expedite efficient mental health treatment and services, the 
Resources Allocation Policy requires the designation of priority 
populations which are supported by the District III Alcohol, Drug 
Abuse and Mental Health Planning Council and DHRS. 



42. Florida Health and Rehabilitative Services District III Alcohol, 

Drug Abuse and Mental Health Planning Council, 1985 Update to the 

1983-87 Alcohol. Drug Abuse and Mental Health Plan . (Gainesville, 
Florida: 1985). 



43. Ibid . 



44. Florida Health and Rehabilitative Services District III Alcohol. 

Drug Abuse and Mental Health Plan for Fiscal Year 1986-87. 1987-88 
and 1 988-89 . (Gainesville, Florida: 1985). 



45. Currently, limited outpatient services are available to drug 
abusers. Drug abusers who need detoxification or residential 
services are referred to Mental Health Services, Inc., in 
Gainesville, where only a small percentage of needs are being met. 



III-6-36 



46. District III Alcohol Drug Abuse and Mental Health Planning Council, 
1985 Update to the 1983-87 Alcohol. Drug Abuse and Mental Health 
Plan . (Gainesville, Florida: 1985). 



47. The data are not disaggregated to reflect the number of clients 
served at each satellite clinic. 



48. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Children's 
Medical Services, Tallahassee. Telephone interview with Mr. Kern 
Jackson and Mr. Robert Sloyer , April, 1986. 



49. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Children ' s 
Medical Services . (Tallahassee, Florida: 1985). 



50. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Children's 
Medical Services Program Data Division. Telephone communication with 
Mr. Kern Jackson, November, 1985. 



51. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Chi Idren ' s 
Medical Services , public information brochure, 1985. 



52. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, text 
provided by Barbara Ropicki, September, 1986. 



53. This figure includes ages 3 to 21. Statewide, in this age group, 
there were 200,026 developmentally disabled and physically 
handicapped youth. State of Florida Department of Education, 
Education Information Services. Telephone communication with Ms. 
Barbara Williams, Tallahassee, Florida, January, 1986. 



54. Executive Office of the Governor, Trends and Conditions for Florida , 
(Tallahassee, Florida: 1985). Once served almost exclusively in 
Florida's six Sunland Centers, the number of institutionalized 
developmentally disabled has dropped from 4,659 in 1975 to 2,128 in 
1985. The number of community-based clients has increased from 
6,915 in 1975 to 18,744 in 1985. 



55. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Vomen, 
Infants and Children Program Office. Telephone interview with Ms 
Ann Road, April, 1986. 



56. Developmental Disabilities Planning Council, Florida's Children 
Their Future is in Our Hands . (Tallahassee, Florida: 1985). 



III-6-37 



57. Statewide, WIC served 94,000 low income, high risk women, infants 
and children. Women, Infant and Children program offices for the 
region. Unpublished data. Telephone conversation with Ms. Elaine 
Goodsen and Ms. Janet Allen, November, 1985. 



58. Statewide, the Food Stamp Prograjn has increased service from the 

1975 average payment of $89-66 to 241,468 clients, to a 1984 average 
payment of $125.19 to 252,292 clients. Florida Department of Health 
and Rehabilitative Services, Toward a Healthier Florida: 1975- 
1985 . (Tallahassee, Florida: 1985). 



59. Physician Task Force on Hunger in America, Hunger Counties 1986: 
The Distribution of America's High Risk Areas . (Cambridge, MA: 
Harvard University School of Public Health, January, 1986). 



60. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Food. Stamp 
Issuance Section. Telephone Communications with Ms. Marlene Manke 
(Gainesville) and Mr. Jim Payne (Tallahassee), November, 1985. 



61. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Aid to 
Families with Dependent Children. Data furnished by Mr. Seville, 
Tallahassee, Florida, November, 1986 



62. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Economic 
Services Program . (Tallahassee, Florida: 1985). 



63. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, VIN 

Demonstration Project Handbook . (Tallahassee, FL : October, 1985) 



64. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, District 

III Economic Services Program Office. Gainesville, Florida, August, 
1986. 



65. North Central Florida Regional Planning Council, The Employment and 
Training Plan for July 1. 1986 to June 30. 1988 for the North 
Central Florida Service Delivery Area . (Gainesville, Florida: 
August, 1986). 



66. Ibid 



67. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Children . 
Youth and Families Program . (Tallahassee, Florida: 1985). 



III-6-38 



68. North Central Florida Health Planning Council, District III Health 
Plan . (Gainesville, Florida: 1985). 



69. Florida Health and Rehabilitative Services Medicaid Management 
Information System, data furnished by staff, October, 1985. 



70. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, District 
III Alcohol. Drug Abuse and Mental Health Plan for Fiscal Years 
1 986-89 . (Gainesville, Florida). 



71. HRS Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Data Analysis Unit. Data 
furnished by Robert Brake, Tallahassee, Florida, November, 1985. 



72. Sexual and Physical Abuse Resource Center, Gainesville, Florida, 
1985. 



73. HRS Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Data Analysis. Data 
furnished by Robert Brake, November, 1985. 



74. HRS, District III Alcohol. Drug Abuse and Mental Health Plan for 
Fiscal Years 1986-89 . (Gainesville, Florida). 



75. Ibid. 



76. North Central Florida Health Planning Council, District III Health 
Plan . (Gainesville, Florida: 1985). 



77. Ibid. 



78. Area Agency on Aging, Gainesville, Florida. Data furnished by 
Ms. Carol Collins. December, 1985. 



79. Depending on the nature of the offense and the child's prior record, 
children under 18 are sometimes tried as adults in the adult courts. 



80. State of Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services 
Children, Youth and Families Program Office, Data Analysis Unit. 
Florida's Juvenile Delinquency Commitment Programs: A Description 
and Assessment 1985 . 



III-6-39 



81 . Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services District 
III Management Systems, August , 1 986 . 



82. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Juvenile 

Delinquent Data Analysis. Telephone Communication with Mr. Ed Bell 
Tallahassee, Florida, November, 1985. 



83. North Central Florida Health Planning Council, District III Health 
Plan . (Gainesville, Florida: 1985). 



84 



Ibid. 



85 



Ibid, 



86 



Ibid, 



87. Four factors are used to determine the Medically Underserved Area: 
infant mortality rate; ratio of primary care physicians-to- popula- 
tion; percentage of the population 65 years or older; and the 
percentage of residents below the poverty level. 



88. State of Florida Bureau of Economic Analysis, Division of Economic 
Development, Florida Department of Commerce, Florida County Com- 
parisons: 1984 . (Tallahassee, Florida). 



89. North Central Florida Health Planning Council, District III Health 
Plan . (Gainesville, Florida: 1985). 



90 



Ibid, 



91. Big Bend Health Council, Inc., 1985 District Two Health Plan . 
(Panama City, Florida: 1985). 



92 



North Central Florida Health Planning Council, Health Plan . (1985). 



95. District III Health Planning Council and Vital Statistics . 

1980-1984. The infant mortality rates were calculated from a 5-year 
period to compensate for the small populations of some counties. 



III-6-40 



^ 



94. Nationally, Florida is ranked 46th in the percentage of births to 

women who received late or no prenatal health care. Florida Center 
for Youth and Families, Newsl ine , (Tallahassee, Florida: June-July 
1985). The high infant mortality rate in the region indicates the 
absence of adequate prenatal, maternal and infant care. 



95. Developmental Disabilities Planning Council, Florida's Children : 
Their Future is in Our Hands . (Tallahassee, Florida: 1985). 



96. Regional Perinatal Intensive Care Program. Telephone interview with 
Dr. Bucciarelli, Head Pediatrician. Gainesville, Florida, July, 
1 986. 



97. In FY 1984-85, the high-risk obstetrical component served 3,967 

statewide and the neonatal component served 6,017 infants statewide 
Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Regional 
Perinatal Intensive Care Program. Telephone conversation with Ms. 
Janet Evans, November, 1985. 



98. Developmental Disabilities Planning Council, Florida's Children 
Their Future is in Our Hands . (Tallahassee, Florida: 1985). 



99. Ibid, 



100. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Improved 
Pregnancy Outcome Program, 1986-1987 Needs Summary , (Tallahassee, 
Florida: 1986). 



101. HRS reported that between IPO and Medicaid services, approximately 
67 percent of the state need for perinatal care was met in FY 
1984-85. The region's perinatal care met and unmet need has not 
been documented. However, IPO services are not available in each 
county. Residents of Taylor County must travel to Madison County to 
receive IPO services. 



102. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Maternal 
and Child Health. Telephone communication with Francis Storey, 
November, 1985. 



103. Developmental Disabilities Planning Council, Florida's Children: 
Their Future is in Our Hands . (Tallahassee, Florida: 1985). 



III-6-41 



104. Women, Infant and Children Program Office. Data furnished by Ms. 
Elaine Goodson and Ms. Janet Allen, Tallahassee, Florida, January, 
1986. 



105. State of Florida Bureau of Economic Analysis, Division of Economic 
Development, Florida County Comparisons: 1984 . Florida Department 
of Commerce, (Tallahassee, Florida). 



106. North Central Florida Health Planning Council, District III Health 
Plan . (Gainesville, Florida: 1985). 



107. Louis Harris and Associates for Florida State Department of Health 
and Rehabilitative Services, Medicaid and Indigent Health Care 
Survey and Cost Estimation Study . (March, 1985). 



108. In 1985, in a typical month (November), 12.5 percent of the region's 
juvenile population (10,405 children under 18) received Medicaid 
which was 2.5 times the rate statewide ( 4 . 85^ or 121,551 children). 



109. North Central Florida Regional Planning Council, Health Plan . Big 
Bend Health Council, Inc., 1985 District Two Health Plan , (Gaines- 
ville, Florida: 1985; Panama City, Florida: 1985). 



110. HRS District III Health Program Office. Nursing Consultant Sable 
Boiling, August, 1986. 



111. North Central Florida Health Planning Council. Health Plan . 
(Gainesville, Florida: 1985.) 



112. District III Health Planning Council and Vital Statistics . 

1980-1984. The infant mortality rates were calculated from a 5-year 
period to compensate statistically for the small populations of some 
counties . 



115- Nationally, Florida is ranked 46th in the percentage of births to 

women who received late or no prenatal health care. Florida Center 
for Youth and Families, Newsl ine . (Tallahassee, Florida: June-July 
1985). The high infant mortality rate in the region indicates the 
absence of such care. 



114. Developmental Disabilities Planning Council, Florida's Children : 
Their Future is in Our Hands . (Tallahassee, Florida: 1985). 



III-6-42 



^ 



115. Regional Perinatal Intensive Care Program. Telephone interview with 
Dr. Bucciarelli, head pediatrician. Gainesville, Florida, July, 
1986. 



116. In FY 1984--85, the high-risk obstetrical component served 3,967 

statewide and the neonatal component served 6,017 infants statewide. 
Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Florida 
Perinatal Intensive Care Program. Telephone conversation with Ms. 
Janet Evans, November, 1985. 



117. Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Improved Pregnancy 
Project, 1986-1987 Needs Summary . (Tallahassee, Florida: 1986). 



118. Residents of Taylor County must travel to Madison County to receive 
IPO services. The region's perinatal care met and unmet need has 
not been documented. 



119- Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Maternal 
and Child Health Program Office. Data furnished by Ms. Francis 
Storey. Tallahassee, Florida, November, 1985. 



120. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Women, 
Infants and Children. Data furnished by Ann Load, Tallahassee, 
Florida, April, 1986. 



121. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Toward a 
Healthier Florida 1975-1985 . (Tallahassee, Florida: 1985). 



122. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Children's 
Medical Services. Data furnished by Ms. Mittie Moffett, RN, 
December, 1985. 



123. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Toward a 
Healthier Florida 1975-1985 . (Tallahassee, Florida: 1985). 



124-. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services. Data 
provided by EPSDT staff, Tallahassee, Florida, December, 1985. 



125. State of Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services. 
Tallahassee, Florida. Data provided by HRS staff, December, 1985. 



III-6-43 



126. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services. Data 

furnished by Ms. Lorraine Bailey, Tallahassee, Florida, December, 
1985. 



127. North Central Florida Regional Planning Council, Regional Hazardous 
Waste Assessment . (Gainesville, Florida: December, 1986). 



128. Alachua County Older Americans Council. Telephone communication 
with Ms. Mary Peer, Gainesville, Florida, January, 1986. 



129. North Central Florida Health Planning Council, District III Health 
Plan . (Gainesville, Florida: 1985). 



130. Ibid. 



131. District III Area Agency on Aging, Area Plan on Aging. 1986. 
(Gainesville, Florida). 



132. Florida Population Estimates and Projections. Florida Census 
Estimating Conference. Tallahassee, Florida, Spring 1986. 

District III Area Agency on Aging. Data furnished by Ms. Carol 
Collins, December 1985. 



133. University of Florida Health Center, Health Center Update , (Gaines- 
ville, Florida: January, 1984). 



134. University of Florida College of Medicine. Telephone conversation 
with Dr. Caranasos. Principal Investigator of the Research of the 
Caretakers of Alzheimer's Patients, January, 1986. 



135. Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Draft Agency 
Functional Plan . (May 23, 1986). 



136. State Insurance Department, Tallahassee, Florida. Data furnished by 
John Alcorn, August, 1986. 



137. Ibid, 



138. Ibid, 



III-6-44 



I 



139. Residents of Taylor County must travel to Madison County to receive 
IPO services. Myrna Archer, Taylor County Health Unit. September, 
1986. 



140. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services. Maternal 
and Child Health, Tallahassee, Florida. Data furnished by Ms. 
Francis Storey, November, 1985. 



14-1. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services. Data 

furnished by Early Periodic Screening and Diagnostic Test Program 
office, December, 1985. 



142. State of Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services 
Developmental Disabilities. Telephone Conversation with Richard 
Herring, December, 1985. 



145. The Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Children, Youth 
and Families Program Office, Mental Health Needs of District III , 
(Gainesville, Florida: May, 1986). 



144. North Central Florida Health Planning Council, District III Health 
Plan . (Gainesville, Florida: 1985). 



III-6-45 



STATE GOAL 7: PUBLIC SAFETY 

Florida shall protect the public by preventing, discouraging, and 
pvmishing criminal behavior, lowering the highway death rate, ajid 
protecting lives and property from natural and man-made disasters. 



7.1. Regional Issue/Policy Cluster #54: Crime Prevention 

Background Analysis: Although no crime is socially acceptable, it 
appears to be less of a problem in north central Florida than statewide. 
Alachua County, the most populous county in the region, skews the 
regionwide rates auid suggests a higher crime rate thaji actually exists in 
the rest of the region. When Alachua County data is excluded from 
regional statistics, the region's 1985 crime rate is roughly one-half the 
statewide rate for the same year. 

The 1985 crime rate per 100,000 population for the region was 5, 424-. 5, 
significantly lower than the statewide rate of 6,857.9. When Alachua 
County data is excluded from regional statistics, the region's crime rate 
in 1985 drops from 5,424.5 to 5,288.7, roughly one-half the statewide 
average. Despite a low crime rate, recent data suggests that crime rates 
are dreunatically increasing due to the use of crack cocaine. The City of 
Gainesville's 1986 crime rate has increased by over 50.0 percent over the 
1984 rate due, in part, to property crimes associated with increased 
crack cocaine use. 

Drug smuggling and the violent crimes that follow are serious problems 
which have been identified in the region's coastal counties, Dixie and 
Taylor. Apparently, as drug policing activity increases in south 
Florida, more drugs enter the state by air and water in Dixie sind Taylor 
Counties. Law enforcement personnel from each county report that there 
is a lack of equipment, such as motor boats, and manpower to adequately 
patrol the coast. 

High crime rates cam undermine the social, economic, physical, aJid 
therefore environmental structure of neighborhoods. Crime and the fear 
of crime are ajnong the main reasons for reduced urban investment and 
flight to the suburbs. Aside from the more personal effects of crime 
upon individuals, high crime rates may be a direct cause of neighborhood 
decline auid residential abajidonment . At least one study has linked high 
crime rates with declines in residential property values. High crime 
rates may also deter the acquisition of development capital, weighs 
heavily in industrial location decisions, and may be a significant force 
in suburban sprawl. ^ 

Traditional approaches to combatting crime have largely consisted of 
unsuccessful, disjointed, single-solution approaches to a complex 
problem. Crime prevention requires a comprehensive approach involving 
police protection, building security hardware, site planning and design 
considerations, and citizen involvement. In addition, adequate jail and 
prison facilities must be available to incarcerate offenders without 
premature release due to overcrowded conditions. 



III-7-1 



Crime prevention should be an important concern of local government for 
it may play a major role in the spatial and social organization of 
cities. Most importajitly , planners influence crime rates through the 
very act of land use planning and design regulation. The disregard of 
social ajid physical factors in past residential projects has often 
produced draunatically increased crime rates for their inhabitants. One 
only has to mention St. Louis' Pruitt-Igoe housing project as a case in 
point. Nor caji there be confusion as to why suburban middle class 
residents so stoutly resist government-subsidized housing in their 
neighborhoods. Among other reasons is real fear of a crime increase 
commonly associated with large public housing projects. 

Increasing crime rates created through public action is not limited to 
public housing projects.^ Capital improvements such as streets, parks, 
recreation centers, and hospitals can and have produced increased crime 
rates when little thought was given to crime prevention concerns. 

While it is the purpose of plajining to coordinate such decisions, all too 
often this is not done. There is need for increased public ajid private 
sector cooperation in planning and design decisions that affect security. 
Clearly, it is the domain ajid responsibility of government to address 
these concerns. In order that crime prevention becomes an integral part 
of urbcui planning and design, police need to be brought into the process. 
Traditionally, project design has relegated public safety to a position 
of after-the-fact concern. Vhen planning assistance has been sought from 
the police department in the past, it was often a token involvement after 
the major decisions had been made. However, through their day-to-day 
presence, the police, more thain anyone else, have a true understanding of 
how environments are used or misused, and by whom. 

Although every north central Florida local government has a building 
code, no local government has a building hardware security code. In 
addition, site planning and zoning regulations do not generally take 
crime prevention design considerations into account. Few local 
governments have established design review with local government police 
departments. Few local governments have full-time crime prevention 
officers who can orgajiize neighborhood watch groups or review development 
proposals ajid local plans for crime prevention considerations. 

The ratio of sworn law enforcement personnel per 1,000 population in 1983 
was lower in the region (1.7) than in the state (2.0). Furthermore, the 
number of law enforcement personnel is inadequate to accommodate 

n 

projected population growth. The establishment of an incentive system 
throughout the region is one way to attract and retain officers. For 
example, in the Gainesville Police Department, officers with a bachelor's 
degree are hired at higher salaries than those without. The state also 
has an incentive system in which salaries are higher for officers with 
degrees or accumulated hours of educational classes pertaining to radar 
or advanced report writing. ° 

Local government Jails in the region are overcrowded aind suffer from 
insufficient staffing. Many of the local jails are quite old and have 
plumbing, heating, and electrical problems. In addition, these older 



III- 



^ 



structures suffer from inefficiencies inherent in their design. 
Population growth trends have simply overtaxed the original design 
capacity of many local facilities. The Florida Department of Corrections 
has cited several local Jails for structural problems.^ 

The net result of the overcrowding is not well documented. However, 
discussion with numerous state and local law enforcement and corrections 
personnel suggests that there are several repercussions. There appears 
to be a tendency for persons who commit major and lesser offenses to 
serve the same length of time in prison. When state facilities are 
overcrowded, prisoners are often placed in various early release and 
comr jnity release prograims. Secondly, when local facilities are at 
capacity, there appears to be a tendency for guilty parties to receive 
stiffer sentences than they might otherwise serve in order to make them 
eligible under state law for incarceration in a state facility. 

Early release and community release programs are, in part, an attempt to 
alleviate the overcrowded conditions in existing jails and to isolate 
some of the lesser offenders from "hardened criminals" in an effort to 
prevent recidivism. However, it is suspected that these programs are 
somewhat self-defeating as they take prisoners out of overcrowded jails 
and transfer them to overcrowded and understaffed social rehabilitation 
programs. Additional study is needed to document the effectiveness of 
early release programs in the region. 

Law enforcement efficiency caji be improved through the establishment of a 
close communication and coordination system among agencies. The 
development of a comprehensive reporting system for forcible felonies, 
organized economic and drug crimes can be used to build a data base from 
which to study criminal behavior. The region's police departments are 
connected by the Florida Crime Information Center and nationally through 
the National Crime Information Center. ^^ 



Regional Facilities: 

State Prison System 
Local Jails 

Florida Highway Patrol 
City Police Departments 
County Sheriffs Offices 



Agencies: Florida Department of Corrections, Department of Law 
Enforcement, Department of Education, Florida Crime Information Center, 
Florida Drug Enforcement Agency, National Crime Information Center, North 
Central Florida Regional Plajining Council, local governments. 



III-7-3 



7.2. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #35: Safe and Secure Citizenry 

Background Analysis: The safety and security of north central Florida 
residents requires protection from the motoring public and safety from 
hurricanes and flooding. 

North central Florida contains the interchange of two major interstate 
highways and hundreds of state and county roads forming access routes to 
some of the most densely populated areas in the country. Every day, 
thousands of motorists use these roads and highways to go to and from 
work, visit friends and relatives, and travel to Florida's tourist 
attractions . 

The 1985 Florida highway fatality rate was 3.3 fatalities per million 
vehicle miles of travel. In north central Florida, the rate ranged from 
a low of 1.3 in Dixie County to a high of 8.1 in Bradford County. Only 
Bradford (8.1), Lafayette (6.2), Gilchrist (3.9), and Union counties had 
rates higher than the state. Due to the rural nature of the region, 
speed limit enforcement is a primary public safety issue. According to 
the Florida Highway Patrol, which patrols state and interstate roadways, 
excessive speed is a highway safety problem, especially in the rural 
areas which lack police manpower to enforce speed limits. Speed has been 
a contributing factor in 2.9 percent of all traffic accidents in the 
state. Of speeding-related traffic accidents, 38.7 percent occurred in 
rural areas. 

Alcohol, a leading contributor to highway accidents in the state, was 
listed as a contributing factor in 14.3 percent of traffic accidents in 
the state aind 17.4 percent in the region in 1985. Forty-five percent of 
the statewide traffic fatalities were alcohol-related in 1985. 

The state now requires that drivers and passengers in the front seat wear 
seat belts in an effort to reduce highway fatalities. Of all motor 
vehicles involved in accidents in Florida in 1985, 90.0 percent were 
equipped with seat belts. However, only occupants in 24.0 percent of 
vehicles involved in accidents were using seat belts at the time of the 
accident . ^ ^ 

Driving is one of the most commonplace, yet potentially hazardous 
activities, of modern society. Educational prograjns to ensure a high 
level of competence aunong beginning drivers is crucial for the 
development of a safe and secure citizenry. However, student enrollment 
in Florida driver education prograjns (DE) has declined drastically since 
mid-1970's legislation removed DE as a prerequisite to licensing before 
the age of 18. The proportion of eligible students receiving driver 
education declined from 91.0 percent in the 1974-75 school year to less 
than 25.0 percent in 1983-84.^^ 

A reliable testing system to ensure that only qualified drivers receive a 
driver's licence is essential to providing a safe and secure citizenry, 
especially in light of the growing number of applicants in Florida's 
drivers license offices. The Department of Highway Safety and Motor 
Vehicles currently issues waivers from drivers license tests for students 



III-7-4 



who have successfully completed drivers education courses (authorized by 
Section 322.15, F.S.). This procedure eliminates the most time-consuming 
aspect of licensing new drivers. At the same time, it encourages more 
students to complete a higher level of driver education amd testing than 
the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles cam provide. -^ 
In addition, special driver education programs may be necessary for 
senior citizens to drive without presenting a threat public safety. 
Older drivers suffer decreased physical and perceptual abilities which 
can affect driving performance.^ 

However, the public needs protection from more than just the motoring 
public. Hurricanes ajid their attendant high winds and flooding represent 
a threat to coastal communities. Although the region's coastline is 
largely undeveloped, some areas of the Dixie and Taylor County's coast 
are beginning to experience some growth. Although a small community, the 
Town of Horseshoe Beach (Dixie County), the only incorporated town along 
the coast, more than doubled its population between 1970 and 1980 
(145. 2?t). A number of other unincorporated coastal communities such as 
Suwannee, Steinhatchee , Keaton Beach, Dekle Beach, ajid others are also 
experiencing some development pressure. 

Dixie ajid Taylor Counties have hurricane evacuation plajis designed by 
local civil defense directors to provide for safe evacuation of coastal 
residents in the event of a hurricane. The north central Florida 
Regional Plsinning Council has developed a regional hurricajie evacuation 
plaji which includes evacuation routes, shelter assignment scenarios, and 
coordinated warning procedures.^ Each inlajid county in the region also 
has an inlamd shelter and evacuation plan which organizes public 
facilities to serve as shelters and indicates evacuation routes. Both 
inland and coastal residents should be made aware of hurricane evacuation 
plans before hurricame season. Interagency coordination amd education 
can help to expedite evacuation. Several agencies are responsible for 
the efficient evacuation of an area, some of which are the Florida 
Department of Community Affairs, local law and marine authorities, state 
highway patrol, schools, Red Cross, and privately owned-radio stations. 

However, insuring the public safety from hurricane hazards also requires 
long-range land use plamning. Both lives and property damage can be 
reduced by directing growth away from areas subject to hurricane surge 
inundation. In addition, the ecological processes at work must not be 
severed by human action. Hurricanes are often preceded by many hours of 
heavy rains which saturate the soil, cause advance runoff, amd raise the 
water level in rivers before the surge hits. Pre-hurricane rainfalls of 
five inches or more are common, and far greater rainfalls have been 
recorded. Both upland and costal wetlands help to reduce the impact of 
this water through their normal function of retaining and gradually 
releasing stormwater runoff. When wetlands areas within the coastal 
drainage basin are filled amd drained, a significant increase may occur 
in the impact of surfacewater runoff within the coastal basin upon 
coastal flooding. In north central Florida, it is especially important 
that the drainage patterns of coastal rivers and surface runoff areas 
with direct sheet flow to the Gulf not be substantially altered so that 
storm threats to coastal communities can be minimized. 



III-7-5 



Regional Facilities: 

State Prison System 
Local Jails 
Public Shelters 



Agencies: Florida Highway Patrol, Florida Department of Education, 
Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles, Department of 
Trsmsportation, Department of Tourism, Department of Law Enforcement, 
Department of Health eind Rehabilitative Services, Department of Community 
Affairs, Department of Environmental Regulation, Suwamnee River Water 
Management District, North Central Florida Regional Planning Council, 
local governments, local school districts, Red Cross, radio ajid 
television stations. 



7.5. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #56: Offender Rehabilitation- 
Recidivism 

Background Analysis: Historically, the criminal justice system has not 
been responsive to the needs of victims and witnesses of crime. The 
Victim/Witness Protection Act of 1984- is intended to enhance and protect 
the necessary role of victims and witnesses in the criminal justice 
process and to ensure that the state, its agencies sind subdivisions, do 
all that is possible within limits of available resources to assist 
victims and witnesses of crime without infringing on the constitutional 
rights of defendants. ' The Crime and Rape Victim Advocate Prograjn in 
Gainesville, Alachua County, provides assistance to victims and witnesses 
of crime. 

Only 3.0 percent of the state's population live in the region but 
approximately one third of all state inmates (28,000) are incarcerated in 
Bradford, Union, Gilchrist, Dixie, and Lafayette Counties.^® Both 
state correction facilities and local government jails are overcrowded 
and inadequately staffed. Many of the older local jails have plumbing, 
heating, and electrical problems.^ Furthermore, the Department of 
Corrections has cited several local jails for structural problems. The 
state plans to close four of the older facilities, which house 
approximately 25.0 percent of the region's state inmate population. New 
facilities will be constructed which meet capacity requirements based on 
the Florida Department of Corrections' 1994 inmate population 
projections.^^ 

Early release and community release prograjns are intended to reduce 
recidivism rates and alleviate overcrowded conditions in existing jails. 
The effectiveness of early release and social rehabilitation programs 
requires examination. Educational and vocational training programs 
designed to increase the job marketability of ex-offenders have been 
noted to be the most effective means to reduce recidivism."^ The 
reduction of recidivism also improves the financial cost-effectiveness of 
the corrections system. 



III-7-6 



The Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services (HRS) aind 
the Florida Department of Corrections coordinate alcohol and drug abuse 
ajid mental health services for the forensic population. '^ 

The Bradford-Union Guidance Clinic Forensic Prograun works with clients 
identified by the criminal justice system as having a mental illness. 
Prograan staff provide in-jail evaluations for the court to determine the 
need for competency and insainity psychological evaluations. After 
completion of evaluations, prograun staff assist in the transfer of 
inmates who manifest obvious signs of mental illness from the criminal 
justice system to the civil Baker Act System. 

Treatment Alternatives to Street Crimes (TASC) serves alcohol and drug 
abuse clients by offering treatment alternatives to incarceration. 
Columbia County North Florida Mental Health Center TASC screeners 
identify inmates who have alcohol and drug abuse problems ajid refer them 
to treatment prograuns and follow-up services. In the process of 
evaluation, TASC screeners often identify clients who exhibit signs of 
mental illness and refer them to mental health providers for treatment. 

Mental Health Services, Inc. in Alachua County operates Forensic Mental 
Health Services, funded by the Alachua County Commission aind limited to 
clients who have charges pending in county court. Potential clients are 
identified by county court staff and referred the Mental Health Service's 
liaison at the jail or directly to the program. Staff screen the 
clients, complete evaluations and if appropriate, work with court staff 
to divert the client into treatment alternatives. A limited amount of 
follow-up aind short term case management services are provided. 

Metamorphosis, a residential drug treatment program located in 
Gainesville, is the only publicly-supported facility of its type in the 
region. The program is operated by the Alachua County Department of 
Corrections. Approximately 90.0 percent of individuals receiving 
treatment at the facility are county court referrals. Metamorphis is 
scheduled to expand from 18 to 80 beds and incorporate job aind life 
skills development training into its program by April, 1987. 

Baiker Act Training sessions for Florida Department of Corrections staff, 
law enforcement, court representatives as well as HRS staff from mental 
health centers take place approximately every 6 months. 

When a juvenile breaiks the law, an HRS intake counselor receives the 
complaint, usually from law enforcement. The intake counselor screens 
the complaint, interviews the child, notifies the parent aind, jointly 
with law enforcement, determines whether the child should be detained or 
released to a parent. If the child is found to be intoxicated, drug 
dependent, suicidal, or emotionally unstable when screened, he is 
referred to the local detoxification center, hospital aind/or crisis 
stabilization unit. 

If the juvenile is placed in detention, a detention hearing is held 
before a judge within twenty-four hours to determine if detention should 
continue. If a child remains in detention awaiting judicial disposition. 



III-7-7 



mental health services can be accessed. if necessary. Often times the 
assigned counselor or Judge will recommend that a psychological 
evaluation be conducted prior to disposition. Juvenile detention centers 
have working agreements with their respective mental health centers for 
the provision of on-call crisis counselors. Detention center staff also 
receive, upon request, training in the areas of substance abuse 
awareness, crisis counseling arnd suicide prevention. 

Once the Juvenile Judicial disposition is confirmed, the child may be 
released and placed on "community control supervision". A counselor will 
develop aji individual service plan that may include, if appropriate, 
outpatient mental health or substance abuse counseling provided by the 
local mental health center. If the Judge decides that more intensive 
services are appropriate, the child may be committed to the custody of 
HRS and placed in a residential program for delinquent youth. There are 
various restrictive levels of residential programs operated by the HRS 
Children, Youth and Families Prograjn office. These include faimily 
group homes, STOP cajnps, a halfway house, and private contracted Eckerd 
caunps ajid Outward Bound. 

Children referred to these programs are screened by a reviewing 
committee, including representatives from the local mental health 
centers. All of these residential programs utilize local HRS Alcohol, 
Drug and Mental Health Services on an as needed basis. If the individual 
service plan identifies a need for outpatient counseling, these services 
are arranged with local mental health centers. In addition, community 
mental health centers provide technical assistance and training upon 
request to various residential program staff. 

After the residential prograjn is completed, the youth is returned to his 
respective com.', unity on "furlough status." During "furlough status," a 
community control counselor provides supervision and ensures a 
continuation of the established service plan. The service plan often 
includes outpatient counseling/support services provided by local mental 
health centers. Upon satisfactory completion of the service plan, a 
community control counselor will recommend to the court final release 
from HRS supervision. 



Regional Facilities: 

State Prisons 

Local Jails 

Crime and Rape Victim Advocate Program 

Early Release Programs 

Alachua Detention Center 

STOP Camp 

Lancaster Youth Development Center 

Community Mental Health Centers 

Interface Prograim of Alachua County 

Mental Health Services, Inc., of North Central Florida 

North Florida Community Mental Health Center 

Bradford-Union Guidance Clinic 



III-7-8 



Appalachee Community Mental Health Center 

Eagle Bend of Suwajinee County 

The Corner Drugstore 

Metajnorphosis 

SPARC 

Fajnily Mediation 



Agencies: Florida Department of Corrections, Department of Health and 
Rehabilitative Services, Parole and Probation Commission, Florida Bureau 
of Investigation, Florida Attorney General, North Central Florida 
Regional Planning Council, local governments. 



Endnotes: 



1. Taylor County Sheriff's Department, telephone interview with Sheriff 
Quentin Whittle, October 10,1986; and Dixie County Sheriff's 
Department, telephone interview with Sheriff Glen Byals, October 13, 
1986. 



2. Douglas Frisbie, et. al . , "Crime in Minneapolis: Proposal for 
Prevention", Minneapolis: Minneapolis Crime Control Planning 
Board, 1977. 



Robert Gold, "Urban Violence and Contemporary Defensive Cities", 
Journal of the American Institute of Planners, (Vol. J>6 , No . 3 , 
Chicago: March, 1970), pp. 146-159; Stephanie Greenburg, 
Relationship of Crime Factors to the Process of Neighborhood Decline 
and Abandonment , (Research Triajigle Park, N.C.: Research Triangle 
Institute, 1977); and Thomas Repetto, Residential Crime , (Cajnbridge, 
MA: Ballinger Publishing Co., 1974). 



4. Oscar Newman, Defensible Space , (New York: MacMillan Publishing 
Co., 1972); and C. Ray Jeffry, Crime Prevention Through 
Environmental Design , (Beverly Hills: Sage Publications, 1977). 



Richard A. Gardiner, Design for Safe Neighborhoods: The 
Environmental Security Planning and Design Process , (Washington, 
D.C.: National Institute of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice 
Law Enforcement and Assistance Administration, 1978). 



Oscar Newman and Stephen Johnston, Model Security Code for 
Residential Areas , (New York, N.Y.: Institute for Community Design 
Analysis, 1974). 



III-7-9 



7. Florida Department of Law Enf orcelnent , Crime in Florida, 1980 , and 
Crime in Florida, 1985. 



8. Gainesville Police Department, telephone interview with police 
department personnel, October 9, 1986. 



9. Russell Smith, State of Florida, Office of Inspector General, 1986 



10. Gainesville Police Department, telephone interview with Officer 
Jeff Laffey, October 9, 1986. 



11. Florida Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles, Florida 
Traffic Accident Facts 1985, Tallahassee, Florida. 



12. Florida Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles, kg^ency 
Functional Plan, Fiscal Years 1987-88 to 1990-91. 



13. Ibid, 



14. Florida Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles, Agency 
Functional Plan, Fiscal Years 1987-88 to 1990-91. 



15. North Central Florida Regional Planning Council, North Central 
Florida Regional Hurricane Evacuation Study. Technical Report . 
October, 1985. 



16. North Central Florida Regional Planning Council, North Central 

Florida Regional Inland Hurricane Shelter Study, Technical Report 
November, 1984. 



17. Florida Statutes Chapter 960.30, The Victim Witness Protection Act 
of 1984. 



18. Florida Department of Corrections, Comprehensive Statewide Study To 
Determine The Current And Future Needs For All Types Of Correctional 
Facilities In The Region And Development Of A Siting Criteria To Be 
Used In Evaluating Sites For Location Of Correctional Facilities , 
Tables 7 and 8. 



19. Ibid, 



III-7-10 



20. State of Florida, Office of Inspector General, telephone interview 
with Russell Smith, November, 1985. 



21. Florida Department of Corrections, pp. 2-4 



22. Alachua County Court Services, telephone interview with Mr. Jajnes 
McDaniel, November, 1985. 



23. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services District 
III Alcohol, DrU|S^ Abuse and Mental Health Plan for Fiscal Years 
1986-87, 1987-88 and 1988-89, Gainesville, Florida, 1986. 



24-. Ibid, 



/ 



III-7-1 1 



^1 



STATE GOAL 8: WATER RESOURCES 

Florida shall assure the availability of an adequate supply of water for 
all competing uses deemed reasonable and beneficial and shall maintain 
the functions of natural systems and the overall present level of surface 
and ground water quality. Florida shall improve and restore the quality 
of waters not presently meeting water quality stajidards. 



8.1. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #57: Protection of the Water Supply 

Background Analysis: The demand for water in the region is increasing. 
Water use in the region during 1980 averaged 389-27 million gallons per 
day (mgd). The Suwainnee River Water Management District estimates that 
groundwater withdrawal within the district could increase by as much as 
250.0 percent over 1980 consumption figures by the year 2000.^ The major 
water users of the region include human consumption, economic activities, 
especially agriculture and forestry, and natural systems. An adequate 
supply of water must be assured for all water users. 

Most potable water supplies in north central Florida withdraw water from 
the Floridan aquifer. The largest user of water in the region in 1980 
was thermoelectric power generation, accounting for 4-4.8 percent of the 
total water use. Industry, specifically phosphate mining operations in 
Hamilton County as well as pulp mills in Taylor County, accounted for 
33.0 percent of the region's total water use. Water consumption for 
urban and rural domestic use comprised approximately 13.6 percent (53 
mgd) of total water consumption. 

Agriculture is also a heavy user of water in the region. In 1980 the use 
of water for irrigation averaged 33 mgd, approximately 81.0 percent of 
which cajne from groundwater supplies. This figure, however, does not 
accurately portray seasonal irrigation use. Eighty percent of all annual 
irrigation takes place during the spring when actual irrigation water use 
figures average 170 mgd. However, peak water demand, times when more 
than 90.0 percent of all irrigation systems are operating simultaneously 
for a 12 hour period, is 34-9 mgd. Overall conveyance losses are low 
because almost all irrigation in the district is of the sprinkler rather 
than the open ditch variety. 

Another major, although often unrecognized, user of water are natural 
systems ajid native species. These are the true "traditional users" of 
north central Florida water supplies. Water is required for rivers to 
flow, for the sustenance of native plants and animals, to keep wetlands 
wet, and to carry nutrients, detritus, and sediment to the Gulf of 
Mexico. 

Although water consumption is anticipated to dramatically increase, 
sufficient potable supplies should be available to meet the region's 
present and projected needs provided that there is proper planning and 
careful management of the water supply. Land use decisions and land 
management practices can have direct impacts upon both the quality and 
quantity of water supplies. To understeind the relationship between land 



III-8-1 



development and management practices and the water supply requires a 
basic understanding of the region's hydrologic cycle. 

North central Florida is underlain by three different aquifers: (1) A 
surficial water table aquifer; (2) an intermediate artesiam aquifer; and 
(3) the Floridan aquifer. The Floridan aquifer may be divided into three 
classes as well. In Class I, it is unconfined ajid is the sole source for 
groundwater supplies. In Class II, which may be thought of as a 
transitional area, a semi-confined Floridan is overlain by a 
semi-artesian secondary system or water table aquifer. In Class III the 
Floridan aquifer is confined and is overlain by a water table aquifer aind 
intermediate artesiaji aquifers. The aquifer ranges from unconfined near 
the coastline, through semi-confined to confined where the aquifer is 
overlain by thickening deposits of the Hawthorn (limestone and clay) 
Formation in the eastern portion of the region (Columbia, Bradford, and 
Union counties). 

The Floridan aquifer is a massive limestone "sponge" that underlies the 
entire region. The Floridan is replenished by the rainfall only in " 
certain areas of high recharge, primarily in sandy, well-drained areas of 
the region. However, only about two inches of the average annual 55 
inches of rainfall replenishes the aquifer. The remaining 51 inches 
feeds rivers, streams, laJtes, wetlands, and estuaries. The surficial 
aquifers are extremely permeable and are recharged directly by rainfall. 
Their surficial nature makes them very susceptible to impacts from land 
development activities and land management practices. Because water 
moves through all aquifer systems, they are easily contaminated by 
pollutants carried from the land surface in recharge waters. 

The importance of maintaining the quality and quantity of groundwater, as 
the primary source of water supply for the region, necessitates the 
protection of those areas identified as recharge areas for the Floridan 
aquifer. Major recharge areas include: (1) the Putnam Hall high located 
in eastern Bradford and western Putnam and Clay counties; (2) a high 
located near Valdosta, Georgia; (3) the unconfined bed of the Floridan 
aquifer located in the western portion of the region; (4) water movement 
between secondary and the Floridan aquifers; and (5) the Suwannee River 
system through seeps, sinks, springs, and areas of direct contact between 
river system waters and the Floridan aquifer. Although the relative 
amounts of groundwater derived from these sources is not known, it 
appears that a significant percentage of source water to the Floridan 
aquifer is derived from recharge areas located outside of the region, the 
water management district, and the State. 

In addition to these sources, there are significant percolation recharge 
areas within north central Florida. They occur in a wide band, generally 
oriented northwest-southeast, and are located in the center of the 
region. High percolation recharge areas have been defined in a 
generalized manner by the Suwannee River Water Management District, and 
include those watersheds with internal drainage.' These areas are 
characterized as being generally at or above the 100-foot contour 
interval, predominately dry, sandy areas with high rates of infiltration 



III-8-2 



t 



and percolation, with very little runoff. Exajnples of such areas include 
the sand hills near Archer, and most of the pine flatwoods in the central 
portion of the region. 

Streara-to-sink watersheds also constitute a significant source of water 
to the Floridan aquifer. These are areas with a direct hydraulic 
connection between surface waters auid the Floridan. Examples include 
Blues and Turkey creeks in the vicinity of the San Felasco Hammock, and 
Hogtown Creek which flows into Haile Sink. In addition, many springs 
found along the Santa Fe and Suwannee rivers can become recharge areas if 
groundwater levels are lowered enough to produce a reversal of flow, 
allowing surface waters to recharge the aquifers. 

The region contains a rich assortment of surface water s--rivers and 
strecLms, lakes, springs, cypress ponds, swamps amd estuaries. The 
headwaters of the coastal basin rivers are located within the region. 
Other rivers, such as the Suwannee, Alapaha, and Vithlacoochee , have 
headwaters located in the State of Georgia. In general, the water 
quality of surface waters in the region is good. " / 

The Suwannee River basin has very good water quality. The water 
chemistry of the Suwannee River changes drajnatically between the state 
line and its point of discharge to the Gulf of Mexico, representing a 
shift to groundwater discharge as the dominant factor in water quality of 
the river. As the Suwannee River enters the State, its quality is very 
high although pH and dissolved oxygen are naturally low because of 
drainage from the Okefenokee Swamp. Point sources of pollution to the 
Vithlacoochee River include the wastewater treatment plants for the 
cities of Valdosta and Tifton, Georgia as well as a pulp mill.^ Several 
tributaries of the Suwannee drain phosphate mining areas auid show high 
conductivity, neutral pH, and high nutrient and coliform levels. Swift 
Creek, a tributary of the Suwajinee, contributes 80.0 percent of the 
phosphate loading to the Suwamnee River at this point, although it 
constitutes only 4.0 percent of the river flow.^ However, despite the 
generally lower water quality of this tributary, the lower Suwannee and 
the Santa Fe rivers have no significant water quality problems. 

These resources are continuously replenished, primarily by rainfall, and 
continually reduced by natural surface and groundwater discharges, 
evapotrainspiration , aind human use. Although water is not created or 
destroyed through the hydrologic cycle, its character, location, and 
availability for humam use is altered. Between I960 and 1980, water use 
increased almost three times statewide, compared to a two-fold increase 
in population. Assuring an adequate supply of water to meet the region's 
future human and natural resource needs is a major challenge that will 
require a strong and consistent effort to integrate land ajid water 
management ajid regulatory progrsims. 

Since local governments are the primary arbiters with regard to the rate 
ajid magnitude of growth that will require water supplies, it is crucial 
that their decisions be based upon the best available information 
regarding the availability of water and the actions that must be taken to 
ensure a continued water supply for all users. Furthermore, the nature, 



III-8-3 



type, ajid location of development can have very significant consequences 
on the quality of water resources and on the integrity of water-dependent 
natural systems. 

Actions suggested to protect these areas include identifying and mapping 
recharge areas, encouraging land uses compatible with these areas through 
permitting programs, and preventing over-drainage or significantly 
reducing recharge capabilities, particularly in high percolation recharge 
areas. In addition, intergovernmental cooperation agreements should be 
actively sought with the State of Georgia and appropriate state and 
regional agencies as well as local governments with jurisdiction over the 
Putnajn Hall high area. 

Development must be regulated to prevent over-pumping and the subsequent 
decline in ground and surface water levels, which could allow for 
saltwater intrusion in coastal areas. In addition to over-pumping, 
coastal flooding can also contribute to saltwater intrusion to the 
aquifers. Saltwater associated with storm surge rushes inward to the 
hurricane surge line. The normally dry depressions of lands within the 
surge zone can temporarily retain considerable aimounts of surge generated 
saltwater. If saltwater is held long enough, it can damage soil 
fertility (by penetration into the earth) or groundwater quality (by 
penetration into subsurface aquifers). It is importajit that saltwater 
does not remain for very long due to the danger of saltwater intrusion to 
underground aquifers. This is especially important for Dixie ajid Taylor 
counties where the Floridaji aquifer comes very near the surface. 
Therefore, construction of seawalls or alterations in landscape or 
topography should not impede the outflow of seawater back to the Gulf. 

Of equal concern is the protection of the water supply from main-made 
pollutants. The surficial aquifer and the unconfined Floridan are more 
susceptible to pollutants thaji the confined Floridan because their water 
table is near the lauid surface. It should be noted that different rock 
formations, water residency times, and human influences can impart 
particular chemical "flavors" to aquifer systems. Vater from the 
Floridan is slightly alkaline and is characterized by high relative 
values for specific conductivity, alkalinity, pH, magnesium, and calcium. 
This is typical of groundwater in limestone aquifers that are undergoing 
dissolution. Surficial aquifer water is acidic and has high values for 
sodium, chloride, and nitrate. 

Primary sources of pollution of both ground and surface water are 
domestic wastewater which contributes bacteria and virus, agriculture 
which contributes phosphates, nitrates, and pesticides, ajid stormwater 
runoff which contributes a variety of pollutants. A significant problem 
in north central Florida is the direct transferral of surface water 
pollution to groundwater supplies due to sajidy soils, high rainfall, and 
high water tables. Another problem is the introduction of untreated 
stormwater runoff and pollutants to the Floridan aquifer through drainage 
wells. Most of the drainage wells in the district (approximately 50) are 
in the Live Oak area. 



III-8-4 



Common forms of wastewater treatment in the region are individual on-site 
treatment and disposal systems. These include: septic tanks, aerobic 
units, and soil absorption systems such as drain fields, trenches, 
mounds, and evapotranspiration units. When properly located, 
constructed, operated, and maintained, on-site systems can provide low 
cost, reliable treatment although bacterial ajid viral contamination is 
always a potential hazard. Septic tanks rely heavily on appropriate 
soils for biological treatment. Soils that are too wet or that do not 
allow septic tajik leachate to flow through them at a safe rate are 
unsuitable. Disposal of the accumulated sludge, which must be removed 
every few years, is a serious problem. 

Central wastewater treatment facilities are also used throughout Florida. 
The vast majority of wastewater treatment plants in Florida are 
relatively small. Three-fourths of the Florida plants have a capacity of 
less than 100,000 gallons per day (GPD). Treatment may go through 
primary, secondary, ajid advanced levels. A typical primary treatment 
plant consists of preliminary treatment facilities and primary 
sedimentation. Preliminary treatment may include screening, pulverizing, 
grit removal, and flow measurement. Primary sedimentation allows 
relatively large solid materials to settle while floatable scum is 
removed at the surface. Normally, chlorination is used to destroy many 
disease-causing organisms. 

Secondary treatment consists of biological treatment using activated 
sludge, trickling filters, or rotating biological contactors. In aji 
activated sludge system, microorgajiisms are used to stabilize the orgajiic 
materials in the wastewater. Treated wastewater from a secondary 
treatment facility is nearly colorless ajid odorless. This is the minimum 
acceptable level of treatment in Florida. 

Advanced wastewater treatment provides for removal of nutrients ajid 
greater removal of suspended solids and organic materials. A land 
application system, such as spray irrigation, is one exajnple of advanced 
wastewater treatment. In such a system, wastewater from a secondary 
treatment system is applied to cropland. Where groundwater conditions 
permit it, a spray irrigation system can result in zero discharge of 
treated wastewaters to surface waters. 

Agricultural activities can cause aquifer and surface water contamination 
through excessive or inappropriate application of chemicals, improper 
disposal of chemical containers, or poor management of animal wastes. 
Nitrates used in fertilizer can be a serious threat to ground water. 
Nitrates are soluble, do not interact with the soil, and can consequently 
follow ground water movements. Similarly, some chemicals in pesticides 
are only moderately adsorbed by soil particles ajid do not degrade rapidly 
after spraying. These chemicals may build up in the soil and eventually 
reach the ground water. In addition, animal feedlots and unlined waste 
lagoons caji also directly pollute ground and surface waters. 



) 



III-8-5 



Lakes 

Alachua County 
Orange LaJte 
Santa Fe Lake 
Little Sajita Fe Lake 
Bivans Arm 
Newnajis Lake 
Lake Lochloosa 

Columbia County 
Vatertown Lake 

Dixie County 
Governor Hill Lake 

Madison County 
LcLke Francis 

Union County 
Lake Butler 



Agencies: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Florida Department of 
Environmental Regulation, Department of Agriculture and Consumer 
Services, Department of Natural Resources, Department of Health and 
Rehabilitative Services, Department of TraJisportation , Game and 
Freshwater Fish Commission, Suwannee River Water Majicigement District, St 
Johns River Water Management District, North Central Florida Regional 
Planning Council, local governments. 



8.2. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #38: Protection of Water Resources 

Background Analysis: Although the groundwater resources of the region 
are of high quality, they are very susceptible to contajnination . In 
surficial aquifers, pollutants move directly from the land surface into 
the groundwater. Pollutants can enter the Floridan aquifer through the 
interchajige of waters between surficial aind secondary aquifers with the 
Floridam. In addition, contaminants can reach the Floridan directly from 
surfacewater runoff which enters sinks with direct access to the 
Floridan, directly from the land surface where the Floridan is at or near 
the surface, and in high percolation recharge areas to contajninate 
potable water supplies. 

Little is known about where and at what rate plumes of pollution move 
through the complex system of groundwater aquifers. However, an alarming 
number of incidents of localized groundwater contajnination have been 
documented around the state in recent years. Pollutants have originated 
from a variety of sources such as known and unknown hazardous waste dump 
sites, leaiking underground storage tanks, and landfills. Incidents 
related to nonpoint pollution sources such as pesticide treatment and 



III-8-8 



# 



L# 



livestock management on agricultural lands and urban stormwater runoff 
also have been identified. Cleanup of aquifer contamination incidents is 
extremely difficult, if not impossible, and is very costly. 

In addition to threats from contcimination , groundwater resources face 
threats from depletion caused by rapid development and over pumping. 
Although water table levels in north central Florida have not generally 
experienced significant drops, groundwater levels have fallen drastically 
in many areas of the state. A reduction in water table levels can have 
significant impacts on surfacewater systems such as lakes and wetlands, 
causing these areas to dry up and lose much of their ecological value. 
Urbanization also reduces local aquifer recharge as a result of paving of 
lajid surfaces and the construction of curbs and storm sewers. Where 
runoff from urban areas is diverted to recharge areas, groundwater 
contamination is a concern that must be addressed. 

The region contains a rich assortment of surface waters comprised of 
rivers and streams, laikes, springs, cypress ponds, swamps and estuaries. 
The headwaters of several coastal basin rivers are located within the 
region. Other rivers which flow through the region, such as the 
Suwannee, Alapaha, and Vithlacoochee , have headwaters located in the 
State of Georgia. In general, the quality of surf acewaters is good. 

The Suwannee River is the second largest river Florida cind is one of the 
most important water resources in the region. The river is 280 miles in 
length, of which 235 miles are in Florida. From its headwaters in the 
Okefenokee Swamp in southern Georgia, the river flows south across the 
Northern Highlands and into the Gulf Coastal Lowlands, eventually 
draining 9,980 square miles before discharging an average of 7,100 
million gallons per day (mgd) into the Suwannee River estuary and the 
Gulf of Mexico. The Suwannee River estuary is a complex system of 
diverse natural communities and is a major nursery for commercial fish 
ajid shellfish. 

The primary tributaries of the Suwannee River are the Alapaha, 
Vithlacoochee, and Santa Fe rivers. The Alapaha ajid Vithlacoochee have 
most of their drainage area in Georgia. The Sajita Fe River has its 
headwaters in the Santa Fe Lakes ajid Lake Alto watersheds located in the 
easternmost portion of the region. Its two important tributaries. New 
River and Olustee Creek, have their headwaters in southern Baker County. 
A third tributary, the Ichetucknee River, is a clear, spring-fed streajn 
ajid a very popular recreation site. 

Lying to the south and east of the lower Suwannee River valley is the 
Vacassassa River basin. The Vacassassa River and its small tributary 
system form the major drainage system in aji area of approximately 924 
square miles. The Vacassassa is a languid stream that begins as a poorly 
defined watercourse connecting swajnps and ponds in Gilchrist County. 

The Aucilla is the westernmost river system in the region. Its 
headwaters are in southern Georgia and it drains approximately 880 square 
miles. The spring-fed Vacissa River, its primary tributary, joins the 
Aucilla in the lower coastal plain. Southeast of the Aucilla basin is 



III-8-9 



the coastal rivers basin, a generally poorly drained area in Taylor, 
Dixie ajid Lafayette counties with numerous lakes, ponds, swaunps , and 
creeks. Principal drainage to the Gulf of Mexico is provided by the 
Econfina, Fenholloway, and Steinhatchee rivers. 

There are over 100 known springs in the region, most of which are found 
in the Suwajinee ajid Santa Fe river basins. Of the 27 first magnitude 
springs (average flow, 64.6 mgd or more) in Florida, 10 are located in 
the region. The majority of the springs issue under artesian pressure 
from the Floridan aquifer with an average water temperature of 70 degrees 
Fahrenheit . 

The types of lakes in the region include landlocked, or perched, as well 
as those with streams running both in ajid out of them. The vast majority 
of the laJtes are shallow and small in surface area although there are a 
few large laices such as Hixtown Swamp (9,776 acres), the Santa Fe system 
(5,856 acres). Lake Sajnpson (2,042 acres), and Ocean Pond (1,774 acres). 

All waters of the Suwannee River Water Management District (SRVMD) are 
designated as Class III waters except: (1) the Fenholloway River in 
Taylor County, which is designated Class V; (2) Jumping Gully Creek, an 
unclassified creek in Hamilton County; and (3) most tidal creeks and 
coastal waters, which are designated Class II. Class III provides for 
recreation and propagation and management of fish ajid wildlife. Class V 
for navigation, utility, and industrial use. Class II for shellfish 
propagation or harvesting, and Class I, for public water supply. In 
addition, the State has designated the Suwannee, the Santa Fe , and the 
Aucilla rivers as Outstanding Florida Waters, a designation that affords 
them the highest protection possible under state water quality rules by 
prohibiting the degradation of water quality. 

Water quality in the Suwannee River basin amply illustrates the generally 
high quality of surface water conditions in the region. Surface water in 
the uppermost portion of the basin is primarily derived from runoff. 
Water quality at stations near the headwaters reflects the influence of a 
poorly drained, heavily vegetated sedimentary environment. 
Characteristically, the water is acidic, low in dissolved organic 
constituents, high in concentrations of organic material, and highly 
colored. Further downstream in the vicinity of White Springs, the 
Floridan aquifer outcrops in the river corridor and surface water becomes 
a mixture of runoff ajid groundwater discharge from springs and seeps. A 
trend of increasing pH and specific conductivity, and decreasing, total 
organic carbon ( TOC ) begins in this stretch of the river as a result of 
discharge from the aquifers to the Suwannee River. Along the entire 
river, water quality at times of high flow tends to approach the 
character of high organic surface water of the headwater areas. 
Downstream from White Springs, low or base flow takes on groundwater 
characteristics. 

Increases in the mean concentrations of some inorganic chemical 
constituents and nutrients such as phosphorus, total nitrogen, and 
nitrate in the Suwannee River below White Springs are the result of 
inflow of tributaries receiving discharges from the phosphate mining 



III-8-10 



%> 



IJ» 



operation in Hajnilton County. Similar increases in nitrate 
concentrations below Ellaville strongly suggest that recharge and runoff 
from agricultural areas where fertilizers are used are affecting river 
water quality. From Wilcox downstreajn water quality shows little 
variation because the effects of any local activities are diluted by 
discharges from other parts of the basin. 

The ambient water quality of the river and the effects that pollution 
might have on the estuary are being addressed in a joint, ongoing. 
Department of Environmental Regulation and Suwauinee River Water 
Mainagement District study. The study will improve the Department's and 
the District's regulation of the Suwannee River by defining the ambient 
water quality of the river, determining the causes ajid extent of certain 
water quality problems, and establishing a baseline for water pollutant 
discharge regulation. 

The most serious water quality problem in the Region is the Fenholloway 
River, the only water body in Florida classified "industrial", the 
State's lowest water quality ranking. Located in Taylor County near the 
City of Perry, the Fenholloway receives discharges from a cellulose mill 
and has poor water quality as indicated by low biological diversity, low 
dissolved oxygen, high nutrients, ajid high color, despite some industry 
improvements over the last few years. Other problem water bodies are 
Hogtown Creek, which is contaminated with phenols and pine tar residues. 
The creek drains much of Gainesville and empties into Haile Sink. Blues 
Creek within the City of Alachua, which flows into the Sain Felasco 
Hammock State Preserve, is coming under increasing pressure from adjacent 
development. Another water body of potential concern is Spring Creek, 
which flows through the City of Perry. Each of these streajns have the 
potential of adversely affecting the Floridan aquifer or a natural area 
of regional significance. 

The Florida Department of Environmental Regulation conducted a ranking of 
named laJces in the state to determine those laJces in need of protection 
or restoration. This classification is based on water quality, presence 
of aquatic weeds, recreation, public interest, impaired use, and nutrient 
loading. Identified laJtes in need of protection are Orajige and Santa Fe 
(Alachua County), Watertown (Columbia County), Governor Hill (Dixie 
County), and Butler (Union County). Identified lakes in need of 
restoration are Bivans Arm and Newnans (Alachua County) and Francis 
(Madison County). Surprisingly, Alligator Lake, located in Lake City, 
was omitted from the list. Alligator Lake receives treated sewage 
effluent and urban runoff and is highly eutrophic. 

The quality of surface waters such as rivers, lakes, streams, and 
estuaries in other areas of the state has also been adversely threatened 
by activities accompanying intense agricultural development and 
urbanization. Domestic wastewater effluent from sewage treatment 
facilities and septic tanks introduces nutrients and biological or viral 
contaimination . Stormwater and aigr icultural runoff carry sediment, heavy 
metals, pesticides, and other pollutants to these waters. The loss of 
the natural filtering processes that accompanies the destruction of 



III-8-1 1 



wetlands aind vegetation fringing surfacewater bodies also exacerbates the 
deterioration of surfacewater quality. 

While the statutory responsibility for the regulation of water quality 
ajid water quantity has been given primarily to the state Department of 
Environmental Regulation and the water management districts, the 
relationship of land development practices to water resource issues is 
crucial and direct. Since local governments are the primary regulators 
of land use, the authority and prograuns of state and regional water 
resource agencies must be integrated with local lajid use decisions. This 
problem has been recognized in almost every ajialysis of Florida's 
environmental legislation including such blue ribbon committees as the 
Resource Planning and Management Task Force (Jajiuary 1980) and the 
Environmental Land Management Study Committee II (February 1984). 

Integrating the authority, operating policies, and technical expertise of 
state and regional agencies which regulate water resources with the 
direct responsibility of local governments to regulate ajid control land 
use practices in their jurisdictions is one of the most crucial 
objectives of the statewide planning frajnework. 



Regional Water Resources: 

Drainage Basins 
Aucilla River Basin 
St. Marks River Basin 
Ochlocknee River Basin 
Suwannee River Basin 
St. John's River Basin 
Coastal Drainage Basin 



Vithlacoochee River 
AlapaJia River 
Ichetucknee River 
Aucilla River 
Steinhatchee River 
Econfina River 
Fenholloway River 
Spring Warrior Creek 



Aquifers 
Floridan aquifer 
secondary artesian aquifers 
water table aquifers 

Freshwater Wetlands 
California Swajnp 
Spring Warrior Swamp 
Bee Haven Bay 
Gum Root Swajnp 
Wacassassa Flats 
Hixtown Swajnp 
Santa Fe Swamp 
Pinhook Swamp /Sandl in Bay 
Tide Swamp 
Mai lory Swamp 
San Pedro Bay 

Rivers 
Suwannee River 
Santa Fe River 



Springs 

Alachua County 
Hornsby Spring 
Poe Springs 

Columbia County 
Ichetucknee Springs 
Bell Springs 

Dixie County 
Copper Springs 

Gilchrist County 
Blue Springs 
Ginnie Springs 
Hart Springs 
Rock Bluff Springs 
Sun Springs 



III-8-12 



» 



Hamilton County 
Morgan's Spring 
White Springs 
Alapaha Rise 
Helton Spring 

Lafayette County 
Allen Mill Pond Spring 
Blue Spring 
Fletcher Spring 
Mearson Spring 
Owens Spring 
Ruth Spring 
Troy Spring 
Turtle Spring 

Madison County 
Blue Spring 
Suwanacoochee Spring 

Suwannee County 
Branford Spring 
Charles Spring 
Ellaville Spring 
Falmouth Spring 
Little River Springs 
Peacock Springs 
Running Springs 
Suwajinee Springs 
Telford Springs 

Sinks 

Alachua County 
Devil's Millhopper 
Haile Quarry 
Alachua Sink 
Sinkholes and Quarries in 

Newberry Area 
Alachua Sink 
Kanapaha Sink 
Robinson Sink 

Bradford County 
Brooks Sink 

Columbia County 
Alligator Lake 

Dixie County 
Lime Sink 



Hamilton County 
Alapaiia Rise 

Madison County 
Blue Sink 
Campbell Sink 
Johnson Sink 
Patterson Sink 
Rogers Sink 

Suwannee County 
Sailor Hole 
Challenge Sink 
Cisteen Sink 
Olson Sink 
Orange Grove Sink 
Terrapin Sink 

Taylor County 
Adams Sink 
Aucilla River Sinks 
California Sink 
Page Sink 

Stream-to-Sink Watersheds 

Alachua County Recharge Area 
Columbia County Southern Recharge 

Area 
Columbia County Western Recharge 

Area 
Hamilton County Recharge Area 
Madison County Recharge Area 
Suwajinee County Recharge Area 

High Percolation Rate Recharge 
Areas 
Yet To Be Defined 

Lakes 

Alachua County 
Orange Lake 
Santa Fe Lake 
Little Santa Fe Lake 
Bivans Arm 
Newnajis Lake 
Lake Lochloosa 

Bradford County 
Lake Sampson 



III-8-13 



Columbia County 
Vatertovm Lake 

Dixie County 
Governor Hill Lake 

Madison County 
Lake Francis 

Union County 
Lake Butler 

Coastal Area 
Big Bend Seagrass Beds Aquatic 

Preserve 
Coastal marsh, Estuaries, suid 
Coastal Freshwater Wetlands 



Agencies: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Florida Department of 
Environmental Regulation, Department of Environmental Resources, 
Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Department of Natural 
Resources, Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Department 
of Transportation, Game and Freshwater Fish Commission, Suwannee River 
Water Management District, St. Johns River Water Management District, 
North Central Florida Regional Planning Council, local governments. 



8.5. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #59: Protection of Natural Systems 

Background Analysis: In addition to the river systems, the region 
contains four water habitats whose existence and health are dependent 
upon the quality, quantity, and hydroperiod of their waters. These are 
swamp forests, wet prairies, salt marshes, and submerged lands. In 
addition to these water-dependent habitats, the impact of floods must be 
considered when discussing water-related natural systems. The water 
habitats of the region provide important functions which are of benefit 
to flood control, to economic activities, and to the health of the 
region's ecosystem, including the temporary storage of overflow and 
surface runoff which moderates the impacts of floods; water quality 
improvements resulting from the settlement of sediments and removal of 
pollutants by biological processer; the preservation of native plant and 
animal species which require water-related habitats for their sustenance 
ajid survival; and basic biological productivity within the system and in 
the complex chains of related estuarine systems through detritus and 
nutrient transport. 

Swaunp forests, or deciduous hardwood swamps, are found bordering rivers 
ajid basins where the forest floor is saturated or submerged during a 
portion of each year. Other terms for this community are floodplain 
forest, hydric hammock and river swamp. Such communities are 
characterized by hardwoods such as black gum, water rupulo, red maple, 
sweetgum, water oaJt , and water hickory. Other typical trees include the 



III-8-14 



bald cypress and cabbage palm. Within the North Central Florida Region, 
swajnp forests are typically encountered along the floodplains of the 
Suwannee, Steinhatchee , Santa Fe ajid Econfina Rivers. 

Animals inhabiting these areas include species such as the bobcat, deer, 
turkey, grey squirrel, otter, pileated woodpecker, wood duck, as well as 
numerous other birds, turtles, and snakes. In general, the productivity 
of both plant and animal systems in swajnp forests is very high because of 
the diverse habitat, the availability of nutrients, and the periodic 
flooding and drying essential to the maintenance of this system. _. 
Wet prairies and freshwater marshes cover a very limited area in North \ 
Central Florida. They are defined by any grass-sedge-rush community 
occurring in an area where the soil is saturated or covered with water 
two or more months of the year. Payne's Prairie in Alachua County is the 
most notable exajnple of this type of community in the region, but 
occurrences are also noted in western Madison County and northern 
Columbia County. Prairie communities are very productive in wildlife. 
Numerous wading birds, water fowl, frogs, and other amphibians inhabit 
such areas. Majiy rare and/or endangered species rely upon this habitat, 
including the wood stork, sandhill crane, and Florida round-tailed 
muskrat . 

Salt marshes are plant communities that have developed in inter-tidal 
zones along low energy coasts. Tidal marshes extend along the full 
length of the coasts of Dixie and Taylor counties. The salt marsh 
appears to average between one-half and one mile in width but penetrates 
several miles inland in some places, most notably at Shired Island and 
Horseshoe Cove where the Suwannee River and California Swamp waters enter 
the Gulf. 

For a given plaint species or community to survive in the region's coastal 
environment, only a few inches of vertical elevation may determine 
suitability for growth. Vegetation in marsh areas include salt marsh 
grass, which forms aji almost pure stand in an outer band of the salt 
marsh where it is exposed to the deepest and longest inundation by salt 
water during high tide. The black rush is commonly found on slightly 
higher ground. Black rush generally covers the greatest area of any salt 
marsh. With a height up to six or seven feet, its density slows the 
penetration of tidal water into the marsh. The height of the Black Rush 
drops inlajid as that system merges with a third ecological zone. The 
salt flats and the subsequent barrens area consisting of bare ground is 
flooded only by exceptionally high storm tides for brief periods of time. 
In such areas only lower plants, such as blue-green algae, are abundant. 
The species existing in any one area are usually dependent upon the 
degree of inundation by tides as well as the salinity of the water. 

Nutrients from the land and sea combine in the salt marsh to produce more 
protein than some of the most intensively managed farms. Recent studies 
indicate that as much as 80.0 percent of the nutrients found within the 
region's salt marsh originates from upland sources. ' In addition to the 
region's rivers which empty to the Gulf, nutrients are supplied to the 
Gulf from lamd areas with direct sheet-flow connection to the salt marsh. 



III-8-15 



Salt marshes harbor large numbers of invertebrates which are fed upon by 
many of the higher ajiimals of the marsh and estuary, and consequently are 
of particular importance to Florida. Many commercial fish such as the 
spotted sea trout, mullet, redfish ajid others spend much of their lives 
in the productive wetland areas afforded by marshes. In addition, crabs, 
oysters, some species of clajns, several species of shrimp and other gulf 
marine life depend on the salt marsh for food, protection, ajid breeding. 
The destruction of salt marshes could therefore have significant economic 
consequences which demand their preservation. Other animal species which 
abound in the salt marsh ecosystem include numerous species of birds, 
such as rails, egrets, gulls, turns, and seaside sparrows. In addition, 
the endangered bald eagle breeds in several areas of salt marsh habitat 
in Taylor County. Characteristic animals also include diamond-back 
terrapin, salt marsh snake, mink otter and raccoon. In addition, the 
coastal marshes provide a measure of storm surge protection for inland 
areas ajid serve as a natural tertiary waste treatment facility because of 
the nutrient intake afforded by the abundant vegetative growth. 

Submerged lands and their communities are those salt water ecosystems 
which merge with the coastal marshes at their landward limits and extend 
westward into the Gulf of Mexico a distance between two to six miles 
off-shore (about the six-foot contour). Generally, the salt water 
systems along the northwestern Gulf coast consist of numerous flowering 
plants that grow completely submerged in undiluted sea water. Although 
there are about 35 species of seagrasses in the worlds 's oceans, only 
five have been recognized on the continental shelf of the eastern Gulf of 
Mexico . 

Thalassia testudinum, or turtlegrass, is the most abundauit species in 
this portion of the Gulf. Three other species, including manatee grass 
ajid shoal grass, make up about 90.0 percent of the total seagrass 
biomass. Seagrass beds supply food to grazing animals, provide nutrients 
to the water, add oxygen (during daylight hours) and stabilize bottom 
sediments. Seagrass beds form an important habitat for many small 
crustacean, shellfish, and other invertebrates as well as fish including 
those of economic value. They are nursery areas for young fishes and 
crustaceans and are often the source for a substantial amount of the 
primary productivity of estuaries. Many species, including oysters, 
crab, sea trout, and pompano spend much of their lives in such areas. In 
addition, a variety of reptiles, water fowl, wading birds and aquatic 
maimmals such as the otter and manatee utilize this habitat. Sea turtles 
and manatees feed on seagrasses as well as do some sea urchins, conch, 
parrot fish, sturgeon, trigger fish, and many others. 

In the past, the structural approach to water management predominated 
Florida. Many of the state's natural riverine systems have been 
diverted, channelized, or dajnmed for the purpose of flood control, water 
supply, increased land use, or navigation. However, north central 
Florida contains virtually no water control devices such as dams, levees, 
or other man-made flood control structures. Thus the region is 
heavily-dependent upon natural systems to perform flood control 
functions. Flooding in the region can be categorized into two types of 



III-8-16 



storm events, those induced by hurriccines and those induced by 
frontal-type storms. 

Major differences between the effects of hurricane storms on the coastal 
and uplajid river systems have to do with intensity of wind and water 
action. Except for that part of the region's rivers located within the 
hurricane surge zone, rivers are not subject to hurricane surge or wave 
action. In addition, flooding of riverine systems occur within a defined 
floodway. The concern with riverine flooding is not so much the damage 
which hurricanes can inflict but rather keeping the floodway clear of 
obstacles which may block the water's flow. However, it should be 
pointed out that hurricanes are capable of extensive dajrage anywhere 
within the region. Inland winds generated by hurricanes reach speeds of 
70 to 90 miles per hour while coastal hurricane winds can reach gusts of 
up to 140 miles per hour. 

Storm-water runoff from uplands in the coastal drainage basin may 
discharge so rapidly that it adds to the water level already forced up by 
a sea storm or hurricane. Uplands runoff can thereby cause increased 
flooding along the shores of a confined coastal embayment. In the case 
of North Central Florida, this is especially important for coastal 
communities located at the mouths of rivers, i.e., the towns of Suwannee 
and Steinhatchee . The magnitude of storm necessary to cause inundation 
of these areas is to some extent dependent upon water management 
practices of in the upland areas of the coastal drainage basin. 

Furthermore, hurricanes are often preceded by many hours of heavy rains 
which saturate the soil, cause advance runoff, ajid raise the water level 
in rivers and bays before the surge hits. Pre-hurricaiie rainfalls of 
five inches or more are common, and far greater rainfalls have been 
recorded. Both upland and costal wetlands help to reduce the impact of 
this water through their normal function of retaining and gradually 
releasing stormwater runoff. When wetlands areas within the coastal 
drainage basin are filled ajid drained, a significant increase may cause 
increased surfacewater runoff within the coastal basin and increase the 
likelihood of coastal flooding. 

A combination of strong winds and rapidly moving water can dislodge roofs 
and poorly fastened structural members and send them hurtling through the 
air like missiles or float them downstream. It is entirely possible for 
unsecured air-tight structures, such as mobile homes, to be washed off 
their foundation and swept downstreajn, breaking up and littering the 
streambanks or crashing into nearby buildings. Other concerns include 
the pollution of riverine floodwaters and underground aquifers from 
stores of hazardous chemicals, pesticides, fertilizers, and petroleum 
products washed away by floodwaters. 

Most of the region has permeable soil and sparse distribution of 
tributary streams. Normal runoff to the primary watercourse is 
accomplished largely by way of sinks, seepage, and underground channels. 
During periods of sustained rainfall, groundwater levels are high, sinks 
and depressions overflow, ajid flood runoff reaches the main river system 



III-8-17 



mostly by sheet flow over the saturated soils. There are no large 
reservoirs, diversions, or streajn regulating structures in the basin. 
The limited storage provided by numerous small laJces and ponds has little 
effect on the 100-year flood elevations. 

The average bottom slope of the Suwannee River is less than those of the 
tributaries. Flooding in the lower reaches of the tributaries to the 
Suwannee River is accentuated by channel control and backwater effect 
from the main river. Also, several highway and railroad bridge 
structures intrude into the floodplain and aggravate flood conditions. 
Combinations of the above factors cause frequent and prolonged flooding 
in the basin after severe storms ajid extended rainfall periods. For 
storms causing major flooding, it is not uncommon for floodwaters to 
remain for 30 days over the lowlands and for longer periods in 
depressions that drain by percolation and seepage. 

Although the Suwajinee-Santa Fe river system ajid coastal rivers have not 
been modified for flood or erosion control purposes, several short, 
narrow, and shallow navigation channels have been dredged at the mouth of 
the Suwannee and Steinhatchee rivers as well as at Horseshoe Beach. Most 
of the original channel dredging occurred many years ago prior to an 
environmental awareness of the dajnage caused by destroying seagrass ajid 
oyster beds. In addition, a lack of understanding of natural processes 
resulted in the creation of channels which did not follow natural current 
flows. These channels can fill with silt so quickly that some need to be 
dredged every two to three years. 

Historically, land development in Florida was commenced by engineering 
elaborate systems of channels, dams, levees, ajid other structures to 
drain land ajid hold back flood waters. As a result of these efforts to 
"reclaim" dry land for agriculture and urban purposes, Florida's 20 
million acres of wetlands have been reduced to fewer than 8 million acres 
since 1850. More than half of that loss has occurred in the last 25 
years. Yet after the expenditure of billions of dollars, the lajid 
development made possible by drainage of wetlands, structural alterations 
in floodplains, ajid diking of floodprone areas has not been effectively 
protected from flood dajnage. 

Recent state policy has encouraged a nonstructural approach to flood 
control that seeks to avoid flood damages and losses and to prevent the 
degradation of the natural values of river systems. The Suwannee River 
Water Management District has adopted a policy of nonstructural 
floodplain management. The only water control structure on the Suwannee 
River is an earthen sill nearly six miles long with two spillways. This 
structure, located in Georgia, was the result of an Act of Congress, 
which called for the sill to provide for the protection of the Okefenokee 
National Wildlife Refuge against dajnage from fire and drought. 

The nonstructural floodplain majiagement approach includes research, 
public education, land acquisition, and local regulation as a means to 
protect water resources and lives in floodprone areas. Major areas of 
concern are the floodplains of the Suwannee River and its tributaries. 



III-8-18 



These areas have come under Increasing development pressure, threatening 
the region's greatest natural asset. 

The Suwannee River Resource Planning and Management Committee was 
established in 1980 to devise a management plan for the SuwaJinee-Santa Fe 
river system. The Committee, composed of representatives from 
government, private industry, and the public, had as its principal 
objective the creation of a management plan for the river system. From 
this Committee, a subcommittee was established to develop recommendations 
for floodplain management. The subcommittee quickly identified the need 
for floodplain management standards that would protect the floodplain aind 
reduce future flooding problems. 

As a result of the Committee's efforts, a model floodplain ordinance was 
adopted in the fall of 1982 by each county bordering the rivers in the 
Suwannee River basin. These ordinances govern all development within the 
100-year floodplains of the rivers. 

The floodplain ordinance contains five major elements: (1) a building 
setback line of 75 feet from the commonly recognized river baink is 
required in which only limited land clearing is allowed; (2) all 
habitable structures, including mobile homes, will be elevated to one 
foot above the level of the 100-year flood without the use of fill; (3) 
an elevation survey must be made from the nearest benchmark to a point on 
the ground at each homesite. This is used to determine the height above 
ground at which a habitable structure must be built in order to be above 
the 100-year flood; (4) if the county health department determines that a 
mounded septic system is necessary for proper sanitary functioning, the 
mound cannot exceed 4 feet in height or contain more than 160 cubic yards 
of fill; and (5) roads must be constructed at natural grades without the 
use of fill. 

The Suwannee River Water Management District, working with the United 
States Army Corps of Engineers, has prepared more accurate floodplain 
information. Work products included surveying, aerial photography, 
contour mapping, flood elevation data, ajid a detailed hydrologic and 
hydraulic computer model of the Suwajinee River. 



Wetland acreage loss within north central F 
Almost all of the region's commercial fores 
addition, substantial portion of the region 
has been drained as well. However, despite 
not experienced the degree of surface alter 
state has experienced. The coastal marsh i 
quality of both surface and groundwaters is 
populations of native plant and ajiimal spec 
region. A large ajuount of wetland habitat 
for the region is to maintain the existing 
beneficial water-related functions while ac 
population increases. 



lorida has been considerable, 
t lajids have been drained. In 
's cropland and pastureland 

this activity, the region has 
ation which other parts of the 
s still very productive. The 

high. Substantial 
ies still exist within the 
still exists. The challenge 
natural systems and their 
commodating the projected 



III-8-19 



Regional Water Resources; 

Drainage Basins 
Aucilla River Basin 
St. Marks River Basin 
Ochlocknee River Basin 
Suwannee River Basin 
St. John's River Basin 
Coastal Drainage Basin 



Rock Bluff Springs 
Sun Springs 

Hamilton County- 
Morgan's Spring 
Vhite Springs 
A lap aha Rise 
Holton Spring 



Freshwater Wetlands 
California Swamp 
Spring Warrior Swamp 
Bee Haven Bay 
Gum Root Swamp 
Wacassassa Flats 
Hixtown Swamp 
Santa Fe Swamp 

Pinhook Swamp /Sandl in Bay 
Tide Swamp 
Mai lory Swamp 
San Pedro Bay 



Lafayette County 
Allen Mill Pond Spring 
Blue Spring 
Fletcher Spring 
Mearson Spring 
Owens Spring 
Ruth Spring 
Troy Spring 
Turtle Spring 

Madison County 
Blue Spring 
Suwanacoochee Spring 



Rivers 
Suwannee River 
Santa Fe River 
Withlacoochee River 
Alapaha River 
Ichetucknee River 
Aucilla River 
Steinhatchee River 
Econfina River 
Fenholloway River 
Spring Warrior Creek 

Springs 

Alachua County 
Hornsby Spring 
Poe Springs 

Columbia County 
Ichetucknee Springs 
Bell Springs 

Dixie County 
Copper Springs 

Gilchrist County 
Blue Springs 
Ginnie Springs 

Hart Springs 



Suwannee County 
Branford Spring 
Charles Spring 
Ellaville Spring 
Falmouth Spring 
Little River Springs 
Peacock Springs 
Running Springs 
Suwannee Springs 
Telford Springs 

Sinks 

Alachua County 
Devil's Millhopper 
Haile Quarry 
Alachua Sink 

Sinkholes and Quarries in 
Newberry Area 
Alachua Sink 

Kanapaha Sink 
Robinson Sink 

Bradford County 
Brooks Sink 

Columbia County 
Alligator Lake 



III-8-20 



Dixie County 
Lime Sink 



Bradford County 
Lake Sampson 



Hajnilton County 
Alapaha Rise 

Madison County 
Blue Sink 
Campbell Sink 
Johnson Sink 
Patterson Sink 
Rogers Sink 

Suwannee County 
Sailor Hole 
Challenge Sink 
Cisteen Sink 
Olson Sink 
Orange Grove Sink 
Terrapin Sink 



Columbia County 
Vatertown Lake 

Dixie County 
Governor Hill Lake 

Madison County 
Lake Francis 

Union County 
Lake Butler 

Coastal Area 
Big Bend Seagrass Beds Aquatic 

Preserve 
Coastal Marsh, Estuaries, and 

Coastal Freshwater Wetlands 



Taylor County 
Adams Sink 
Aucilla River Sinks 
California Sink 
Page Sink 

Stream-to-Sink Watersheds 

Alachua County Recharge Area 
Columbia County Southern Recharge 

Area 
Columbia County Western Recharge 

Area 
Hajnilton County Recharge Area 
Madison County Recharge Area 
Suwannee County Recharge Area 

High Percolation Rate Recharge 
Areas 
Yet To Be Defined 

LaJces 

Alachua County 
Orange Lake 
Santa Fe Lake 
Little Santa Fe Lake 
Bivans Arm 
Newnans Lake 
Lake Lochloosa 



I 



III-8-21 



Agencies: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Florida Department of 
Environmental Regulation, Department of Environmental Resources, 
Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Department of Natural 
Resources, Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Department 
of Transportation, Gajne and Freshwater Fish Commission, Suwannee River 
Water Management District, St. Johns River Water Management District, 
North Central Florida Regional Planning Council, local governments. 

Endnotes: 



1 . Edward A. Fernald and Donald J. Patton, Water Resources Atlas of 
Florida , (Florida State University: Tallahassee, FL . : 1985), p. 
218. 



Ibid. , p. 284 



David W. Fisk, Distribution of Recharge to and Discharge From the 
Floridan Aquifer in the Suwannee River Water Management District , 
(Suwannee River Water Majiagement District: Live Oak, FL . : 1984-), 
map. 



4. Limnology of the Suwannee River, Florida , (Department of 

Environmental Regulation: Tallahassee, FL.: 1985), p. iv. 



5. Edward A. Fernald and Donald J. Patton, Water Resources Atlas of 
Florida , (Florida State University: Tallahassee, FL . : 1985), p. 
76. 



Fernald and Patton, p. 80 



Judy. P. Stoudt, The Ecology of Irregularly Flooded Salt 
Marshes of the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico: A Community 
Profile , (Marine Environmental Sciences Consortium: Dauphin 
Island, AL.: December, 1984), p. 6. 



Florida Department of Community Affairs, The State Land 
Development Plan 1986-2000 , (Tallahassee, FL . : March 7, 1986), 
p. 17. 



( 



III-8-22 



I 



STATE GOAL 9: COASTAL AND MARINE RESOURCES 

Florida shall ensure that development and marine resource use and beach 
access improvements in coastal areas do not endanger public safety or 
important natural resources. Florida shall, through acquisition and 
access improvements, make available to the states' population additional 
beaches and marine environment, consistent with sound environmental 
plajining. 



Background Analysis: The region's coastline bordering the Gulf of Mexico 
extends approximately 80 linear miles from the Aucilla River, separating 
Taylor and Jefferson Counties, south to the Suwannee River which also 
serves as a county boundary line between for Dixie and Levy Counties. 
The coastline is characterized by rock outcroppings , oyster reefs and 
island clusters. Salt marshes extend nearly the whole length of Dixie 
and Taylor Counties penetrating several miles inland in some places, 
broken only by streams and a very few areas of beach. Beaches and 
semi-enclosed bays are rare due to a zero-energy shoreline which, in' 
general, does not enhance beach development. At this time, the 
environmental quality of the Gulf coast in Dixie and Taylor Counties is 
generally excellent with few problems of regional significance. 

The entire coastal wetland ecosystem including salt marshes, estuaries, 
tidal flats, freshwater marshes, as well as the Gulf itself, all interact 
to provide fish and wildlife species with the elements required for their 
propagation, growth and survival. The salt marshes combine nutrients 
from the land and sea to produce more protein than some of the most 
intensively managed farms. They are nursery areas for young fishes and 
crustaceans and are often a source for a substantial amount of the 
primary productivity in estuaries. In addition, the estuary at the mouth 
of the Suwannee provides a very important summer feeding and resting 
habitat for the endangered Vest Indian manatee. The estuary is reported 
to be a manatee calving area as well. The Crystal River-Suwannee River 
manatee colony has special significance as the only Vest Indian manatee 
colony in the United States whose population is expanding. 

The Big Bend Seagrass Beds extend approximately 25 miles westward from 
the coastal marsh into the Gulf of Mexico to depths of 53 feet.^ The 
seagrasses are comprised predominantly of Thalassia testudinum, halodule 
wrightii, Syringodium filiforme, and Halophilla. The seagrass beds are 
important to the overall ecology of the eastern Gulf of Mexico and 
support numerous commercially and recreationally important fish and 
wildlife species.^ The Big Bend Seagrass Beds have received designation 
as both a State Aquatic Preserve and an Outstanding Florida Vater . 

The Florida Middle Ground live bottom area is located in water depths up 
to 125 feet and lies in an area between 47 and 66 miles southeast of the 
mouth of the Steinhatchee River. It consists of approximately 152,000 
acres of coral reefs similar to those found in the Caribbean and 
represents the northernmost extent of coral reefs in the eastern Gulf. 



III-9-1 



Live bottom areas such as the Florida Middle Ground are of concern 
because of their biological productivity as well as their use as fish 
habitats. The Florida Middle Ground is probably the best known and most 
biologically developed of the live bottom areas of the Gulf and has been 
designated as a Habitat Area of Particular Concern (HAPC) by the Gulf of 
Mexico Fishery Management Council. 

Its considerable distance from shore and moderating currents allow 
occupation of the Middle Ground by numerous fishes normally found in the 
Caribbean-west Indies region. Transparent waters, shallow reef crests, 
irregular bottom topography, well-defined currents, and carbonate 
sediments attract many reef fishes which are either rare or absent at 
other Vest Florida Shelf reefs. The dominant stony corals of the Middle 
Ground include Madracis decactis, Porites divaricata, Dichochocoencia 
stellaris, and Dichochcenia stokesii. Octocorals, a relatively minor 
component of other Gulf reefs, are prominent on the Middle Ground. 
Dominant forms include Muricea elongata (orange Muricea), Muricea laxa 
(dekucate Muricea), Eunicea calyculata (warty Eunicea), and Plexaura 
flexuosa (sea rod). 

Despite the distance from the coast to the Florida Middle Ground, sport 
fishermen and recreational divers frequent the area. The Middle Ground 
is also frequented by commercial fishing boats since the primary fish 
species found in the area include the red snapper and grouper. 

Species in sport and commercial fisheries of the eastern Gulf are 
dependent on nursery grounds such as the Big Bend Seagrass Beds and the 
coastal marsh of Dixie and Taylor Counties. In general, the most 
abundant marine fauna dependent upon the coastal marsh and seagrass beds 
include the eastern blue oyster, blue crab, stone crab, bay scallop, pink 
shrimp, white shrimp, rock shrimp, spotted sea trout, red drum, mullet, 
sheepshead, Atlantic sturgeon, Spanish mackerel, bluefish, spotfish, and 
pompano . 

The shrimp fishery of the Gulf of Mexico is the most valuable commercial 
fishery in the United States. Over 80.0 percent of the nation's total 
shrimp catch cajne from Gulf waters.'' The volume and value of shrimp 
harvested in the eastern Gulf represents between one quarter and one 
fifth of the entire Gulf shrimp fishery. The Florida shrimp fishery off 
of Dixie and Taylor Counties is generally limited to locally based 
fishermen. Special emphasis is on bait shrimp for use by the commercial 
and sport fishing industries. 



9.1. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #40: Protection of Coastal Resources 

Background Analysis: The destruction of the marshes could have 
significant econ,^mic consequences which may, if for no other reason, 
demand the preservation of the coastal marsh system. In an effort to 
preserve the region's coastal resources, the state is in the process of 
purchasing approximately 52,500 acres (48 miles of the region's 80 mile 
coastline) through the Save Our Coast program. The lands acquisition 
program will go a long way to preserving the region's coastal resources 



III-9-2 



for future generations and preventing "wall-to-wall" development of the 
coastline . 

Nevertheless, there are several small but growing coastal communities 
within the region where devlopment could, if not properly managed, 
adversely impact coastal resources. These include the town of Horseshoe 
Beach, Steinhatchee , Suwannee, as well as the area of Keaton Beach, Cedar 
Island, Dekle Beach, and Adajns Beach. Population growth in coastal 
communities is likely to increase demand for access to coastal areas and 
resources. One form that this demand has taken is increased use of 
waterways by commercial fishermen and recreational boaters. This has led 
to various proposals for improving existing navigable channels, and 
creating new ones through dredging. 

Seagrass beds and coastal marshes can be adversely affected by channel 
dredging and associated spoils. Spoil deposition as well as the dredging 
process itself can deposit bottom muds on oyster beds and seagrass beds 
thus causing their death through suffocation. Two areas of particular 
concern are the Keaton Beach-Cedar Island Channel near the mouth of Blue 
Creek and the Alligator Pass-Shark Channel at the mouth of the Suwannee 
River. The estuary at the mouth of the Suwannee provides a very 
important summer feeding and resting habitat for the endangered Vest 
Indian manatee. As a result, dredging activities have been confined to 
maintenance of existing channels only in Vest Pass. 

In addition to channel dredging, population growth in coastal communities 
increases the potential for saltwater intrusion into coastal freshwater 
aquifers through overpumping of the groundwater resource for domestic and 
industrial consumption. Among the coastal communities. Horseshoe Beach, 
Steinhatchee, Keaton Beach, Dekle Beach, Cedar Island and Suwannee have 
community water supply systems. 

As coastal communities grow, it becomes increasingly important to 
minimize the alteration of coastal basin freshwater wetlands as these 
areas help to minimize coastal flooding. In addition, growth within 
coastal communities must not significantly alter the coastal sediment 
deposition process. The viability of a productive coastal marsh system 
depends upon the ecological integrity of its surrounding estuarine and 
wetland systems. Freshwater wetlands occupy a large percentage of the 
coastal area in Dixie and Taylor Counties and often occur landward and 
adjacent to the coastal marsh. These wetlands serve to purify stormwater 
runoff before reaching the coastal marsh and also act as a reservoir. 
During the rainy season they help control excess water by their ability 
to retain large volumes of additional water. This water, in turn, slowly 
released over a period of time, helps maintain the flow of freshwater to 
the coastal marsh during dry periods. This vegetative growth is enhanced 
by a ready supply of water, provides abundant resources for wildlife and 
provides a constant supply of nutrients which are essential to coastal 
marsh ecology. 

The Gulf of Mexico coastal marsh is, to some extent, dependent upon the 
unrestricted flow of sediments from its estuaries and sheet flow runoff 
for its existence. Although north central Florida has a zero energy 



III-9-3 



coastline, scouring action erodes the coastal marsh during hurricanes and 
smaller tropical storms. Sand is an important ingredient in wetland 
building because it provides a stable platform in shallow water areas for 
marsh plant communities to develop. Once the flow of sand to the marsh 
area is shut off, the forces of erosion and submergence take over. 

Submergence, the lowering of the land relative to sea level, results from 
an absolute rise in the sea level and the subsidence of the land. The 
sea-level has risen an average of 1.2 millimeters per year over the past 
century. The current estimated rate of sea level rise for the Gulf 
coast is 1.8 mm/yr" .' Subsidence is caused by compaction of the 
sediments and downwarping of the land. As a greater ajnount of marsh 
becomes open water, the remaining marsh is subject to increased erosion 
and intrusion by the invading seawater . 

The greater threat to coastal land appears to be an absolute rise in the 
sea level. Recent studies have suggested that an increased ajnount of 
carbon dioxide in the atmosphere may be causing an overall warming of the 
earth's temperature. Global warming trends are of concern to Florida due 
to the resulting land loss from the melting or partial melting of the 
polar ice caps and absolute rise in the sea level. A one-foot rise in 
the sea level could produce a significant loss of coastal lands in the 
region. The potential for a one-foot rise in the absolute sea level over 
the next 50 years must be considered in the long-range planning and 
management of the coast. 

The withdrawal of oil and gas from beneath a coastal marsh can also 
accelerate land submergence. The surface effects of withdrawing 
hydrocarbons and associated water depend on the nature of the surrounding 
formations, the method of extraction, and the depths at which production 
takes place. Subsidence directly attributable to oil and gas extraction 
in other parts of the Gulf has been normally associated with shallow 
fields (less than 2,000 feet deep) composed of unconsolidated sands. 

Man's major impacts on coastal wetlands have occurred as an indirect, 
rather than direct, result of human activities. For exajnple, while canal 
surface area and associated spoil bank areas comprise only 10.0 percent 
of the coastal wetland area of Louisiana, their effect on marsh hydrology 
covers a much larger area.^ The indirect impacts of canal dredging 
include the impoundment of marsh areas preventing marsh drainage and 
sediment deposition. 



Regional Coastal Resources: 

Coastal Marsh 

Estuaries 

Coastal Freshwater Wetlands 

Coastal Rivers 

Suwannee River 

Aucilla River 

Big Bend Seagrass Beds 

Marine fisheries and marine live bottom communities 



III-9-4 



Agencies: Florida Department of Community Affairs, Department of 
Environmental Regulation, Department of Transportation, Suwannee River 
Water Management District, North Central Florida Regional Planning 
Council, Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council, local governments. 



9.2. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #41: Protection of Marine Resources 

Background Analysis: Six nautical miles seaward of land's end lies the 
limits of the jurisdiction of the state. The area between the state's 
jurisdictional limit and the coastal marsh is comprised of oyster bars as 
well as a portion of the Big Bend Seagrass Beds. The seagrass beds 
throughout the coastal zone are reported to be the most important 
community of the inner continental shelf in terms of basic productivity. 
They provide an essential environment for many species of invertebrate 
and fishes including those of economic value. Submerged grass beds 
supply food to grazing animals, provide detrital nutrients to the water, 
add oxygen (during daylight hours) and stabilize sediments on the sea 
floor. 

An environmental problem of regional significance may result from the 
expansion of available leasing areas for exploratory oil drilling off the 
coast of Dixie and Taylor Counties. Although at present there is a 
30-mile wide federal buffer zone extending seaward from the coast in 
which oil drilling is prohibited, oil spills still represent a 
potentially serious threat to the health of the coastal marsh and Gulf 
fishery. 

Oil drilling activities have the potential for very high impacts on the 
seagrass beds. Live bottoms, oyster beds, and seagrass beds may be at 
risk from drilling muds and cuttings discharge during drilling operations 
as well as to mechanical damage from construction activities. Muds and 
cuttings deposited on top of coral, oysters, and seagrass can deprive 
these species of oxygen, causing them to suffocate. In addition, the 
ecology of the coastal marsh may be severely disrupted by oil spills 
reaching such areas. A major spill could devastate large areas of 
shallow (less than 20 feet in depth) seagrass communities and coastal 
marshes, which could in turn severely dajnage fish populations important 
to both commercial and recreational fisheries. 

These concerns are corroborated by a recent study of the sensitivity of 
Florida's coastal environment to spilled oil which ranks the region's 
coastline as among the most environmentally sensitive in the state. ^^ 
Fish and benthic invertebrate species found along the north central 
Florida coast which are vulnerable to oil spills include the eastern blue 
oyster, blue crab, stone crab, bay scallop, pink shrimp, white shrimp, 
rock shrimp, spotted sea trout, red drum, mullet, sheepshead, Atlantic 
sturgeon, Spanish mackerel, bluefish, spotfish, and pompano. 

Oil exploration in the Gulf has followed a natural progression from 
onshore sites in Texas and Louisiana, to nearby coastal bays and 
estuaries, to the continental shelf, and more recently, to the upper 
continental slope. In the future, new discoveries of oil and gas 



III-9-5 



1 T 

probably will be made in smaller fields and at deeper water depths. '^ 

The geology of the outer continental shelf suggests that oil is less 
likely to be found in the eastern Gulf. Geologic conditions have 
resulted in two dramatically different regions in the northern Gulf. The 
continental margin of the central and western region was subjected to 
rapid sedimentation from the Mississippi River, causing massive 
accumulation of sand, silt, and clay. These land-derived sediments were 
deposited in successively larger wedges of thick, offlapping strata as 
the basin subsided. The wedges were later deformed by the creation of 
salt and shale domes. 

More than 80.0 percent of all oil and gas fields in the Gulf coast are 
related to salt and shale domes or depositional conditions from salt and 
shale dome growth.^ Oil and gas formed in surrounding sediments migrate 
up to the salt plug and accumulate in the many traps associated within 
the structure. Salt and shale structures are almost exclusively found in 
the northern and southwestern Gulf and central deep basin. The eastern 
Gulf was not subject to the massive land-derived sedimentation that 
occurred to the west. Instead, the eastern continental shelf is 
dominated by the Florida Platform, an extensive system of carbonate banks 
that protrudes southeasterly from the continent and extends into the 
Atlantic Ocean. 

Despite the lack of geologic conditions normally associated with oil 
pools, oil lease sales and exploratory drilling have occurred in the 
eastern Gulf. There are expired leases on 15 blocks and active leases on 
nine blocks in the Florida Middle Ground. Sohio has gained permission to 
initiate an exploratory drilling project in this area. The company has 
started its first exploratory well on the site and has approval to drill 
up to three wells. 

Regional Marine Resources: 

Big Bend Seagrass Beds 

Atlantic sturgeon 

Florida Middle Ground Live Bottom Area 

Other Marine Live Bottom Communities 

Fish, Crustaceans, and Benthic Invertebrate Species 

pompano 

spotted sea trout 

red drum 

mullet 

sheepshead 

bluef ish 

spotf ish 

eastern blue oyster 

blue crab 

stone crab 

bay scallop 

pink shrimp 

white shrimp 

rock shrimp 



III-9-6 



Agencies: Florida Department of Community Affairs, Department of 
Environmental Regulation, Department of Transportation, Suwannee River 
Water Management District, North Central Florida Regional Planning 
Council, Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council, local governments. 

9.3. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #42: Public Safety and Access in 
Coastal Areas 

Background Analysis: Both Dixie and Taylor Counties have small 
populations and neither have large urban centers on the coast. The 
coastline of both counties consists almost exclusively of coastal marsh. 
The only beach resources are two small man-made beaches. The region does 
not have a coastal highway. The existing coastal communities rely upon 
roads which connect to U.S. Highway 19, which is located approximately 
fifteen miles inland. The lack of beaches has apparently reduced the 
demand for coastal access. 

Some areas along the coast are, however, beginning to experience some 
growth. Although a small community, the Town of Horseshoe Beach (Dixie 
County), the only incorporated town along the coast, more than doubled 
its population between 1970 and 1980 (145.2^). A number of other 
unincorporated coastal communities such as Suwannee, Steinhatchee , Keaton 
Beach, Dekle Beach, and others are also experiencing some development 
pressure . 

In order to plan for the hurricane zone, an understanding is needed of 
hurricanes, how the elements of a hurricane affect land and structures, 
and how the topography and biologic communities have adjusted over time 
to coastal storms and hurricanes. Due consideration should be given to 
the impact of smaller storms as well. Natural functions which appear 
overwhelmed in the face of hurricanes can play an important role in 
absorbing the impacts of lesser magnitude coastal storms. 

Coastal flooding is distinctly different from riverine flooding. When a 
river floods, the runoff and subsequent damage generally follow the 
river's course. Coastal flooding occurs over broad areas that 
alternately flood and drain during hurricanes and intense winter sea 
storms. To fully understand the danger requires a detailed review of the 
physical hazards associated with these storms and the full range of 
impacts such forces could have on the coastal area. The characteristic 
components of a hurricane which cause physical dajnage are storm surge, 
waves, winds, debris battering, and coastal erosion. 

The onset of the storm surge is usually characterized by a gradual rise 
in the sea level at the shoreline. This gradual rise may begin when the 
hurricane is as much as 500 miles offshore. As the storm moves toward 
the land, the level of the water continues to rise, reaching its maximum 
height when the eye of the hurricane makes its landfall. 

However, dangerously high storm surges can occur all along the coastline 

during a severe hurricane and are not confined to the immediate vicinity 

of the storm center. The high winds associated with hurricanes cause the 

water to shoal or pile up as the storm moves toward the coast, which 



III-9-7 



increases surge height. Furthermore, the storm surge is heightened by a 
shallow coastal bottom, as is the case in the Gulf waters adjacent to 
Dixie and Taylor Counties. Southern Dixie County may see a storm surge 
generated by a medium-sized hurricane generating sustained winds of 111 
miles per hour (mph) and a storm surge elevation of 17 feet. The same 
storm surge may rise as high as 22 feet in northern Taylor County. 
Although wave action is dissipated within the first few hundred yards 
inland, a storm surge of this height will cause flooding several miles 
inland.''® 

Hurricane high-water surges often last three to five hours, during which 
seawater flows into bays with such intensity that it may stop or reverse 
the direction of flow. Furthermore, hurricanes are usually preceded by 
many hours of heavy rains which saturate the soil, cause advance runoff, 
and raise the water level in rivers and bays before the surge hits. 
Pre-hurr icane rainfalls of five inches or more are common. 

The wave is not included with the height of the storra surge. Along the 
Dixie and Taylor County coasts, the wave crest of a medium sized 
hurricane generating sustained winds of 111 mph can be expected to add an 
additional 8 feet in height to the storm surge at the coastline and 
decrease as the surge moves inland. However, the wave is expected to 
drop to less than 3 feet in height after travelling 200 yards inland- 
There are many factors which influence the height of the storm waves. 
These include the wave period, wave length, barometric pressure, and wind 
speed. They also have a significant affect on the two major components 
of the wave force: vertical and horizontal wave pressures. The 
horizontal impact pressure of a hurricane storm wave has tremendous 
destructive potential when breaking directly on coastal structures. 
Vertical forces produce uplift pressures on structures as the wave peaks. 

The shore and nearshore regions of north central Florida can be 
characterized as windy areas, having little topographical relief to slow 
down wind gusts. Hurricanes can gust up to 200 miles per hour with 
sustained winds of 140 miles per hour. Wind forces exerted on structures 
during a hurricane can have devastating effects, particularly in 
conjunction with wave forces. Wind speed increases with height above the 
ground, so tall structures are subject to greater wind pressure than 
lower structures.^ For example, direct horizontal wave ajid wind forces 
can cause inadequately designed structures to move off their foundations, 
collapse from racking, or lose components such as windows, door, and 
roofs. Waves and wind can cause severe battering damage not only in 
forcing water onshore to flood buildings, but also in throwing boats, 
barges, piers, and other floating and wind blown debris inland against 
standing structures. Trees along the coastline may be uprooted and 
projected inland like hurtling missiles and dajnaging structures and other 
trees in their path. Few, if any, residential structures can survive the 
impact of a one-ton object moving at even a slow velocity of seven miles 

L. 20 

per hour . 



III-9-8 



At the shoreline proper, inundation by the storm surge and accompanying 
storm waves can be one to the most destructive elements of a hurricane. 
The tremendous force of a wave can be realized when considering that a 
cubic yard of water weighs over three-fourths of a ton. A breaking wave 
moving shoreward at 60 miles per hour will have devastating effects on 
structures subject to storm surge inundation. Direct vertical wave 
forces from peaking waves will cause structures not securely anchored to 
overturn or be laterally moved off their foundation. Structures that are 
anchored securely but are not elevated high enough above the peaking wave 
height may experience floor cracking leading to flooding and possible 
floor collapse. 

Other direct forces of concern are those associated with the effects of 

rising water. Often the pressure of the wind backs water into streams or 

estuaries already swollen from the additional rainfall brought by the 

storm. An unanchored house located in high water may become buoyant and 

float off its foundation, possibly colliding against another house, 

severely damaging both. Even if a house is left structurally intact, 

flooding may destroy its contents. As a rule of thumb, the average 

one-story, air-tight house will float when water reaches to the 

op 

structure's eaves. 

In estuaries, inundation from a rising water level, rather than direct 
wave action, is the principal threat. The flood waters come principally 
from seawater driven through the estuarine mouth, or inlet, by the force 
of the hurricane. The form of an inlet is a key factor in protection 
against hazards. Inlet channels, if they are narrow, slow the surging 
water entering estuarine basins but also hold back the outward flow of 
rainwater and storm runoff that fill the basins. 

The normally heavy rains that accompany hurricanes and sea storms not 
only fall into the estuary itself but also often produce heavy 
storm-water runoff that flow into the estuary from adjacent uplands. 
Rain and runoff-added to the ocean surge level may, during the course of 
a storm, elevate bay waters higher than the ocean waters outside. The 
result can be extreme flooding of shore communities. 

Hurricanes are often preceded by many hours of heavy rains which saturate 
the soil, cause advance runoff, and raise the water level in rivers 
before the surge hits. Pre-hurr icane rainfalls of five inches or more 
are common, and far greater rainfalls have been recorded. Both upland 
and coastal wetlands help to reduce the impact of this water through 
their normal function of retaining and gradually releasing stormwater 
runoff. When wetlands areas within the coastal drainage basin are filled 
and drained, a significant increase may occur in the impact of 
surfacewater runoff within the coastal basin upon coastal flooding. 

In north central Florida, it is especially important that coastal 
freshwater wetlands ajid surface runoff areas with direct sheet flow to 
the Gulf from the coastal marsh, estuaries and coastal freshwater 
wetlands not be substantially altered so that storm threats to coastal 
communities can be minimized. 



III-9-9 



When a hurricane moves onshore, its high-velocity winds, waves, and l 

currents scour and transport large quantities of coastal marsh sand and 

soil. Sand and soil removed by erosion may be: (1 ) transported and 

stored temporarily in an offshore bar; (2) transported along the shore, 

and/or; (3) transported onto or across barrier islands through overwash 

channels. The extent of shore erosion is especially critical on 

shorelines with residential structures or which have otherwise been 

altered to prevent the normal coastal sediment deposition process. If 

the sediment has been shut off through man-made activities, then the loss 

of coastal marsh may become permanent. 

One of the major concerns with coastal flooding is saltwater intrusion. 
Saltwater associated with storm surge rushes inward to the hurricane 
surge line. The normally dry depressions of lands within the surge zone 
can temporarily retain considerable amounts of surge generated saltwater. 
If saltwater is held long enough, it can damage soil fertility (by 
penetration into the earth) or groundwater quality (by penetration into 
subsurface aquifers). This is a special concern in Dixie and Taylor 
Counties as the Floridan aquifer comes very near the surface at the ' 
coastline. Therefore, construction of seawalls or alterations in 
landscape or topography should not impede the outflow of seawater back to 
the Gulf. 

The danger to life and property from estuarine flooding is exacerbated by 
the intensity of development in the coastal zone. Mounting losses due to 
floods can be expected when new residential, commercial, and industrial 
construction is located in the floodplains of bays and other estuaries. I 

Not only are more people and property exposed, but there is a reduction 
of the coastal basin's natural resistance to floods. 

The coastal basin can help protect communities from sea storms. 
Wetlands vegetation stabilizes estuarine shorelines and prevents erosion. 
Salt marshes may also provide some frictional dissipation of flooding, 
particularly in the broad stretches of vigorous cordgrass and spike-grass 
marshes, especially for lesser magnitude storms. Coastal basin 
freshwater wetlands can, if not substantially altered, absorb some of the 
hurricane generated rainwater, thus helping to reduce coastal flooding. 

Regional Resources: 

Hurricane Evacuation Routes 
State Highway 349 
State Highway 358 
State Highway 51 
State Highway 361 
State Highway 98 

Agencies: Florida Department of Community Affairs, Department of 
Environmental Regulation, Department of Transportation, Suwannee River 
Water Management District, North Central Florida Regional Planning 
Council, Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council, local governments. 

III-9-10 



k 



Endnotes : 



1. Judy P. Stoudt, The Ecoloi^y of Irregularly Flooded Salt 
Narshes of the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico: A community 
Prof i le , (Dauphin Island, AL . : Marine Environmental Sciences 
Consortium, December, 1984), pp. 4-5. 



U.S. Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service, 
Proposed 5-Year Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing 
PrO|e;ram, January 1987 - December 1991 Draft Environmental 
Impact Statement , Vol. 2, (1968), pp. IV. B. 6. -51 and 52. 



3. U.S. Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service, 
Proposed 5-Year Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing 
Program, January 1987 - December 1991 Draft Environmental 
Impact Statement . Vol. 2, (1986), pp. IV. B. 6. -51 and 52. 



4. Ibid . , p. III. A. -65. 



John L. Taylor, David L. Feigenbaum, and Mary L. Stursa, 
"Utilization of Marine and Coastal Resources", cited in Dr. 
J.I. Jones, R.E. Ring, M.O. Rinkel, and Dr. R.E. Smith, ed. , A 
Summary of Knowledge of The Eastern Gulf of Mexico , (St. 
Petersburg, FL . : State University System of Florida Institute 
of Oceanography, 1975), p. IV-20. 



V. Gornitz. S. Lebedeff, and J. Hansen, "Global Sea Level Trend 
in the Last Century," Science , v. 215 (1982), pp. 1,111-1,614. 



D.G. Aubrey and K.O. Emery, "Eigenanalysis of Recent United 
States Sea Levels," Continental Shelf Resources , Vol. 2(1) , 
pp. 21-55. 



Christopher V. Lynch and Stephen P. Risotto, Gulf of Mexico 
Summary Report , (Reston, VA . : Rogers, Golden, & Halpern, Inc., 
1985), p. 78. 



R.E. Turner, R. Costanza, and V.V. Scaife, "Canals and Wetland 
Erosion in Coastal Louisiana," Proceedings of the Conference on 
Coastal Erosion and Vetland Modification in Louisiana: Causes, 
Consequences, and Options , ed. by D.F. Boesch, (U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service, Office of Biological Services, FWS/OBS 
82/59). pp. 75-84. 



III-9-1 1 



10. U.S. Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service. 

Proposed 5-Year Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing 

Program January 1987- December 1991 Draft Environmental Impact 

Statement , vol. 2. (1968), p. IV. B. 6. -19. 



11. Ibid . , vol. 2, p. IV. B. 6. -18. 



1 2 . The Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled 
Oil in the North-Central Florida Rei^ion , (Columbia, S.C.: 
Research Planning Institute. Inc., 1984). 



15. Lynch and Risotto, p. 18. 
14-. Lynch and Risotto, p. 11. 



15. M.T. Halbouty, Salt Domes: Gulf Region, United States and 
Mexico , (Houston, TX . : Gulf Publishing Co., 1979). 



16. R.G. Martin, "Northern and Eastern Gulf of Mexico Continental 
Margin: Stratigraphic and structural Frajnework, in Fraimework 
Facies, and Oil Trapping Characteristics of the Upper 
Continental Margins," Studies in Geology , No. 7, (American 
Association of Petroleum Geologists), pp. 21-4-2. 



17. Lynch and Risotto, p. 37. 



18. North Central Florida Regional Planning Council, North Central 
Florida Regional Hurricane Evacuation Study. Technical Report , 
October, 1985, p. 7. 



18. Orrin H. Pilkey, et . al . , From Currituck to Calabash: Living 
With North Carolina's Barrier Islands , (Research Triangle Park, 
N. C.: North Carolina Science and Technology Research Center, 
1978). 



20. Texas Coastal and Marine Council, Model Minimum Hurricane 

Resistant Building Standards for the Texas Gulf Coast , (Austin 
TX.: Texas State Printing Office, 1978). 



21 . Texas Coastal and Marine Council 



III-9-12 



22. Federal Emergency Management Agency, Proposed Federal Emergency 
Management Agency Disaster Relief Policy for Barrier Islands, 



Beaches, and Spits , (Washington, D.C. 
Printing Office, 1979). 



United States Government 



01 



III-9-15 



r 



STATE GOAL 10: NATURAL SYSTEMS AND RECREATIONAL LANDS 

Florida shall protect and acquire unique natural habitats and ecological 
systems such as wetlands, tropical hardwood hammocks, palm hammocks, and 
virgin longleaf pine forests, and restore degraded natural systems to a 
functional condition. 

10.1. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #45: Protection of Natural Systems 

Background Analysis: North central Florida represents one of the largest 
planning districts in the state in terms of area and one of the smallest 
in terms of population. North central Florida, relatively unpopulated, 
still has large expanses of both coastal and upland wetlands, undeveloped 
and unaltered rivers, and large forested areas. 

The region consists of 6,813 square miles and can be divided into four 
^^ major ecological systems: (1) Gulf coastal marsh and drainage basin; (2) 
the rivers which drain into the coastal marsh; (3) areas with hydrologic 
' connection to the river system, e.g., floodplains; aind (4) areas without 
hydrologic connection to the rivers (internally-drained watersheds). 

Natural systems play an extremely important role in the region's economy 
and quality of life. Drinking water for most urban residents is drawn 
from the Floridan aquifer while some suburban and rural residents rely on 
secondary aquifers. The Suwannee-Santa Fe river system and inland 
marshlands serve a valuable role in regulating surfacewater runoff and 
flooding. The coastal marsh provides a valuable breeding ground for many 
varieties of commercial seafood. Commercial forest lands play an 
important role in the regional economy. For the protection of water 
quality, stream-to-sink watersheds as well as other types of recharge 
areas require special consideration. 

Actions in one part of a system can have significant adverse consequences 
on other parts of the system. For example, the Gulf coastal fishery is 
dependent upon inland detrital and nutrient flows from the Suwannee River 
and coastal river systems. Their nutrient and detrital flows are 
dependent upon headwater swamps. Dredging and filling swajnps such as the 
Okefenokee Swamp in Georgia as well as the region's San Pedro Bay and 
Mallory Swamp could have a negative impact upon the coastal fishery. 

Identification and regulation of those activities which adversely affect 
systems is complicated by the fact that many natural systems extend 
beyond the political jurisdictions of any one single-unit local 
government. The coastal marsh and drainage basin is under the 
jurisdiction of four counties. The Suwannee-Santa Fe river system is 
under the jurisdiction of ten of the region's eleven counties as well as 
two states. The Floridan aquifer underlays all eleven counties. Many 
large habitat areas cross more than one county jurisdiction. Habitat 
corridors, a concept discussed in greater detail in the following policy 
cluster, also cross political jurisdictions. 



III-10-1 



The region is underlain by the Floridan aquifer which serves as the 
primary source of potable water for the urban areas of the region. A 
primary source of water to the Floridan aquifer is through percolation 
(recharge). The subsurface soils help to purify percolating waters. 
Percolation recharge rates vary within the region, depending upon depth 
to aquifer and overlying geologic formations. In some areas, the depth 
to aquifer is very shallow and/or the underlying soil and geologic 
formations are such that recharging groundwater may not receive adequate 
cleansing before reaching the aquifer. A direct hydrologic connection 
exists between surfacewater and the Floridan through certain sinkholes. 
Springs also form a direct hydrologic connection and during certain 
periods of the year actually function as sinks, drawing water down into 
the aquifer. In the case of stream-to-sink watersheds, all the 
pollutajits found within the surfacewater are carried directly to the 
Floridan aquifer. 



( 



Protection of the water quality ajid quantity of the Floridan, secondary, 
and surficial aquifers require the protection of their major sources of 
water, principally areas of direct recharge such as springs and 
sinkholes, as well as prime percolation recharge areas. It is generally 
thought that there is a distinction in the three levels or types of 
aquifers. However, how the three aquifers interact and exchange waters 
is largely unknown. In addition, the boundaries of high percolation 
recharge areas are not precisely known at this time and require further 
study. Nor are the implications for land management of such recharge 
areas once identified, clear at this time. One concern is the use of 
fertilizers, pesticides, ajid herbicides in high recharge areas. It is 
necessary to monitor, and possibly, limit activities within high 
percolation recharge areas and stream-to-sink watersheds for the 
protection of the urbaji area's drinking water supply. 



Approximately 37.0 percent (2,525.2 square miles) of the region has been 
identified by the Council as regionally significant natural areas. They 
often represent the best remaining exajnples of native Florida flora and 
fauna. Natural areas are composed of one or more habitat types. 
Habitats are typically described in terms of vegetative cover, water 
functions, soil types, ajnd land elevation. The correlation between 
habitat type and species expected to occupy a particular habitat type is 
high. North central Florida habitat types are highly complex. For 
example, certain species require intermittently flooded wetlands while 
others require permanently flooded wetlands. Certain species found in 
river beds require a sandy bottom and moving waters while others require 
standing water. 

North central Florida habitat types include pine flatwoods, sandhills, 
mixed swamp, xeric hammock, cypress-tupelo swamp, sand pine scrub, marsh 
and prairie, messic hammock, pine-hardwood forest, hydric hajnmock, 
bayhead, coastal hammock. Many acres of these habitats have been lost to 
urban land uses or have been altered for pastureland and managed pine 
plajitation. Sandhills have been especially hard hit as their 
well-drained, sandy soils are ideally suited to urban development. If 
these habitat types are not closely monitored and regulated, the 



III-10-2 



remaining stands and the plant and animal species they support, may be 
forever lost to future generations of Floridians. 



As of April, 1985, only 186.06 square miles (7.375^) of these areas have 
been subdivided. The amount of regionally significant natural area land 
projected to be subdivided by the year 2020 is 516 square miles, or 20.4- 
percent of all regionally significant natural areas. Virtually every 
regionally significant natural area has experienced at least a small 
amount of subdivision activity. Some areas are projected to receive 
greater development pressure than others. For example, 75.0 percent of 
all lands with frontage on the Suwannee River are will be subdivided by 
the year 2020 if the average number of acres subdivided per year between 
the years 1977 and 1985 continues at the same rate. All of the privately 
held lands bordering the San Felasco Hammock State Preserve, the Payne's 
Prairie State Preserve, and the Devil's Millhopper State Geologic Site 
will be subdivided by the year 2020. 



^ / 



Threats to regionally significant natural areas are not limited to 
subdivision activity. Clear-cut timber harvesting practices on highly ii 
erodible lajids and strip mining activity can destroy large expanses of 
land. Only a few privately held forested areas have managed to survive 
the regular 20 year and 40 year harvesting cycles of the timber 
companies. These areas have survived primarily due to the wetness of 
their soils. These areas are vulnerable to harvesting during dry periods 
when the soil is dry enough to support heavy logging equipment. Mining 
activity has been relatively limited in the region. However, the 
potential exists for increased phosphate mining activity in the future. 



Regional Natural Resources: 



Drainage Basins 
Aucilla River Basin 
St. Marks River Basin 
Ochlocknee River Basin 
Suwannee River Basin 
St. John's River Basin 

Aquifers 
Floridan aquifer 
secondary artesian aquifers 
water table aquifers 

Freshwater Wetlands 
California Swamp 
Spring Warrior Swamp 
Bee Haven Bay 
Gum Root Swamp 
Wacassassa Flats 
Hi X town Swamp 
Santa Fe Swajnp 
Pinhook Swamp/Sandlin Bay 
Tide Swamp 



San Pedro Bay 
Mai lory Swaanp 

Rivers 
Suwannee River 
Santa Fe River 
Withlacoochee River 
Alapaha River 
Ichetucknee River 
Aucilla River 
Steinhatchee River 
Econfina River 
Fenholloway River 
Spring Warrior Creek 

Coastal Drainage Basin 
Coastal Marsh 
Estuaries 

Coastal Freshwater Wetlands 
Big Bend Sesigrass Beds 



III-10-5 



Springs 
Alachua County 
Hornsby Spring 
Poe Springs 

Columbia County 
Ichetucknee Springs 
Bell Springs 

Dixie County 
Copper Springs 

Gilchrist County 
Blue Springs 
Ginnie Springs 
Hart Springs 
Rock Bluff Springs 
Sun Springs 

Hajnilton County 
Morgain's Spring 
White Springs 
Alapaha Rise 
Holton Spring 

Lafayette County 
Allen Mill Pond Spring 
Blue Spring 
Fletcher Spring 
Mearson Spring 
Owens Spring 
Ruth Spring 
Troy Spring 
Turtle Spring 



Haile Quarry 
Alachua Sink 
Sinkholes asid quarries in 

Newberry Area 
Alachua Sink 
Kajiapaiia Sink 
Robinson Sink 

Bradford County 
Brooks Sink 

Columbia County 
Alligator Lake 

Dixie County 

Lime Sink 

Haimilton County 
Alapaha Rise 

Madison County 
Blue Sink 
Campbell Sink 
Johnson Sink 
Patterson Sink 
Rogers Sink 

Suwannee County 
Sailor Hole 
Challenge Sink 
Cisteen Sink 
Olson Sink 
Orange Grove Sink 
Terrapin Sink 



( 



Madison County 
Blue Spring 
Suwajiacoochee Spring 

Suwannee County 
Branford Spring 
Charles Spring 
Ellaville Spring 
Falmouth Spring 
Lixtle River Springs 
Peacock Springs 
Running Springs 
Suwannee Springs 
Telford Springs 

Sinks 
Alachua County 
Devil ' 8 Millhopper 



Taylor County 
Adajns Sink 
Aucilla River Sinks 
California Sink 
PcLge Sink 

Stream-to-Sink watersheds 
Alachua County Recharge Area 
Columbia County Southern Recharge 

Area 
Columbia County Western Recharge 

Area 
Hamilton County Recharge Area 
Madison County Recharge Area 
Suwannee County Recharge Area 



III-10-4 



High Percolation Rate Recharge 
Areas 
Yet to be Identified 

State Parks and Preserves 

National Forests and Wildlife 
Refuges 

State Wildlife Management Areas 

Lakes 

Alachua County 
Orange Lake 
Santa Fe Lake 
Little Santa Fe Lake 
Bivans Arm 
Newnans Lake 
Lake Lochloosa 



Cave Systems 

Unique Habitat Types 

pine flatwoods 

sandhills 

mixed swajTips 

xeric hammocks 

cypress-tupelo swamp 

sand pine scrub 

marsh 

prairie 

mesic hajnmock 

pine-hardwood forest 

hydric hammock 

bayhead 

coastal hammock 



Bradford County 
Lake Sampson 

Columbia County 
Vatertown Lake 

Dixie County 
Governor Hill Lake 

Madison County 
Lake Francis 

Union County 
Lake Butler 



Agencies: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Florida Department of 
Environmental Regulation, Department of Environmental Resources, 
Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Department of Natural 
Resources, Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Department 
of Transportation, Game and Freshwater Fish Commission, North Central 
Florida Regional Planning Council, Suwannee River Water Management 
District, St. Johns River Water Management District, local governments, 
Florida Trail Association, Florida Natural Areas Inventory. 



III-1 



10.2. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #44: Protection of Endangered 
Species 

Background Analysis: North central Florida may well represent the last 
best hope for the survival of many critical species native to Florida 
given the region's large amount of undeveloped land and the high rate of 
urban development and population growth occurring in other areas of the 
state . 

A 1978 study by the Florida Committee on Rare and Endangered Plants and 
Animals (FCREPA) identified 155 species of reptiles and amphibians, 
approximately 5,500 species of plants and 76 species of land majnmals 
presently existing in Florida. The study identified 82 critical species 
of plants, land mammals, and birds which can be found in the North 
Central Florida Region. 

Extirpated or extinct species formerly located within north central 
Florida are important to note as they suggest what can happen to other 
species in the future. Extirpated and extinct plants from the region 
include ginseng, which was apparently collected out of existence by 
people seeking its medicinal root. The San Felasco spleenwort, found in 
a rocky ravine in San Felasco Hammock, has not seen since 1969 and is 
assumed to be extinct. 

Several field sightings were made of large numbers of plains bison 
between the Suwannee and Aucilla rivers, around Newnan's Lake in Alachua 
County, cLnd near Ichetucknee Springs in Columbia County. Bison were 
apparently extirpated in Florida by the late 18th or early 19th centuries 
as a result of killing of large numbers by early settlers. The Florida 
red wolf which used to be found in Payne's Prairie was apparently 
extirpated in the early 1900s. The species has been exterminated over 
much of its original range, while in much of the remaining areas, it has 
hybridized with the coyote. The Vest Indian monk seal was lost by the 
early 20th century. The animal was hunted out of existence for its oil.'^ 

The Carolina parakeet was once abundant throughout the eastern half of 
the United States and was common throughout Florida (except in the Keys). 
The bird was virtually extinct by the end of the 19th century. The bird 
was unusually susceptible to systematic killing. When a f Ic ;k member was 
shot, its fellows would return again and again, so that a single hunter 
could take all the birds. 

The passenger pigeon is an striking exaunple of uncertainties regarding 
minimum threshold populations. FCREPA suggests that their minimum 
threshold population numbered in the millions. The bird was one of the 
most gregarious birds ever known, travelling and nesting in flocks of 
millions. The low-flying flocks and large nesting grounds encouraged 
mass-slaughter for food and sport. In Florida, the bird was only known 
as a winter visitor. Their decline was rapid after the 19th century, 
probably because of reduction below a very high critical minimum 
threshold necessary to sustain the population . -^ 



( 



( 



III-10-6 



Habitat destruction appears to be the primary cause of population 
declines. Plants such as the four-petal papaw, the spiny hackberry, the 
Florida golden aster, the wiregrass gentian, and the highlands scrub 
hypericum would presumably continue to thrive if their special habitats 
were not under pressure from agricultural and/or commercial development. 
However, a surprisingly large number of endangered and threatened plants 
are being destroyed by selective removal from the undisturbed habitat. 
The hand fern, the bird's-nest spleenwort, nodding catopsis, ajid 
fuzzy-wuzzy airplajit, and nearly all of the native orchids continue to 
decline in numbers even though their habitats remain undisturbed. 
Within north central Florida, Bartram's Ixia has rapidly diminished in 
numbers. FCREPA notes this flowering herb as "Florida's premier 
endemic". It was spotted flowering in pine flatwoods north of Starke in 
Bradford County in 1951. However, this location has been converted to a 
junkyard and the herb apparently can no longer be found at this site. 

One general characteristic of the region's threatened maimmals is the 
tendency for individual species or subspecies to be relatively narrowly 
restricted to certain habitat types. Twenty-four of the 35 designated 
land mammals are limited to only one or two major habitat types. 
One-third of these are wetland inhabitants. Required habitats for the 
remainder include beaches and dunes (coastal strand), tropical hammocks, 
longleaf pine-turkey oak woodlands, sand pine scrub, mixed pine and 
hardwoods, pine flatwoods, and caves. Most of these habitat types are 
being destroyed or modified by man throughout the state in ways 
unsuitable for the affected species. Some of the land mammals which are 
not narrowly restricted to specific habitat types, such as the Florida 
black bear and Florida panther, are dependent upon large, relatively 
undisturbed areas of mixed vegetation types. ° Such large, undisturbed 
areas are rapidly giving way to urban development in many parts of the 
state . 

Habitat loss alone appears to be the primary cause for the critical 
status of eight (62.0 %) of the endangered and threatened mammals, 
including the Florida mouse, found in sand pine scrub and sandhill 
habitats. It is possible that the Florida mink is now scarcer in coastal 
areas because of destruction or degradation of salt marsh habitats. The 
only species of Special Concern among Florida mammals, the round-tailed 
muskrat, is so listed because of continuing reduction of wetland 
habitats. Habitat loss coupled with some direct detrimental human 
influences is apparently responsible for the critical status of the 
Sherman's fox squirrel. The squirrel is a legal game species and has 
been hunted. Habitat destruction in the form of development, logging, 
drainage, and burning has undoubtedly been by far the predominant cause 
of the decline of the species. 

The preservation of critical plant and animal species is directly 
dependent upon the preservation of adequate types and amounts of natural 
areas (habitats). The region's threatened land animals tend to be 
relatively narrowly restricted to certain habitat types. Twenty-four of 
the region's 35 land mammal species are limited to only one or two major 
habitat types. ^® One-third of these are wetland inhabitants. FCREPA 

notes that sandhill, sand pine scrub, and xeric habitats are important 

III-10-7 



because they are limited in areal extent and are home to a large number 
of endemic reptiles and amphibians. In addition, wet habitats are 
important travel corridors and are utilized by a large number of bird 
species, particularly in winter. 

Some of the land majnmals which are not narrowly restricted to specific 
habitat types, such as the Florida black bear ajid Florida panther, are 
dependent upon large, relatively undisturbed areas of mixed vegetation 
types. Such large, undisturbed areas are rapidly giving way to urban 
development in many parts of the state. Species preservation requires a 
sufficient number of individuals so as to maintain genetic 
diversification and to be able to withstand short-term environmental 
stresses such as hurricanes, drought, and fire. Available research 
suggests that the minimum number of individuals necessary to withstand 
short-term environmental stresses is 500 and that a minimum of 150 

individuals are needed in order to maintain a level of genetic diversity 

1 ? 
necessary for the survival of any animal species. If minimum range 

sizes by specie are taken into consideration, an estimate of the amount 

of land necessary to stabilize these animal populations can be derived. 

A very large ajnount of land is necessary for the survival of some 

endangered species. For example, 150 panthers would require 35,160 

square miles of undisturbed habitat, virtually two-thirds of the entire 

state while 150 black bears would require approximately 3,500 square 

miles, an area approximately 1/2 the size of the North Central Florida 

Region. One hundred fifty otters require approximately 703 square miles, 

an area roughly equivalent in size to Suwannee County. -^ 

The FCREPA study suggested that the currently available habitat within 
the state could support larger populations of Florida black bear and 
Florida panther thaji currently exist. One strategy proposed for the 
preservation of large-ranging species is the designation and preservation 
of habitat corridors to connect existing isolated areas of known wildlife 
habitat, referred to as habitat islajids, in a system of protected travel 
routes . 

Large areas of undeveloped public and privately-owned land within north 
central Florida currently continue to function as habitat islands. 
Publicly-owned land functioning as habitat islands include St. Marks 
National Wildlife Refuge, the Lower Suwannee National Wildlife Refuge, 
Osceola National Forest, Payne's Prairie State Preserve, Sam Felasco 
Hammock State Preserve, and Santa Fe Swamp. In addition, the 
privately-held coastal marsh, the core area of California Swamp, Hixtown 
Swamp, Bee Haven Bay, Mai lory Swajnp , San Pedro Bay, and Pinhook Swamp 
also appear to function as habitat islands. Ecotones (places where two 
different habitats meet) and smaller streams also function as important 
habitat corridors. 

Habitat islands are typically connected by corridors consisting of stream 
beds. One proposal currently calls for providing official designation 
atnd protection of a State habitat corridor system linking the Okefenokee 
National Wildlife Refuge in southern Georgia to the Everglades National 
Park by way of Pinhook Swamp, the Osceola National Forest, Olustee Creek, 
Santa Fe River and Santa Fe Swamp, Payne's Prairie State Preserve, and 



III-10-8 



the proposed Lochloosa State Forest. This state habitat corridor 
designation would also link the Osceola National Forest to the Lower 
Suwannee and the St Marks National Wildlife Refuges and coastal marsh via 
the Suwannee River, San Pedro Bay, and Mallory Swamp. 

There is currently a problem with some segments of the road network which 
cross habitat islajids ajid corridors. Many of the roads in the region 
were constructed without an understanding of the functions of corridors 
and islands. No provisions were made on these roads for the safe passage 
of animals across them. The problems such road segments create for 
wildlife is easily identifiable by the many wildlife "road kills". 
Although data on the impacts of road kills on population levels of 
endangered species is not available, it appears to be substantial. For 
example, U.S. Highway 441 through Payne's Prairie State Preserve is a 
well-known road segment for the many road kills. U.S. 441 has no animal 
barriers or below-grade pathways for safe animal passage. 

Bridge replacement practices are also a concern within the region. The 
Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) is replacing bridges over 
small creeks and streams with large box culverts. Box culverts may 
destroy the use of the streambank under the roadway for use as a habitat 
corridor, forcing animals to cross the roadway. 

Lands abutting habitat islands and corridors need special consideration 
to assure compatible land uses. The ideal width of a corridor is 
unknown. However, at least one study has suggested a corridor width of 
100 to 200 meters.^ Furthermore, the aunount of human disturbance which 
particular species cam accommodate is not well known. However, it is 
generally thought that most larger maunmals are intoleramt of human 
activities and disturbances. 

Hunters and fishermen are seldom mentioned as a source of concern to 
species preservation. According to the laws of population dynamics, a 
particular species will maintain a specific biomass under a specific set 
of ecological conditions. Those individuals of a species that are 
eliminated from a population will in turn be replaced by others of the 
same species that would not otherwise have been able to survive. Fish, 
as a rule, have a higher reproductive potential than other vertebrate 
aJiimals, and thus are quickly able to "bounce back" from temporary 
population losses. However, if the numbers of hunters and fishermen 
increase in direct proportion to the expected population increases of 
north Florida, the additional pressure might place even more species on 
the critical list. 

Critical fish are vulnerable to a greater or lesser degree because of 
their limited ranges. As a general rule, the degree of vulnerability of 
fish is related to the size of the body of water in which they occur. 
Those species found in large rivers and closely adjacent areas are most 
subject to the adverse effects of pollution, dredging, or dam 
construction. The smaller the body of water, the less likely the water 
body will be subject to ecological disturbances. 



III-10-9 



The Suwannee River serves as an important spawning and birthing area for 
the endangered Atlantic sturgeon and Vest Indiaji manatee. Manatee 
Springs State Park serves as a birthing area during the spring months for 
the Vest Indiaji manatee. In addition, portions of the Suwannee River 
serve as spawning grounds for the Atlantic sturgeon. The Suwannee is 
considered to be the last major spawning grounds in the Gulf of Mexico 
for this endangered fish specie. 

The travel routes and spawning grounds of the mamatee sind sturgeon need 
to be protected to ensure their survival. It may be necessary for public 
acquisition of the sturgeon's spawning grounds amd/or reduce the 
recreational use of the river along their migratory route and spawning 
grounds during spawning and migratory runs for the preservation of these 
two species. 

The critical status of the Florida panther, Florida black bear, and the 
Vest Indian manatee are also due in part to human exploitation. Although 
the carrying capacity of the habitats of these species is less today than 
under primitive conditions, evidence indicates that these mammals were 
drastically reduced by hunting or trapping before there was significant 
habitat reduction. Populations are probably presently being suppressed 
at a level below the carrying capacity of remaining habitats by continued 
accidental deaths or hunting. The bear may still be legally hunted in 
north central Florida. 

Currently, the Florida Game and Freshwater Fish Commission is embarking 
on an experimental panther repopulation effort. An effort will be made 
to reintroduce the paxither to an as yet undetermined area in north 
Florida to see if they can survive. Should the panthers prove that they 
can survive, potential conflicts could occur between efforts to control 
land use, cattle grazing practices, and deer hunting limits for the 
benefit of the panther. For example, deer populations must be kept 
plentiful in order to prevent panthers from preying upon domestic cattle. 

More research is needed for the development of management techniques 
which will successfully protect critical species. Additional information 
is needed regarding required habitat types, territory size and range, 
nesting and breeding locations, principal food source, minimum 
sustainable threshold population, ajid degree of sensitivity to man. 
Vhile at the same time additional study is needed, steps must now be 
taken based upon the available information to preserve known habitat 
islands and corridors as the explosive regional and state population 
growth amd development trends may otherwise eliminate these species. 



Regional Natural Resources; 



Drainage Basins 
Aucllla River Basin 
St. Marks River Basin 
Ochlocknee River Basin 
Suwannee River Basin 
St. John's River Basin 



Aquifers 
Floridan aquifer 
secondary artesian aquifers 
water table aquifers 



III-10-10 



Freshwater Wetlands 
California Swamp 
Spring Warrior Swamp 
Bee Haven Bay- 
Gum Root Swamp 
Wacassassa Flats 
Hixtown Swajnp 
Santa Fe Swamp 
Pinhook Swajnp / San dl in Bay 
Tide Swamp 
San Pedro Bay 
Mai lory Swamp 

Rivers 
Suwannee River 
Santa Fe River 
Vithlacoochee River 
Alapaha River 
Ichetucknee River 
Aucilla River 
Steinhatchee River 
Econfina River 
Fenholloway River 
Spring Warrior Creek 

Coastal Drainage Basin 
Coastal Marsh 
Estuaries 

Coastal Freshwater Wetlands 
Big Bend Seagrass Beds 



Hamilton County 
Morgan's Spring 
White Springs 
Alapaha Rise 
Holton Spring 

Lafayette County 
Allen Mill Pond Spring 
Blue Spring 
Fletcher Spring 
Mearson Spring 
Owens Spring 
Ruth Spring 
Troy Spring 
Turtle Spring 

Madison County 
Blue Spring 
Suwanacoochee Spring 

Suwannee County 
Branford Spring 
Charles Spring 
Ellaville Spring 
Falmouth Spring 
Little River Springs 
Peacock Springs 
Running Springs 
Suwannee Springs 
Telford Springs 



Springs 



Sinks 



Alachua County 
Hornsby Spring 
Foe Springs 

Columbia County 
Ichetucknee Springs 
Bell Springs 

Dixie County 
Copper Springs 

Gilchrist County 
Blue Springs 
Ginnie Springs 
Hart Springs 
Rock Bluff Springs 
Sun Springs 



Alachua County 
Devil's Millhopper 
Haile Quarry 
Alachua Sink 
Sinkholes and 
Newberry Area 
Alachua Sink 
Kanapaha Sink 
Robinson Sink 

Bradford County 
Brooks Sink 

Columbia County 
Alligator Lake 

Dixie County 
Lime Sink 



quarries m 



III-1 0-1 1 



Haunilton County 
A lap aha Rise 

Madison County 
Blue Sink 
Cajnpbell Sink 
Johnson Sink 
Patterson Sink 
Rogers Sink 

Suwannee County 
Sailor Hole 
Challenge Sink 
Cisteen Sink 
Olson Sink 
Orange Grove Sink 
Terrapin Sink 

Taylor County 
Adams Sink 
Aucilla River Sinks 
California Sink 
Page Sink 

Streaun-to-Sink watersheds 
Alachua County Recharge Area 
Columbia County Southern Recharge 

Area 
Columbia County Western Recharge 

Area 
Hamilton County Recharge Area 
Madison County Recharge Area 
Suwannee County Recharge Area 

High Percolation Rate Recharge 
Areas 

Yet to be Identified 

State Parks and Preserves 

National Forests and Wildlife 
Refuges 

State Wildlife Management Areas 

Lakes 

Alachua County 
Orange Lake 
Santa Fe Lake 
Little Santa Fe Lake 
Bivans Arm 
Newnans Lake 



Lake Lochloosa 

Bradford County 
Lake Sajnpson 

Columbia County 
Watertown Lake 

Dixie County 
Governor Hill Lake 

Madison County 
Lake Francis 

Union County 
Lake Butler 

Critical species recognized by the 
State of Florida which are 
native to the region and their 
habitats 



III-10-12 



Agencies: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Florida Department of 
Environmental Regulation, Department of Environmental Resources, 
Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Department of Natural 
Resources, Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Department 
of TraJisportation, Game and Freshwater Fish Commission, North Central 
Florida Regional Planning Council, Suwannee River Water Management 
District, St. Johns River Water Management District, local governments, 
Florida Trail Association, Florida Natural Areas Inventory. 



10.3. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #45: Land Management and Use 

Backgroiind Analysis: There are many concerns regarding land management 
and use of the region's natural resources, natural area habitats, and the 
impacts of future development and economic activity upon these unique 
environments. What areas should be left in a natural condition? How to 
best protect aquifers and their sources of water (springs, recharge 
areas, and sinkholes) from the effects encroaching development, and 
adverse effects of agricultural and silvicultural practices? How can 
river corridors, freshwater and saltwater marshes, the Gulf coast 
fishery, forested areas, prairies, and wildlife habitats be preserved? 
North central Florida has vast areas of undeveloped or partially 
developed lands. Approximately 3,215,000 acres, or 73.0 percent of the 
region, is in forested lands. Virtually all privately-held forested 
lands function as either habitat islands or corridors. For example, 
955,855 acres of forested land, 22.0 percent of the region, is designated 
as state wildlife management areas. 

Under the voluntary State Wildlife Majiagement Area program, private 
property owners work cooperatively with the Florida Game and Freshwater 
Fish Commission to engage in land management techniques which enhance 
wildlife habitat values of their forests arnd allow public access for 
hunting. A typical practice which enhances game wildlife habitat is the 
periodic burning of forest undergrowth. 

However, not all forest practices are beneficial to wildlife or habitat 
protection. Virtually all privately-owned forests in the region use 
clear-cut timber harvesting practices. Clear-cut timber harvesting 
results in the complete removal of all trees and understory vegetation 
within a very large area. While best management practices can reduce the 
amount of surfacewater pollution and soil erosion otherwise associated 
with clear-cut timber harvesting techniques, best management practices 
cajinot recreate lost habitat. 

In addition, small areas of the more attractive forest lands have been 
subdivided for residential development. Conflicts can result when 
residential development is in close proximity to commercial forests. For 
example, the practice of burning forest undergrowth must usually be 
stopped near residential subdivisions due to the possibility of dajnage to 
the residential area. It is highly likely that the more attractive 
forested areas of the region will come under increasing development 
pressure in the future. Advanced planning must take into consideration 



III-10-13 



the potential conflicts caused by the proximity of commercial timber 
activities to residential subdivisions. 

Vast amounts of timber acreage within the region is owned by a few 
corporations. The corporate owner is in a good position to plan and 
control the use of its forest. Unfortunately, the Suwannee River is not 
so easily controlled due to the many different property owners within the 
river floodplain. In addition, eight Florida counties have land use 
plainning authority over different parts of the Suwainnee. 

The Suwajinee has not been significantly degraded due to human use. The 
river's water quality is high amd its banks are relatively free of 
streamside development. Given the projected increase in subdivision 
activity and increased population generally throughout the state it is 
likely that the Suwannee River will experience increasing use as a 
recreation resource. 

Perhaps the best exaunple of a natural area in the region which is 
suffering from overuse is the Ichetucknee River. This small clear-water 
river is heavily used by canoeists and other recreational users. 
Furthermore, the entire length of the river, except for the area located 
in Ichetucknee Springs State Park, has been subdivided into one acre 
lots . 

Recreational activity has been so heavy that the state has placed limits 
on the number of canoeists ajid floaters that may use the river during any 
one day. However, biologists still report that recreational usage of the 
river should be reduced in order to prevent erosion of the river banks 
and loss of bank vegetation eaten by the Suwannee cooter , an endangered 
specie found on the Ichetucknee River. While many of the housing units 
along the river have been constructed in compliance with the county 
floodplain ordinance ajid its 75 foot setback requirement, the homes are 
highly visible from the river. 

Does the Ichetucknee River foretell the future of the Suwajinee- Santa Fe 
river system? Subdivision activity within the Suwannee-Sainta Fe river 
system has been proceeding at a rapid pace. A recent Council study 
projects that if the same sunount of development activity which has 
occurred on the Suwannee River since 1977 continues into the future, 75.0 
percent of the entire riverbajik will be subdivided into small 1.75 acre 
residential lots by the year 2020. Using the same projection technique 
for the Santa Fe River, 53.0 percent will of the lainds adjacent to the 
Santa Fe be subdivided into 1.25 acre lots by the year 2020. 

In response to concern over the use and management of the Suwannee River, 
the Save Our Rivers program has authorized 80 million dollars over the 
next 20 years to the Suwannee River Water Manaigement District for the 
purchase of lands along the river system for preservation and protection 
of water quality. Despite the large cimount of money, the entire river 
cauinot be purchased. Rather, what is likely to emerge is a sequence of 
publicly-owned islands of conservation or recreation land interspersed by 
single faunily homes and farms. 



III-10-14 



It appears that heavy recreational use of the Suwannee between the Gulf 
coast and Manatee Springs State Park is not advisable since it serves as 
a travel corridor during the spring months for the Vest Indian Manatee. 
In addition, a segment of the Suwannee is the spawning grounds of the 
Atlantic sturgeon. The Suwannee is considered to be the last major 
spawning grounds in North America for this endangered fish specie. The 
sturgeon's travel route and spawning grounds need to be protected for its 
survival. It may be necessary to acquire with Save Our River funds 
certain parts of the river as a conservation district and/or reduce river 
activities along the migratory route of the manatee and the spawning 
grounds of the sturgeon for the preservation of these two species. 

The recently adopted Suwannee River Water Management District Works of 
the District regulations prevent the alteration of vegetation within 75 
feet of the stream bank of any works of the district. The distance was 
not selected due consideration for minimum habitat corridor widths 
required by native plant and ajiimal species within the region. Such 
considerations are beyond the authority of state enabling legislation. 
The best available information suggests that habitat corridors should be 
a minimum of 500 to 350 feet in width. However, given the broad expanse 
of the river system and a 75 foot buffer along the banks, the river 
system may be able to continue functioning as a habitat corridor for most 
species . 

County floodplain ordinances within the region also require a 75 foot 
streamside setback. These ordinances provide additional protection for 
the Ichetucknee and all of the Santa Fe River. In addition to these 
rivers, best management practices manual recommends (but does not 
require) a streamside setback of at least 35 feet for silviculture 
activity . 

However, Works of the District and county floodplain ordinances currently 
apply to only the very largest rivers within the region (The Suwannee, 
Santa Fe , Alapaha, Ichetucknee, and Withlacoochee Rivers). Smaller 
rivers such as the Steinhatchee , Econfina, Fenholloway, Olustee Creek, 
and New River are not included as Works of the District or county 
floodplain ordinances. 

With the exception of county floodplain ordinances and certain natural 
areas within Alachua County, no local or county government within north 
central Florida has established buffer areas around regionally 
significant natural resources or natural areas. Economic activity and 
urban development is allowed to occur without due consideration to its 
impact on adjacent regionally significant natural resources and natural 
areas with the potential for resultant degradation to these resources and 
areas . 

Water basin troughs or bowls, the lowest elevation areas of the basin 
where surfacewater collects, may require special land use management to 
restrict or prohibit development. A good example of the problems caused 
by urbaji development within a water basin trough is the City of Live Oak. 
The city is regularly inundated with floodwaters as the natural low point 
of the basin. The town has constructed a number of drainage wells with 



III-10-15 



direct connection with the Floridan aquifer in response to the flooding 
problem. Floodwaters entering the drainage wells are loaded with oil and 
other pollutants ajid do not benefit from the leaching process, degrading 
the water quality of the aquifer. The problem will become worse as the 
city grows. 

Wetlands play a vital role in controlling floodwaters, tempering the 
impacts of hurricanes, and providing habitat to native Florida plant and 
animal species. Vast amounts of Florida, including north central 
Florida, were originally wetlands areas. Over time, wetlands areas have 
been filled and drained for a number of purposes, including urban 
development, mosquito control, timber harvesting, as well as mining 
operations. Despite a lengthy history of drain ajid fill practices, there 
is still substajitial wetland acreage within the region. However, the 
future of these wetlands areas are uncertain in the face of potential 
phosphate mining and wetlands reclamation laws which do not require type 
for type replacement. Wetlands can be classified by various types, 
including saltwater marsh, freshwater marsh, intermittent wetlands, aj\d 
headwater swajnps. Each type of wetland requires unique land management 
practices in order to preserve its role in flood control and habitat 
support . 

It must be recognized that, despite having the most stringent wetland 
mining reclamation law in the nation, no wetlands caji be restored to 
original condition after phosphate mining. If remnajit samples of an 
original Florida habitat are to be preserved, it must be recognized that 
those areas may have to be purchased, along with their mineral rights, in 
order to prevent their permajient destruction. 



Regional Natxiral Resources: 



Drainage Basins 
Aucilla River Basin 
St. Marks River Basin 
Ochlocknee River Basin 
Suwajinee River Basin 
St. John's River Basin 

Aquifers 
Floridan aquifer 
secondary artesiaji aquifers 
water table aquifers 

Freshwater Wetlajids 
California Swamp 
Spring Warrior Swaimp 
Bee Haven Bay 
Gum Root Swajnp 
Wacassassa Flats 
Hixtown Swsunp 
Santa Fe Swamp 
Pinhook Swamp / Sand 1 .n Bay 



Tide Swamp 
San Pedro Bay 
Mai lory Swamp 

Rivers 
Suwannee River 
Santa Fe River 
Withlacoochee River 
Alapaha River 
Ichetucknee River 
Aucilla River 
Steinhatchee River 
Econfina River 
Fenholloway River 
Spring Warrior Creek 

Coastal Drainage Basin 
Coastal Marsh 
Estuaries 

Coastal Freshwater Wetlands 
Big Bend Sea^rass Beds 



III-1 0-16 



Springs 



Sinks 



Alachua County 
Hornsby Spring 
Poe Springs 

Columbia County 
Ichetucknee Springs 
Bell Springs 

Dixie County 
Copper Springs 

Gilchrist County 
Blue Springs 
Ginnie Springs 
Hart Springs 
Rock Bluff Springs 
Sun Springs 

Hajnilton County 
Morgaji's Spring 
White Springs 
Alapaiha Rise 
Holton Spring 

Lafayette County 
Allen Mill Pond Spring 
Blue Spring 
Fletcher Spring 
Mearson Spring 

Owens Spring 
Ruth Spring 
Troy Spring 
Turtle Spring 

Madison Coxinty 
Blue Spring 
Suwanacoochee Spring 

Suwannee County 
Branford Spring 
Charles Spring 
Ellaville Spring 
Falmouth Spring 
Little River Springs 
Peacock Springs 
Running Springs 
Suwannee Springs 
Telford Springs 



Alachua County 
Devil's Millhopper 
Haile Quarry 
Alachua Sink 

Sinkholes and quarries in 
Newberry Area 
Alachua Sink 
Kanapaha Sink 
Robinson Sink 

Bradford County 
Brooks Sink 

Columbia County 
Alligator Lake 

Dixie County 
Lime Sink 

Hajnilton County 
Alapaha Rise 

Madison County 
Blue Sink 
Campbell Sink 
Johnson Sink 
Patterson Sink 
Rogers Sink 

Suwannee County 
Sailor Hole 

Challenge Sink 
Cisteen Sink 
Olson Sink 
Orange Grove Sink 
Terrapin Sink 

Taylor County 
Adams Sink 
Aucilla River Sinks 
California Sink 
Page Sink 

Stream-to-Sink watersheds 
Alachua County Recharge Area 
Columbia County Southern Recharge 

Area 
Columbia County Western Recharge 

Area 
Hajnilton County Recharge Area 



III-10-17 



Madison County Recharge Area 
Suwannee County Recharge Area 

High Percolation Rate Recharge 
Areas 
Yet to be Identified 

State Parks and Preserves 

National Forests and Wildlife 
Refuges 

State Wildlife Management Areas 

LaJces 

Alachua County 
Orange LaJte 
Santa Fe LaJke 
Little Santa Fe Lake 
Bivajis Arm 
Newnans Lake 
Lake Lochloosa 

Bradford County 
Laike Sajnpson 

Columbia County 
Watertown LaJce 

Dixie County 
Governor Hill LaJte 

Madison County 
Lake Francis 

Union County 
Lake Butler 



Agencies: U.S. Enviror.mental Protection Agency, Florida Department of 
Environmental Regulation, Department of Environmental Resources, 
Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Department of Natural 
Resources, Department cf Health and Rehabilitative Services, Depart.'nent 
of Transportation, Game and Freshwater Fish Commission, North Ce";tral 
Florida Regional Planning Council, Suwannee River Water Management 
District, St. Johns River Water Management District, local governments, 
Florida Trail Association, Florida Natural Areas Inventory. 



III-10-18 



10.4. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #46: Parks auid Recreation 

Background Analysis: North central Florida's park system currently has a 
shortage of resource and activity-based parks and recreation facilities. 
Additional recreational use of the region's natural resources and natural 
areas is inevitable given the increased population of both the region and 
the state. Care must be taken in the development of resource-based 
recreation as it may threaten the continued existence of many of the 
region's natural resources, habitats, and wildlife. 

Based upon the 1981 Division of Recreation and Parks Outdoor Recreation 
in Florida 1981 resource guidelines for outdoor recreation activities, 
the region has an abundance of freshwater boat ramps, but has a shortage 
of freshwater and saltwater beach as well as both freshwater and 
saltwater piers and catwalks, architectural auid historical sites, 
horseback riding, hiking, and bicycle trails, tent sites, picnic tables, 
ajid hunting lands. 

The region currently has a shortage of activity-based recreation 
facilities. Notably, the region is below state guidelines for public 
swimming pools, baseball/sof tball fields, shuffleboard courts, tennis 
courts, and handball/racquetball courts. The region currently meets 
state guidelines in the number of basketball goals, golf courses, and 
football/soccer fields. 

Comparables were not available to determine the adequacy of the region's 
canoe trails, exercise (parcourse) trails, equipped play areas, or 
recreation buildings. However, it is suspected that the region generally 
meets or exceeds minimum requirements for resource-based facilities and 
likely falls below minimum requirements for activity-based facilities. 

In addition, the study produced a relative need index by 
resource/facility for each region and ranked each item in order of 
priority. Out of a possible 116 regional recreation facility items, no 
item rajiked higher than 65th in north central Florida. Approximately 
one-half of the region's needs ranked among the lowest 28 statewide. 
This suggests that the region is at a competitive disadvantage for 
receiving state ajid federal outdoor recreation grant monies. 

Allowances must be made for differences in natural attributes between 
regions. For example, the region's coastline consists exclusively of 
coastal marshlands. The only way the region could meet state guidelines 
for saltwater beach frontage would be to construct 11.9 linear miles of 
artificial beach one-half mile wide. Similarly, the region would have to 
construct 4-1 additional saltwater boat ramp lanes, 44 piers or catwalks, 
and 11.1 miles of freshwater beach to meet state-recommended guidelines. 
However, the potential for adverse environmental impacts to the Gulf 
coastal marsh and fishery caused by the creation of an artificial beach 
indicates that the region should not have any additional man-made 
beaches . 



III-10-19 



As provided by various chapters of the. Florida Statutes, the Department 
of Natural Resources is charged with the administration, supervision, 
development, and conservation of Florida's natural resources which 
includes the management of state owned lands. The Division of Recreation 
Bjid Parks has the responsibility of developing ajid operating a recreation 
and parks system comprising 367,161 acres, dispersed throughout the 
state. It contains 29 state parks, 34- recreation areas, 32 special 
feature sites, 17 preserves, seven museums, ajid four ornamental gardens. 
Of these, three state parks, no recreation areas, two special feature 
sites, three preserves, two museums, and four registered landmarks are 
located within the region. ^^ 

Approximately 22.0 percent of the region, 955,855 acres, of 
privately-held forest land is designated as state wildlife majiagement 
lands. In addition, approximately 29,000 acres are designated as 
national wildlife refuges, 66,360 acres as national forests, 13,640 acres 
as national wilderness areas, approximately 9,100 acres as state parks, 
33,400 acres as state preserves. Altogether, this area represents 25.4 
percent of the entire region. 

In addition to the large forested area, the longest, generally continuous 
segment of the Florida Trail is routed through the biologically diverse 
areas of corth central Florida. Notable landscape features include swamp 
forests, slash and longleaf pine forests, and the Suwamnee River. The 
trail passes by numerous fresh water springs, lakes, ponds, and streams 
throughout the region. Currently, more thaji half of the Florida Trail is 
on privately owned lands, principally forest products industry 
properties . 

Given the large ajnount of undeveloped land and low population densities 
in the region, resource-based recreation should be emphasized. However, 
thoughtless development of resource-based recreation within the region's 
remaining undeveloped natural areas can have significant adverse impacts 
upon native species and habitats. 

Perhaps the best exajnple of a natural area in the region suffering from 
too much recreation use is the Ichetucknee River. This small clear-water 
river is heavily used by canoeists and other recreational users. 
Furthermore, the entire length of the river, save for the area located in 
Ichetucknee Springs State Park, has been subdivided into one acre lots. 
Despite a required 75-foot setback contained within county subdivision 
ordinances, these homes are clearly visible to canoeists using the river. 
Recreational activity is so heavy on the Ichetucknee that the state has 
placed limits on the number of canoeists and floaters that may use the 
river during ajiy one day. However, biologists report that recreational 
usage of the river still needs to be drajnatical ly reduced in order to 
prevent erosion of the river banks and loss of bank vegetation eaten by 
the Suwannee cooter, an endangered specie found in the Ichetucknee River. 

Does the Ichetucknee River foretell the future of the Suwannee? In 
response to concerns over the use and management of the Suwannee River, 
the Save Our Rivers Program has authorized 80 million dollars over the 



III-10-20 



next 20 years to the Suwannee River Water Management District for the 
purchase of lands along the Suwannee for preservation and protection of 
water quality. 

Without the Save Our Rivers program, the Suwannee-Santa Fe river system 
would most likely develop in a manner similar to the Ichetucknee. 
Subdivision activity on the Suwannee River is proceeding at an alarming 
pace. A recent Council study projects that if the same amount of 
development activity which has occurred on the Suwannee since 1977 
continues into the future, 92.0 percent of the entire riverbank will be 
subdivided into 1.75 acre residential lots by the year 2030. Using the 
same projection technique for the Santa Fe River, 46.0 percent of the 
lands adjacent to the Santa Fe will be subdivided into 1.25 acre lots by 
the year 2030. 

The intent of the program is to protect the water quality of the region. 
In addition to water quality protection, these areas may be used, in 
certain circumstances, as recreational areas for a variety of resource- 
based activities. Despite the large amount of money, the entire river 
cannot be purchased. Rather, what is likely to emerge is a sequence of 
publicly-owned lands interspersed with farms, single family homes, and 
higher density residential at designated urban centers. The important 
question is to what extent and how much of the lands purchased with Save 
Our Rivers funds should be put to recreational use and what impacts will 
increased recreational use have upon the Suwannee-Santa Fe river system 
water quality, habitats, flora, and wildlife it supports? 

The Suwannee has not been significantly degraded due to human use. The 
river's water quality is high and its bajiks are relatively free of 
stresLraside development. Given the projected increase in subdivision 
activity within the remaining privately-held lands adjacent to the river 
and the increased state population it is likely that the Suwannee River 
will be increasingly used as a recreation resource. 

A carefully thought-out balajice must be struck between recreational use 
of the river system and the preservation of water quality, habitats, 
plants, and wildlife. For example, it appears that heavy recreational 
use of the Suwannee between the Gulf Coast and Manatee Springs State Park 
is not advisable since it serves as a travel corridor during the spring 
months for the West Indian manatee. In addition, the Suwannee is the 
spawning grounds of the Atlantic sturgeon and is considered to be the 
last major spawning grounds in North America for this endangered fish 
specie. The sturgeon's travel route and spawning grounds need to be 
protected for its survival. It may be necessary to designate certain 
parts of the river as a conservation district or reduce recreational use 
of the river along their migratory route and spawning grounds during 
spawning and migratory runs for the preservation of these two species. 

The critical status of the Florida panther, Florida black bear, and West 
Indian manatee appear to be due more to human exploitation than loss of 
habitat. Although the carrying capacity of the habitats of these species 
today is less than under primitive conditions, evidence indicates that 
these mammals were drastically reduced by hunting or trapping much before 



III-10-21 



r 



there was significajit habitat reduction. Populations are probably 
presently being suppressed at a level below the carrying capacity of 
remaining north central Florida habitats by continued accidental or 
deliberate killing. The Florida black bear may still be legally hunted 
in north central Florida. 

Hunters and fishermen are seldom mentioned as a source of concern to 
species preservation. According to the laws of population dynajnics, a 
particular species will maintain a specific biomass under a specific set 
of ecological conditions. Those individuals of a species that are 
eliminated from a population will in turn be replaced by others of the 
same species that would not otherwise have been able to survive. Fish, 
as a rule, have a higher reproductive potential than other vertebrate 
ajiimals, ajid thus are quickly able to "bounce back" from temporary 
population losses. 

However, if the number of hunters and fishermen increase in direct 
proportion to the expected population increases of north Florida, the 
additional pressure might place even more species on the critical list. 
It may become necessary for additional limits to be placed on the hunting 
and fishing of native Florida wildlife. 

Regional Facilities: 

Parks: Ichetucknee Springs, O'Leno, Suwannee River ^^ 

Special Feature Sites: Devil's Millhopper, Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings 

Preserves: Payne's Prairie, River Rise, San Felasco Hammock 

Museums: Florida State Museum, Forest Capital, Stephen Foster Folk 
Culture Center 

Registered Natural Landmarks: Devils Millhopper, Payne's Prairie, San 
Felasco Hajnmock, Ichetucknee Springs 

Wildlife Majiageraent Areas: Osceola, Aucilla, Tide Swajnp , Steinhatchee , 
Cypress Creek, Lochloosa, Occidental, Raiford, Cypress Creek, Jena, Lake 
Butler, Perpetual. 

Other: Florida Trail, Save Our Rivers Lands 

Agencies: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Florida Department of 
Environmental Regulation, Department of Environmental Resources, 
Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Department of Natural 
Resources, Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Department 
of Transportation, Game and Freshwater Fish Commission, North Central 
Florida Regional Plajining Council, Suwannee River Water Management 
District, St. Johns River Water Management District, local governments, 
Florida Trail Association, Florida Natural Areas Inventory. 



III-10-22 



r 



^ 



Endnotes ; 



> 



I 



Peter C. H. Pritchard, series ed. Florida Committee on Rare 
and Endangered Plants ajid Animals, Rare and Endangered Biota of 
Florida , 5 vols., (Gainesville, Fl . : University Presses of 
Florida, 1978). 



Daniel B. Ward, ed. , Rare and Endangered Biota of Florida , Vol 
V , Plants , p . xiii . 



Jajnes N. Layne, Rare and Endangered Biota of Florida , Vol.1, 
Mammals ; North Central Florida Regional Planning Council, 
Identification of Flood Hazard and Natural Areas of Regional 
Significance , (Gainesville, FL . : 1985). 



4. Herbert W. Kale, II, Rare and Endangered Biota of Florida , Vol 
I , Birds , p. 120. 



5. Pritchard, ed. , p. 120. 

6. Ward, ed. , p. xiii . 

7. Ward, p. 111. 

8. Layne, p. x. 

9. Layne, p. x. 

10. Layne, p. x. 



11. H. V. Campbell and S. P. Christman, "The Herpetological 
Components of Florida Sandhill and Sand Pine Scrub 
Associations", in N.J. Scott, Jr., ed. , Herpetological 
Communities (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 
Research Report 13), pp. 163-171. 



12. Randy S. Kautz , Criteria for Evaluating Impacts of Development 
on Wildlife Habitats , Office of Environmental Services, Florida 
Game and Freshwater Fish Commission, (Tallahassee, FL . : 1985), 
p. 11 . 



III-10-23 



13. Larry D. Harris, "Conservation Corridors. A Highway System for 
Wildlife", in Enfo (Tallahassee , .FL : The Florida Conservation 
Foundation, November, 1985), p. 2. 



14. L. MacClintock, R.F. Vhitcomb, and B.L. Vhitcomb, "Island 
Biogeography and 'Habitat Islands' of Eastern Forest II. 
Evidence for the Value of Corridors and the Minimization of 
Isolation in Preservation of Biotic Diversity," in American 
Birds , Volume 31, pp. 6-16. 



15. Department of Natural Resources, Outdoor Recreation in Florida . 
(Tallahassee, FL . : 1981). pp. 102-103. 



III-10-24 



STATE GOAL 1 1 : AIR QUALITY 

Florida shall comply with all national air quality standards by 1987, ajid 
by 1992 meet stajidards which are more stringent than 1985 state 
standards. 



11.1. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #47: Improving Air Quality 

Background Analysis: Currently, north central Florida air quality is 
good. All counties in the region are considered attainment areas by the 
Department of Environmental Regulation and in compliance with the federal 
Clean Air Act. The lack of large concentrations of population and heavy 
industry in the region contributes to the isolation of sources of air 
pollution emissions and good air quality. However, the potential exists 
for degradation. The population of north central Florida is projected to 
increase by 4-0.4 percent, from 337,648 to 474,200, between the years 1985 
and 2010.^ Increased population is likely to bring increased point and 
non-point sources of pollution to the region. Current and potential air 
quality problems include motor vehicle emissions, controlled burning and 
wildfires, wind-generated soil erosion, radon gas, motor vehicle 
emissions, incineration of solid and hazardous wastes, and wind-borne 
pollutants from other parts of the state. 

Preliminary investigation indicates that the ambient air quality in north 
central Florida is within state and federal standards. Sources of 
emissions are widely scattered and impacts on air quality are generally 
localized in nature. All counties in the region are considered 
attainment counties by the Department of Environmental Regulation (DER). 
This determination is based upon the results of the ambient air quality 
monitoring network established by DER in response to requirements set 
forth by the federal government in the Clean Air Act of 1977. Monitoring 
stations in north central Florida are located in Gainesville, White 
Springs, and Jasper. 

Sources of pollution emissions can be categorized as area, point, or line 
sources. Area sources include dust, field and open burning, and 
residential home heating. Point sources include public utility electric 
generating stations and manufacturing activities. Line sources include 
automobile, bus, truck, and rail traffic. 

Large-scale point sources of emissions are limited to the Buckeye 
Cellulose pulp mill near the City of Perry, the Gainesville Regional 
Utilities Deerhaven electrical generation plant, the General Electric 
battery facility, also in Alachua County, and the Occidental Agricultural 
Chemical Products mining operation in Hamilton County. Emissions from 
these activities are monitored annually by the Department of 
Environmental Regulation for compliance with state air quality standards. 
Line sources of emissions in the region are confined to specific segments 
of the interstate and state highway system and are primarily a function 
of traffic volume occurring at a given time. Furthermore, some 
particulates generated by motor vehicles, such as lead, tend to be 



III-1 1-1 



larger in diajneter and settle within a' few hundred yards from their 

p 
source of emission. 

Potential new sources of emissions requiring examination are resource 
recovery facilities designed to dispose of solid wastes by high 
temperature combustion processes. These facilities are increasingly 
utilized as a method of reducing the amount of nonhazardous solid waste 
disposed of in landfills. 

Vhile a mass burning or a refuse derived fuel facility may be a viable 
solution to the solid waste disposal problem, there may be some 
associated adverse environmental impac1;s upon air quality. Care must be 
taJken in the design ajid the location of these facilities to minimize 
adverse environmental impacts.'' 

Controlled burnings on commercial forest and agricultural lajid 
as well as open burning for construction site clearance activities for 
phosphate mining and building construction may contribute to degradation 
of the regional ambient air quality. The burning of vegetative matter 
creates a fine particulate (smoke) that may carry for several miles. In 
1985, agricultural and forested lands represent slightly over eighty 
percent of the region, comprised of either cropland (21.6^), pasture lauid 
(12.5/^), or commercial forest (4-7.6?^).^ The actual amount of ajnbient air 
degradation attributable to controlled burnings is not known. However, 
it is at least a well-documented nuisance to neighboring residential 
properties. Historically, residential property owners located within or 
in close proximity to agricultural lands and private commercial forests 
have been able to obtain court-ordered relief from controlled burning 
practices . 

In such cases, it has traditionally made little difference to the court 
which lajid use was there first. Foresters and farmers have sometimes 
been required by the courts to modify their business practices and incur 
substantially higher operating costs so as not to cause a nuisajice to 
newly-developed residential subdivisions. In 1985, the legislature 
adopted the Florida Right to Farm Act which addresses this problem by 
prohibiting normal farming operations from being considered a nuisance. 
However, the act does not cover commercial timber production. 

Acid rain is an issue of regional concern. Two components of air 
pollution emissions which contribute to the formation of acid rain are 
particulates and sulfur dioxides, which are generated in significant 
quantities by point source emitters in the region. Acid rain has been 
shown to decrease the pH of surface waters and soil with daunaging effects 
to aquatic organisms and plants. In addition, it has a destructive 
effect on certain man-made structures such as buildings and statues. 

The impact of acid rain may on the region is currently unknown. Recent 
research indicates that soil and surface water acidity is higher in north 
central Florida than in south Florida. This is partially the result of 
the decaying vegetative matter from coniferous tree species which are 
naturally acidic. However, recent research suggests that air emissions 



III-1 1 -2 



from other parts of the state and nation are contributing to acid rain in 
north central Florida. 

During the summer season, southeast winds transport emissions to the 
region from south Florida. Emissions generated in north central Florida 
are transported northward, although on a smaller scale than those 
received. During the winter season, emissions are transported into the 
region from the northwest as a result of wind and frontal activity. 

Radon gas, a potential cancer-causing agent, is derived from the presence 
of uranium which occurs in association with phosphorus and phosphate 
deposits in the subsurface clays. Radon can accumulate in houses 
constructed in areas with high radon gas emission levels. In addition to 
naturally-occurring emissions, increased background radiation can result 
from reclamation practices which mix the subsurface clays and sediments 
with soils located at or near the surface. 

Radon gas levels and radiation exposure can be reduced by capping 
recontoured overburden and slime ponds with the relatively uranium-free 
upper overburden soils. It can also be reduced through the use of a toe- 
spoiling technique. This technique involves placing the materials which 
may contain radionuclides at the toe of the spoil piles. This 
effectively places the suspect materials in the deepest part of the mine 

'7 

cuts. Future reclajnation then buries this material under deep fill. 

The gas enters houses through basements, poorly ventilated crawl spaces, 
through cracks in concrete slabs, and through pipes. Radon gas levels 
can be reduced by either closing up the cracks and holes by which the gas 
enters a building or by increasing building ventilation so it gets out of 
the building quickly. Current land uses in the region for reclaimed 
phosphate mines are improved pasture and pine plantations. However, it 
may be advisable to limit residential construction to those reclaimed 
lands where the radioactive materials have been buried in the deepest 
part of the mine cut in combination with increased ventilation and other 
house construction alterations. 

Land use planning and the location of future development can have a 
direct impact upon air quality. A dispersed pattern of urban development 
can disperse pollutants and minimize degradation of ajnbient air quality 
for a particular municipality or county. However, overall pollutant 
loadings and region-wide ajnbient air quality may suffer as the number of 
vehicle miles travelled to conduct human affairs increases with dispersed 
patterns of development. Development which is highly concentrated within 
existing urban areas tends to concentrate pollutants, thereby decreasing 
ambient air quality within such areas but perhaps improving air quality 
in rural areas and region-wide by minimizing the number vehicle miles 
necessary to conduct human activities. Concentrated urban areas can also 
contribute to lower per capita air pollution emissions through the 
provision of public mass transit systems. 



Regional Facilities: Air quality monitoring stations 



III-1 1-3 



Regional Resources: Regional Air Quality 



Agencies: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Florida Department of 
Environment Regulation, Department of Community Affairs, Department of 
Transportation, North Central Florida Regional Planning Council, local 
governments . 



Endnotes: 



Florida Consensus Estimating Conference, State of Florida 
Population and Demographic Forecast , Book 2, Volume 2, (Spring 
1986), pp. 47-48. University of Florida, Bureau of Business 
and Economic Research, 198^ Florida Statistical Abstract , 
(Gainesville, FL : The University Presses of Florida, 1986), p, 
37. 



2. Florida Defenders of the Environment, Phosphate Mining in 
Florida: A Source Book , (1984), p. 93. 



3. Fred H. Tschirley, "Dioxin" , in Scientific American , Vol 254, 
No. 2, (February, 1986), pp. 29-35. 



4-. Florida Defenders of the Environment, Phosphate Mining in 
Florida: A Source Book , (1984), p. 93. 



5. University of Florida, Bureau of Business and Economic 

Research, 1985 Florida Statistical Abstract , (Gainesville, FL : 
The University Presses of Florida, 1985), p. 230. 



6. Jacob A. Buescher , Robert V. Wright, Morton Gitelman, Cases and 
Materials on Land Use , 2nd edition, American Casebook Series, 
(St. Paul, Minn.: Vest Publishing Co., 1976), p. 43. 



7. Florida Defenders of the Environment, Phosphate Mining in 
Florida: A Source Book , (1984), p. 99. 



r 



r 



III-1 1-4 



STATE GOAL 12: ENERGY 

Florida shall reduce its energy requirements through enhanced 
conservation ajnd efficiency measures in all end-use sectors, while at the 
same time promoting an increased use of renewable energy resources. 



12.1. Regional Issue/Policy Cluster Title #48: Energy Resources 

Background Analysis: Florida produces only a small percentage of its oil 
and natural gas requirements. The lessons of the OPEC oil embargo of 
1974 have led to the search for effective energy conservation measures 
and increased use of renewable energy sources such as wood and solar. 
Renewable resources comprise an increasing share of Florida's total 
energy consumption. Renewable resources now comprise approximately 6.0 
percent of total statewide energy consumption. Wood cind wood waste 
provide the largest portion of currently utilized renewable resources; 
however, ethanol and municipal solid waste have shown the largest recent 
usage increase. Renewable sources of energy available in north central 
Florida include sunlight, wood, and temperature differentials. All three 
sources have the potential to contribute significant ajnounts of usable 
energy to the region. 

Other potential renewable energy resources in the region include methane, 
the byproduct of the composting and decomposition of organic matter, and 
nonhazardous solid waste. Neither fuel source is used to any significant 
extent within the region. Certain types of wastewater treatment plants 
can be equipped to capture methane gas produced in the treatment process 
and use it to generate electricity to help offset the electrical costs of 
the plant. The burning of municipal solid waste can also be considered a 
form of renewable energy resource and is being exaunined as a potential 
replacement for the disposal practice of landfilling. 

Solar energy is a renewable energy resource that holds potential for the 
region. There are currently estimated to be over 100,000 solar 
collectors installed throughout the state. It is expected that this will 
increase to over 250,000 solar systems by the end of the decade. Florida 
currently ranks as the second largest manufacturing state for solar 
collectors and has more installations than all but one state. 

Water heating is Florida's oldest example of harnessing solar energy. 
Many south Florida homes installed solar water heaters in the early 
1900's. By 1950, an estimated 30,000 to 50,000 residential solar water 
heaters were in use statewide. However, their popularity began to 
decline in the 1950's due to cheap and readily available oil and natural 
gas. After the 1973 Arab oil embargo and the subsequent rise in 
petroleum prices, solar energy has regained its standing as a potential 
alternative for water heating and space conditioning.^ 

Solar energy is currently utilized in the region primarily for water 
heating, clothes drying and, to a limited extent, for air conditioning. 
In addition, photovoltaic cells provide a means to convert sunlight to 



III-12-1 



electricity. However, few, if any incentives exist for homeowners or 
businesses to invest the additional capital for solar water heating. 

The Florida Solar Energy Center is presently researching innovative 
approaches to decrease the cost of photovoltaic collectors for heating 
water. The Center is also developing passive air conditioning systems. 
Efficient use of solar energy implies the use of simpler technology and 
greater institutional decentralization, which may not be readily 
supported at present by providers of energy. Public awareness and 
understanding of the possibilities of solar energy is limited, and solar 
energy is not promoted in the region. Furthermore, tax incentive 
prograjns for the installation of solar energy systems in residences have 
been eliminated by the federal government. 

A primary renewable energy resource used within the region is wood ajid 
wood waste. Byproducts from the Kraft process, which produces paper 
products from wood pulp, caji be burned to produce steajn which is then 
used to generate electricity. This technique is currently used by the 
Buckeye Cellulose Corporation. The use of wood burning stoves and 
fireplaces is also gaining in popularity. Although these activities 
contribute to the conservation of fossil fuels, they have the potential 
to contribute significant amounts of particulate matter to the 
atmosphere . 

Temperature differentials or thermal gradients exploit the contrast in 
temperatures between the air amd water to generate energy. An exaj.ple of 
a temperature differential device is the water-to-air heat pump, which 
uses the generally constant temperature of groundwater to cool buildings 
in the summer and to heat them in the winter. Heat pumps are energy 
efficient ajid are well-suited to small-scale applications such as homes 
and apartments. 

The use of wind as a source of energy in the region is extremely limited 
due to the variability of its occurrence and speed. However, wind energy 
has the potential to be applied on a small scale, such as in pumping 
water for stock and irrigation. 

Energy preparedness plans, in the event of a disruption of energy 
supplies, minimize hardships to all consumers ajid assure efficient 
allocation of fuels based on needs and priorities. Interruption of 
energy supplies can cause hardships to citizens and. disrupt productive 
sectors of the economy which depend on energy for production, processing, 
and transportation activities. Emergency plains are designed to 
efficiently allocate fuels to meet essential residential and public 
needs. Fuels are assigned to industry to prevent unnecessary 
curtailments of production and assure timely shipment of raw materials 
and products to state ajid national markets. Fuels are stockpiled to 
postpone the impact of short-term disruptions of supply. ^ 



III-12-2 



Regional Facilities: 

Forests 

Sunlight 

Wind 

Groundwater 

Wastewater Treatment Plants 

Nonhazardous Solid Waste 



Agencies: Florida Public Service Commission; Department of Community 
Affairs, Department of Energy, North Central Florida Regional Planning 
Council, local governments. 



12.2. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #49: Efficient Use of Energy 

Background Analysis: North central Florida is still highly dependent 
upon oil as an energy source. Petroleum products and natural gas provide 
approximately 90.0 percent of the total energy consumed by the region and 
coal and coal products provide approximately 6.0 percent. Although 
estimates vary, approximately 30.0 percent of the petroleum products 
consumed are for electrical generation while anywhere from 40.0 to 60.0 
percent is used for transportation activities. Due to the rural nature 
of the region, north central Florida may be more dependent upon petroleum 
products for transportation than the more urbanized areas. 

Despite the heavy use of petroleum products, energy conservation efforts 
can ajid have saved significant amounts of fossil fuel in the region." 
The state's per capita gasoline consumption in 1984 was 464 gallons, a 
decrease of 15-0 percent since 1978. North central Florida per capita 
consumption figures, although higher on a per capita basis, experienced a 
greater percentage decline than the statewide average over the same 
time period, from 772.8 gallons per capita in 1978 to 592.2 gallons per 
capita in 1984, a decrease of 23-4 percent. The reduction in per capita 
gasoline consumption may be due to aji increase in the average miles per 
gallon of automobiles. As older vehicle models are retired, overall 
fleet efficiencies should improve. 

Electricity consumption figures for the region are not readily available. 
However, statewide electrical consumption figures suggest that there has 
been no appreciable decline in regional per capita electrical 
consumption. The 1978 statewide per capita electrical consumption figure 
was 9,520 kilowatt hours (KWH), compared to a 1983 figure of 9,205 KWH. 
In addition, residential electrical consumption remained largely 
unchanged as well. The 1978 statewide per capita residential sector 
electrical consumption figure was 4,615 KVH , compared to 4,546 KWH in 
1983. Part of the explanation for the lack of reduction in per capita 
residential electricity consumption is likely due to the inefficiencies 
in the existing housing stock. Although newer homes may be more energy 
efficient, they constitute a relatively small percentage of the state's 
total housing stock. 



III-12-3 



In 1980, Florida electric and gas utilities began a comprehensive progrsim 
xinder the direction of the Florida Public Service Commission (FPSC) to 
reduce energy consumption by actively promoting conservation and 
efficient use of energy. The FPSC adopted the following goals for 
utilities subject to the Florida Energy Efficiency ajid Conservation Act 
(FEECA) adopted by the state legislature in 1980: (1) The growth rate of 
peak summer ajid winter demand will be limited to 72.5 percent of the 
growth rate of residential customers; (2) The growth rate of annual 
kilowatt hour sales will be limited to 25.0 percent of the growth rate of 
residential customers; and (3) Oil consumption will be reduced by 25.0 
percent by 1989 so that usage is less than 58,734,000 barrels per year. 

The utilities have developed programs approved by the FPSC to meet these 
goals through demand majiagement and conservation in the end use of 
energy. Examples of conservation prograjns include residential energy 
audits, commercial ajid industrial energy audits, public awareness and 
education campaigns, energy loans, appliance efficiency prograjns, water 
ajid space heater conversion prograjns, water conservation devices, and 
street light conversion programs. 

An emerging new technology which may result in reduced electricity line 
loss is the use of amorphous metal alloys in distribution transformers. 
Each year an estimated 400 billion kilowatt-hours of energy are lost 
worldwide as electrical power is delivered to its users. A significant 
part of the loss occurs in distribution transformers, devices that reduce 
the high voltage of the transmission line to the low voltage required for 
most household and industrial uses. 

Transformer cores made of ajnorphous metal have been introduced into the 
marketplace ajid are expected to capture a significant market share within 
the next few years. A startling 75.0 percent reduction in average core 
loss can be obtained through its use. The importance of this reduction 
is demonstrated by the fact that conversion to distribution transformers 
with ajnorphous metal cores would save an estimated 40 billion kilowatt- 
hours annually nationwide. ° 

Promoting the effective and efficient use of all forms of energy is an 
importajit task of local and state governments as well. Readily 
accessible and affordable supplies of energy have allowed the present 
type and distribution of lajid uses to evolve without serious 
consideration of the energy consumption impacts. Although data is not 
available to document actual energy costs induced by present land use 
patterns, the potential for long-term energy savings through energy- 
efficient lasid use planning appear to be substantial. The impact of new 
development on future energy and resource consumption patterns must be 
recognized, analyzed, and carefully considered in the planning and 
development review process. 

Transportation planning has traditionally responded to after-the-fact 
development patterns. Transportation and land use planning should be 
integrated to account for the total energy costs of development. 
Vehicle stops and delays at traffic signals in urban areas consume 
approximately one-fifth of the total daily fuel consumption in Florida. 



III-12-4 



Inefficiently timed traffic signals increase vehicle stops, delays, and 
fuel consumption. Efficiently timed traffic lights allow for 
uninterrupted traffic flow, reduces idling, stopping, travel time, and 
the use of fuel. Improving road design to provide dedicated turning 
lajies also increases highway capacity and reduces fuel consumption. The 
development and organization of car pools is a potential method to save 
energy. 

The Florida Energy Efficiency Code for Building Construction was adopted 
as part of the standard building code in 1981 and is in effect in all 
north central Florida local governments. This code establishes 
minimum required energy efficiency levels for new construction. While 
the code is aji important element of an energy conservation policy, 
positive inducements could be used to further energy efficiency in 
construction. Few local governments provide through development 
regulations incentives for energy conservation design such as the use of 
solar water heaters, passive or active solar heating ajid cooling, energy- 
efficient landscaping, or solar orientation in building and subdivision 
platting. 



Regional Facilities: 

Deerhaven electrical generation plaint (Gainesville) 
Electrical generation plajit (Starke) 
Electrical generation plant (Ellaville) 



Agencies: U.S. Department of Energy, Florida Department of Community 
Affairs, Florida Public Service Commission, Florida Power and Light, 
Florida Power Corporation, Central Florida Electric, Clay Electric, 
Suwannee Valley Electric, Tri-County Electric, North Central Florida 
Regional Planning Council, local governments. 



Endnotes : 



1. Governor's Energy Office, Florida Energy Data: 1970-1983 , 
(Tallahassee, FL . , 1984). 



2. Executive Office of the Governor, Trends and Conditions for Florida , 
(Tallahassee, FL . , 1985). 



3. The Solar Collector, Florida Solar Facts , Number 16, Cape 
Canaveral, FL . : Spring, 1980. 



4-. The Florida Solar Energy Center, telephone interview with Ms. Ingrid 
Melody, public relations, September 24, 1986. 



III-12-5 



5. Florida Department of Administration, Division of State Planning, 

The Florida State Comprehensive Plan. Enerf^y Element , (Tallahassee, 
FL. : October , 1977) . 



6. North Central Florida Regional Planning Council, Energy Analysis of 
the North Central Florida Region, (Gainesville, FL . : 1979). 



7. Joel P. Clark and Merton C. Flemings, "Advajiced Materials and the 
Economy," Scientific American , Vol. 255, No . 4 (October, 1986), p 
55. 



8. Ibid. 



III-12-6 



STATE GOAL 15: HAZARDOUS AND NONHAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND WASTE 

All solid waste, including hazardous waste, wastewater, and all hazardous 
materials, shall be properly mansiged, and the use of landfills shall be 
eventually eliminated. 



15.1. Regional Issue/Cluster Title: #50: Reduce Hazardous Waste and 
Materials 

Background Analysis: Given the region's almost exclusive dependence upon 
groundwater for drinking water and irrigation, the protection of water 
resources and the public water supply from hazardous waste and materials 
contajnination is crucial. North central Florida currently has no 
facilities for the collection, storage, treatment, or disposal of 
hazardous waste. The development of adequate off-site waste management 
facility services within the region is an important component of 
hazardous waste management within the region. 

In accordance with recent legislation, the Council and county governments 
are conducting county and regional hazardous waste assessments to 
identify and estimate the amounts, types, and sources of hazardous waste 
generated within the region. Storage and disposal methods are also being 
surveyed. The major goal of the assessment is to determine the hazardous 
waste majiagement practices of small quantity generators (SQG's). SQG's 
are defined as those generators who produce less than 2,200 pounds per 
month of hazardous waste. Currently there are limited options available 
to small businesses for the proper disposal of hazardous wastes. 

By estimating the types and quantities of hazardous wastes generated, the 
need for effective waste management practices and off-site services can 
be determined. Based on the county findings, the Council will prepare a 
needs assessment and designate at least one site where a regional storage 
or treatment facility could be located. Counties have previously 
designated at least two sites for the possible location of storage 
transfer facilities. 

In 1985, the legislature established a grant program for local 
governments to encourage the construction of local hazardous waste 
collection centers. Once established, these facilities would provide a 
service to homeowners, farmers, ajid small businesses which generate small 
quantities of hazardous waste by providing a proper disposal alternative. 

Preliminary results from the study indicate that annual hazardous waste 
generation in the region is considerable. In 1985, 951 small quantity 
generators reported generating 5,771,597 pounds of hazardous waste. Of 
this amount, 761,532 pounds require further management to insure its 
proper disposal. Approximately 75.0 percent of all hazardous waste 
produced by SQG's in the region is comprised of waste oils and greases, 
lead-acid batteries, eind spent solvents. It is important to recognize 
that these figures do not include unreported or domestic hazardous waste. 



III-I3-I 



Household generated hazardous wastes are currently exempt from hazardous 
waste regulation. No estimates are available regarding the amount of 
household generated hazardous waste disposed in landfills in the region; 
however, it is suspected to be significant. 

Existing landfills may represent a hazardous waste problem. Prior to 
1974, hazardous wastes were allowed under state law to be disposed of in 
sanitary landfills and dumps. An estimated 386 tons of hazardous wastes 
were placed in landfills statewide. Of 168 tons which are considered to 
be toxic due to high cadmium concentrations. The remaining 218 tons are 
wastewater treatment sludge from electroplating operations. Hazardous 
waste still finds its way to sanitary landfills. Most landfill operators 
in the region indicate that, while they do not normally accept hazardous 
wastes, many domestic hazardous wastes such as pesticides, paints, and 
thinners probably slip by. Most landfill employees have not received any 
training regarding the monitoring of hazardous waste disposal. 

Potential exists within the region for hazardous waste spills from the 
trajisportation of hazardous waste to out-of-state treatment and disposal 
sites. Since 1985 it has been unlawful to dispose if hazardous waste 
within the state. Florida is a net exporter of hazardous waste. 
Approximately one percent, 25,962 tons, of the hazardous waste generated 
in Florida was shipped out of state for treatment, storage, or disposal 
in 1982 (7,113 tons were also imported for treatment or storage at 
Florida facilities). 

Although data is not readily available, it is suspected that a large 
percentage of the state's exported hazardous waste is transported through 
the region. The Peacetime Emergency Plan for the State of Florida 
requires notification of all spills regardless of size to Florida 
Department of Community Affair's Division of Emergency Management 
(referred to as the State Warning Point). A 24--hour hotline telephone 
number is available for the reporting of all such spills. It is the 
responsibility of the spiller to pay for the clean up. Most of the big 
haulers already have someone contracted to clean up any hazardous waste 
spills. Smaller haulers are provided a list of private contractors who 
caji clean up the spill. 

There are 17 reported cases of leaking underground tanks in north central 
Florida. Most of these are associated with gasoline service stations.^ 
Reports of groundwater contamination by underground fuel tanks prompted 
the state legislature to include a tank regulation prograjn in the Water 
Quality Assurajice Act of 1983. This act authorizes the Florida 
Department of Environmental Regulation ( DER ) to regulate liquid 
"pollutants" such as petroleum products, pesticides, ajnmonia, chlorine, 
and derivatives thereof. 

However, the state prograjn established since the passage of that act does 
not regulate all underground storage tanks. Instead it is limited to 
motor vehicle gasoline stations, aircraft, rail, and marine filling 
stations. State regulations also do not require annual pressure checks 
of underground storage tanks for leaks as is common practice in many 
other states. Detection of leaks under State rules is accomplished by 



III-I3-2 



mandatory inventory measurements for each day the product is added or 
removed, use of in-ground pollution monitoring devices at new facilities, 
and the retrofitting with these devices at existing facilities. These 
records are used to quickly detect large losses of product due to drastic 
tank failure, and to detect smaller leaks over a long period of time. 

Two hazardous waste EPA SuperFund sites are found in the region. These 
are the Brown Wood Preserving Company site located near Live Oak and the 
Cabot Carbon/Koppers Corporation site located in Gainesville. Both sites 
were contauninated by the improper treatment of wastes by local industries 
which are no longer in business at these sites. Final cleanup of theses 
sites is scheduled for completion before 1990. 

The cleanup costs for these sites is anticipated to be very expensive, 
potentially costing millions of dollars. In an effort to prevent such 
expenditures in the future, the 1980 ajnendments to the Florida Resource 
Recovery and Management Act committed the State of Florida to a 
comprehensive waste management prograjn. The law provides for regulation 
of hazardous wastes from its generation through final disposition (cradle 
to grave ) . 

The act establishes a manifest system to track hazardous waste, requires 
all who deal with hazardous waste to notify the Florida Department of 
Environmental Regulation cuid requires permits for all treaters, 
transporters, storers, and disposers of hazardous waste. The law also 
creates a trust fund to provide for the clean up of hazardous waste 
spills and dumps, established an excise tax on generators of hazardous 
waste based on the cost of treatment, storage, or disposal, provided a 
procedure for the siting of hazardous waste disposal facilities, and 
established fines and penalties levied against violators of the law. 

The legislature has also established the Amnesty Days prograjn which 
provides for the collection of hazardous wastes on a one-time basis from 
homeowners, farmers, schools, state agencies and other SQG's. The 
program schedules "Amnesty Days" around the and during which participajits 
caji properly dispose of up to one drum or 450 pounds of hazardous waste 
free of charge. Reduced disposal rates are available through the 
cooperative service progrsim for those with waste in excess of one drum. 
Since 1 984- , 14,00,000 poiinds of hazardous waste has been collected from 
10,000 participajits statewide. The Department of Environmental 
Regulation conducted the Amnesty Days program in north central Florida in 
October and November, 1986. 



Regionally Significant Facilities: 

All active and inactive sanitary landfills and dumps 
All EPA SuperFund sites 

Agencies: United States Environmental Protection Agency, Florida 
Department of Community Affairs, Department of Environmental Regulation, 
North Central Florida Regional Plajining Council, local governments, water 
management districts. 



III-15-3 



13.2. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #51: Wastewater and Solid Waste <^ 

Treatment and Disposal 

Background Analysis: Due to the potential of groundwater contamination, 
the adequacy of wastewater treatment ajid solid waste disposal methods 
constitute regional concerns of the highest magnitude. Virtually all of 
the region's drinking water is drawn from groundwater resources. High 
water tables and/or poor soil conditions predominate. The region has 
large expaxises of land area where high quality potable water aquifers are 
at or very near the earth's surface. 

The environmental sensitivity of the region to groundwater contamination 
has created problems for those units of local government charged with the 
responsibility of providing safe and sanitary wastewater treatment and 
disposal of solid wastes. At this time, several public landfills are 
experiencing serious groundwater contaunination problems. Examples 
include the contamination of domestic wells by the Alachua County 
landfill west of Archer emd the flooding of the Gilchrist County 
Icindfill. Madison County is under a court order to clean up their 
landfill. In addition to groundwater contamination problems, the 
region's lajidfills are rapidly reaching their capacity. Nine of the 
region's eleven active lajidfills have an estimated life of less thaj^ ten 
years . 



In addition to the problem of groundwater pollution by existing 
landfills, local governments must also address the recently adopted State 
rules governing landfill operations. At this time, all eleven active 
landfills in the region must install plastic liners or their equivalent 
in order to meet the new DER regulations. A DER estimate for meeting the 
new requirements using liners is estimated at approximately $60,C00 per 
acre. For one county in the region, this translates into an estimated 
105.0 percent increase in costs for handling solid waste. 

While all counties in the state are affected by the new requirements, the 
rural counties of north central Florida simply do not have the tax base 
to absorb the increased costs. For exajnple, 4- of the region's 11 
counties have reached the 10 mil property tax rate cap while an 
additional 5 counties are between 75.0 to 100.0 percent of their millage 
caps . 

The life of a landfill can be extended by reducing the size of the waste 
streajn. Resource recovery activities of all types are expanding rapidly 
throughout Florida. In 1976 the Department of Environmental Regulation 
designated 18 counties in the state to plan for and implement resource 
recovery programs. Alachua County is the only designated county in the 
North Central Florida Region and is currently seeking citizen and 
consultant input on various forms of resource recovery including 
recycling and a mass burning facility. 

While a mass burning facility may be a viable solution, there may be some 
associated adverse environmental Impacts. Problems include Increases in 
air pollution emissions, particularly dioxins. Emissions can be further 
exacerbated by uneven burning ajid the residual ash can be more toxic than 



III-13-4 



/# 



the original materials. Furthermore, mass burning will not completely 
eliminate the need for landfills. Landfills will still be needed to 
receive ash produced in the burning process as well as unburnable 
materials that are not recycled. 

In addition to the threats to water quality posed by landfills, 
wastewater represents a potential pollution source. Current wastewater 
management techniques promulgated within the region involve the removal 
of solids from the wastewater stream and the application of the 
liquid portion on pasture, croplands, and golf courses through spray 
irrigation. The solid portion, or sludge, is disposed in landfills. 



Regionally Signiflcajit Facilities: 

All active and inactive sanitary landfills, dumps, and EPA SuperFund 

sites 
All Wastewater Treatment Plants 
All hazardous waste transfer stations. 



Agencies: Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, North Central 
Florida Regional Planning Council, local governments. 



Endnotes : 



1. Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, "Florida's Tank 
Program. . .Moving Forward," Waste Watcher , Vol. 6, No. 2, Fall, 
1985, p. 2. 



2. Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, State of 

Florida Resource Recovery Activity Report , (Tallahassee, FL . 
1985). 



III-13-5 



■w^ 



*<• 



^ 



% 



STATE GOAL 14: MINING 

Florida shall protect its air, land ajid water resources from the adverse 
effects of resource extraction and ensure that the disturbed areas are 
reclaimed or restored to beneficial use as soon as reasonably possible. 

Background Analysis: Mining activities occurring in north central 
Florida include phosphate, lime rock, sand, gravel, clay, and peat. Open 
pit limestone quarries can be found in Alachua, Dixie, Lafayette, and 
Suwannee counties. In addition, there is currently a proposal for peat 
mining in Madison County and an expansion of heavy mineral mining in 
Bradford County. 

A heavy mineral sand mine operation is proposed along the borders of 
Duval, Baker, Clay, and Bradford County in an area known as the "Maxville 
Site" which comprises approximately 7,500 acres. In Florida, heavy 
mineral bearing sands occur on the surface of the ground extending 
downward 20 to 27 feet. Heavy mineral content of the sand is usually 
only two to four percent, and large-scale mining techniques are reijuired 
to operate an economically viable mine. At the Maxville site, the mine 
company, E.I. DuPont, proposes to harvest the timber, clear the land and 
stockpile the topsoil, dig a small pond, construct a large dredge and a 
separating plant, known as a wet mill, and begin operations. The dredge 
will dig the heavy mineral bearing sand at one end of the pond and pump 
it through a floating pipeline to the wet mill. Here the small amount of 
heavy minerals will be removed and pumped ashore. The large volume of 
remaining sand will be pumped immediately to fill in the opposite end of 
the pond. Thus the small pond will advance gradually through the ore 
body. As dredging progresses, topsoil will be replaced over the mined 
sand and forestry operations will be resumed. 

Preliminary plans are for the Maxville mine to produce approximately 
150,000 tons per year of titanium minerals, 75,000 tons per year of 
staurolite, and 40,000 tons per year of zircon. Mining is proposed to 
begin in 1990 in Baker County, near its border with Bradford and Clay 
counties, and will continue for an estimated 27 years. DuPont mining 
operations currently employs approximately 275 people at its Florida 
plant. This number will not change significantly because when the 
Maxville mine begins operation, one of the existing sites will shut down 
and approximately 50 people will change work location. 

However, by far the most extensive and economically important mining 
activity in the region is land pebble phosphate mining, conducted by 
Occidental Chemical Agricultural Products, Inc., (OXY). The land 
holdings of OXY are located in Hamilton County, approximately 60 miles 
west of Jacksonville, and 40 "miles south of Valdosta, Georgia. The 
current activity area is located immediately north of White Springs, and 
generally south and east of Jasper, encompassing about 100,000 acres. 
Other existing or potentially valuable deposits in the region recognized 
by Mansfield (1942) include an area of about 16,000 acres in Bradford 
County between Brooker and Hampton, and along Olustee Creek in Columbia 
and Union counties. 



III-14-1 



r^ 



Within this area, lands excluded from mining include: (1) the 100-yr 
floodplain of the Suwannee River; (2) the floodplains of major creeks for 
at least 0.5 miles upstream from each creek's confluence with the 
Suwannee River; and (3) a 500-foot radius of any third-magnitude or 
larger spring or any major sinkhole. Within the mine area, several 
tributaries provide drainage to the Suwannee River: Rocky Creek, Hunter 
Creek, Roaring Creek, Long Branch, Four Mile Branch, Sal Marie Branch, 
Swift Creek, Camp Branch, Jerry Branch, Sugar Creek, Ratliff Creek, and 
several small unnamed creeks. Some mining and associated support 
facilities are within these stream systems. 

The acquisition of phosphate reserves in Hamilton County was initiated in 
the early 1960's. OXY currently operates two phosphate mines and two 
agricultural chemical complexes. The Suwannee River Mine began 
production in 1965 with the Suwannee River Chemical Complex beginning 
production in 1966. The Swift Creek Mine began production in 1975 and 
the Swift Creek Chemical Complex began production in 1979- Most of the 
rock produced by the continuing mining operations will be used by the 
existing Suwannee River and Swift Creek chemical complexes. If the 
necessary permits can be obtained to mine wetlands containing minable 
reserves which have been identified, OXY plans an estimated average 
production rate of 4.6 million tons of phosphate rock per year through 
mine-out of the Suwannee River Mine. After that time, production is 
expected to drop to an average of 1 .7 million tons per year until 
mine-out of the Swift Creek Mine.' 

In north central Florida, pebbles and grains of phosphate minerals occur (^ 

throughout the sediments of the Hawthorn Formation and also occur as 

concentrations in lenses or other irregular bodies. Pirkle (1967) 

reported on important occurrences of pebble phosphate in the upper part 

of the Hawthorn Formation near Gainesville in Alachua County. This zone 

of phosphatic materials varies in thickness from a few feet to 30 or 40 

feet and consists largely of pebbles and grains of phosphate embedded 

with varying combinations of sand, clay, and carbonate materials. 

Reserves between 30 and 50 million tons are cited for Alachua County with 

a grade exceeding 50.0 percent Bone Phosphate of Lime (BPL) in 

recoverable phosphorous. 

The hard rock phosphate deposits of Florida are roughly confined to a 
north to south belt along the middle of the peninsula from the Georgia 
border to the middle of Marion County. This concentration is largely 
controlled by the Ocala Uplift. The Ocala Uplift is an elongated 
anticlinal fold or arch stretching some two hundred miles long and 
seventy miles wide. The axis lies a few miles west of Alachua County. 
The hard rock phosphate concentration occurs primarily on the central 
portion of the Uplift in an area one hundred miles long and thirty miles 
wide covering the total area of some 15,000 square miles. These hard 
rock deposits are found in fifteen counties including Alachua, Columbia, 
Gilchrist, Levy, and Suwannee in this region. 

In the I890's and early I900's, hard rock phosphate production flourished 

because, with naturally occurring high phosphate percentages, it was ^ 

ideal for export as washed and screened rock. As benefaction techniques 



III-14-2 



I 



were improved for the large deposits of land pebble phosphate, hard rock 
production declined. Neither the production of hard rock nor soft rock 
phosphates since 1942, has contributed a significant amount to the 
phosphate industry. Under changed economic conditions, the hard rock 
phosphate reserves of the state may again be mined. Renewed activity in 
hard rock deposits depends upon several factors which includes: (1) 
Depletion of present premium grades (74.0 % Bone Phosphate of Lime and 
above) and quantities of land pebble deposits; (2) Reduced transportation 
costs; and (5) Minimum competition from other sources of phosphates.^ 

Site preparation for mining includes removal of structures and 
vegetation, ditching, and demucking. This preparation is accomplished in 
order to provide a smooth, stable surface from which to operate the 
walking dragline. This site preparation begins as much as a year or two 
before mining and intensifies as the dragline approaches the area to be 
mined . 

Electric-powered walking draglines with 50 to 45 cubic yard capacities 
are capable of removing about 1,000 cubic yards of phosphate matrix per 
hour. Work usually continues 24 hours a day except during maintenance or 
other operational shutdowns. The 5- to 25-foot thick matrix contains 
about 20.0 percent clay, 60.0 percent sand, and 20.0 percent phosphate 
ore. It is covered with an overburden 10 to 50 feet thick. Mining cuts 
usually range from 250 to 400 feet in width and up to several hundred 
yards in length. 

As the overburden is removed it is side-cast into adjacent cuts; then the 
matrix is mined and deposited in a suction well or sluice-pit. 
"Pit-cars" deliver a high pressure (200 PSI ) stream of water at 10,000 
gallons per minute (GPM) through hydraulic monitors which slurry the 
matrix, while centrifugal dredge pumps remove and transport the ore to 
the washer through miles of pipeline at a rate of 15,000 GPM. At the 
washer, the primary slimes (clay waste) are separated from the large rock 
and mudballs (waste), the pebble phosphate rock, and the recovery-plant 
feed. Trommel screens remove mud and clayballs; whereas, log washers 
disintegrate the remaining clay chips. Vibrating, shaker-washer screens 
separate oversize pebble from the recovery plant feed which continues to 
the flotation plant. 

In the flotation process, materials are selectively separated with 
various reagents (fatty acids, amine, ammonia, and kerosene). Sand waste 
is pumped by slurry to a sand tailings disposal or settling area. 
Additional slimes are circulated through a thickening pond to decrease 
water entrainment and correspondingly decrease settling-storage pond 
acreage and shorten recycling time of reclaimed water. Sulfuric acid, 
caustic soda, and ammonia are added to the flotation system at various 
times for pH adjustment. The final phosphate concentrate from the 
benef iciation plant is either sold or conveyed to the chemical plant for 
further processing. 

The mining and benef iciation stages of the phosphate operations create 
large open areas of water-filled pits, hydraulic canals, drainage 
ditches, and impounded settling and disposal areas. The final phosphate 



III-14-5 



concentrate produced from the benef iciat ion operation, when transported 
to the chemical plant, can be converted and further concentrated to make 
superphosphates, triple and granular triple, ammonium phosphates, and 
phosphoric acid. 

Molten sulfur is shipped in to produce sulfuric acid for use in 
solubilizing the phosphate rock in the conversion to wet-process 
phosphoric acid. Byproducts and impurities of gypsum, hydrofluoric acid, 
fluosilicic acid, and silica are evolved and must be filtered off or 
removed by wet scrubbers. Contaminated water and byproducts are 
circulated through a gypsum pond settling area where the decant is 
allowed to overflow and is returned to the plant for reuse. Further 
concentration of the phosphoric acid by evaporation volatilizes some acid 
and minor impurities which enter a barometric condenser and are 
recirculated through the gypsum pond. Clarification requires time and 
temperature to induce chemical precipitation which, along with physical 
separation, yields more byproducts such as iron and aluminum phosphates, 
soluble gypsum, and f luosi 1 icates , all of which must be removed. 

A hydraulic system which covers a large surface area is used to 
recirculate the waters involved in mining, transportation to the 
benef iciation plant, primary washer stages, disposal of clay wastes and 
sand wastes, and land reclamation. Floridan aquifer water is pumped into 
the phosphatic clayey waste storage-settling areas (slime ponds) until a 
level is attained that optimizes drainage and flow through the hydraulic 
system. Phosphatic clay wastes are deposited at one side of these ponds 
and hydraulic gradients cause the water released from dewatering of the 
wastes to overflow on the opposite side of the pond through a spillway 
into a hydraulic ditch. Ditches surrounding the storage-settling ponds 
and some mining areas are designed to transport recycled water and dike- 
and pond-seepage back to the plant. This water is then pumped into the 
plant or to slurry lines to be reused. Once operating levels are 
attained, most of the water associated with the phosphate operation is 
recycled (about 305 MOD); whereas, about 30 MGD are pumped from the 
Floridan aquifer for makeup.^ 



14.1. Regional Issue/Policy Cluster #52: Reclamation of Mined Areas 

Mining can be viewed as a temporary land use. When the valuable ore has 
been extracted, the mining process stops. The OXY mining activities at 
its Swift Creek and Suwannee River mines are anticipated to cease in 30 
years. What shape will this land be in and what activities will the land 
be able to sustain after mining activity? 

The most significant results of mining activities is the wholesale 
disruption and destruction of the existing natural systems. State law 
requires the reclamation of phosphate mined lands to a state 
approximating the original conditions (Section 211.32, Florida Statutes; 
Chapter 16C-16, FAC ) . It should be noted that reclamation is not the 
same thing as restoration. Restoration is the replacement of surficial 
contours, vegetative communities, and habitats as they existed prior to 
the mining activity. 



III-14-4 



I 



> 



Phosphate mine reclamation consists of four widely used techniques: (1) 
Sand tailings fill, in which mined cuts are backfilled with sand tailings 
from the flotation process; (2) clay waste fill, in which slime ponds are 
progressively drained, and the remaining clay precipitate is compacted 
and seeded (dikes that were formerly around the ponds are spread and 
graded away from the clay layer to form smooth contours); (3) overburden 
fill, in which overburden from other mining areas is used to fill mined 
cuts; and (4) water body construction, where mined cuts are filled with 
water to create lakes. 

In addition, there are several experimental reclamation techniques: (1) 
sand-clay mix fill, in which sand tailings and clay precipitate are mixed 
and applied to mined cuts (it is thought that this mix provides a stable 
soil mix conducive to vegetation growth); (2) the establishment of a sand 
tailings and overburden cap that will apply a compaction stress 
sufficient to achieve approximate ground level storage of material that 
would otherwise produce an area with an increase in postmining elevation; 
and (3) a rotary screen process that decreases the time necessary to 
partially dewater the clay waste. 

Reclamation efforts to date on OXY lands have replaced areas of uplands 
and wetlands with uplands, wetlands, and lakes. The lakes appear to have 
been beneficial for migratory waterfowl and other bird species. The 
lakes are also used for recreational fishing. While this may have a 
favorable impact on fish and wildlife resources, it may also have an 
adverse impact upon large fur bearing species such as the threatened 
Florida black bear, which seek privacy. 



Regional Resources: 

Hard rock phosphate 

Land pebble phosphate 

Gypsum 

Limestone 

Dolomite 

Clay 

T i t an i urn 

Zircon 

Staurol ite 

Gypsum 

Oil 

Natural Gas 



Agencies: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Florida Department of Natural 
Resources, Department of Environmental Regulation, North Central Florida 
Regional Planning Council, Suwannee River Water Management District, St. 
Johns River Water Management District, local governments. 



III-14-5 



r 



14-2. Regional Issue/Policy Cluster: #53: Mining Regulation 

Background Analysis: The economic health of the mining industry, 
particularly of the phosphate mining industry is important to the 
development and enforcement of mining regulations. This concern arises 
from the problem of insuring completion of reclamation plans beyond the 
life of the mine. Certain local ordinances regulating mining have 
included financial responsibility provisions requiring the posting of a 
performance bond to ensure that reclamation occurs according to the 
approved master plan submitted by the mine operator. The 1986 
Legislature created detailed provisions regarding financial 
responsibility for reclamation of phosphate mined lands. 

The OXY mining complex in Hamilton County is of significance to the 
economies of Hamilton, Columbia, and Suwannee counties, as well as the 
State of Florida. It is estimated that approximately 24.0 percent of all 
jobs in the three county area are attributable directly or indirectly to 
OXY, as are 36.0 percent of the total salary and wage incomes.' 

The mining and chemical processing operation employs 2,150 workers at 

full employment and directly "adds about $48.2 million per year (in 1982 

dollars and not including fringe benefits of about 30.0 percent of 

payroll) to the earned income of the three counties of immediate impact 

and other counties in north Florida. It is further estimated that each 

direct job at OXY's facilities adds 3.66 additional full-time equivalent 

indirect and induced jobs in Florida with 1.99 of these additional jobs _ 

located within Columbia, Hamilton, and Suwannee counties. In addition, 

for each dollar of direct salaries resulting from the OXY operation, an 

additional $2.68 of indirect and induced income is generated in Florida. 

Approximately $1.09 of this indirect and induced income is earned by 

people living within the three county area, and the other 1.59 dollars is 

earned by people throughout Florida.® 

OXY's contribution to state and local taxes is $31.5 million and $14.9 

million, respectively, on an annual basis. This local tax figure 

comprised approximately 32.0 percent of all local government revenues in 
the 1981-1982 fiscal year.^ 

Other mining activity in the region includes the mining and production of 
crushed stone in Alachua, Suwannee and Taylor counties. The value of the 
stone produced in 1981 was nearly $7 million. 

Local regulation of mining is accomplished by ordinance in three counties 

in the region, Alachua, Columbia, and Hamilton. The Alachua County 

ordinance, adopted in 1975, regulates all types of mining. The ordinance 

requires a complete description of the surface and subsurface features at 

the proposed site, the submission of a master mining and reclamation 

plan, and the posting of reclamation performance bonds to ensure 

financial responsibility of the operator. Annual reviews of the 

operation are conducted, and site inspections may occur at any given 

time. One unique provision is the requirement of separation of the mined 

layers of topsoil, clay and sand layers, to be replaced during |*^ 

reclamation in the original sequence in which they were removed. 

III-14-6 



I 



The Hamilton County ordinance, adopted in 1981, essentially mirrors the 
requirements of the state standards set forth in the state regulation 
(Chapter 16C-16, FAC ) . One requirement of the Hamilton County ordinance 
is the provision of an annual report to the local government that 
indicates mining and reclamation activities for the previous year and 
giving estimates of those activities for the current year. 



Regional Natural Resources: 

Hard rock phosphate 

Land pebble phosphate 

Gypsum 

Limestone 

Dolomite 

Clay 

T i t an i um 

Zircon 

Staurol ite 

Gypsum 

Oil 

Natural Gas 



Agencies: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Florida Department of Natural 
Resources, Department of Environmental Regulation, North Central Florida 
Regional Planning Council, Suwannee River Water Management District, St. 
Johns River Water Management District, local governments. 



14.3. Regional Issue/Policy Cluster #54: Environmental Protection 

Background Analysis: Resource extraction techniques may not only consume 
vast amounts of water, but may also disrupt normal drainage patterns, 
change chemical characteristics of water, and create new water bodies. 
The soil characteristics and hydrology of forested wetlands may be 
altered where extraction processes occur, and characteristic plant and 
animal populations may be adversely affected. 

Surface and groundwater consumption and contamination associated with 
mining are a major concern, especially with sand and peat excavation 
sites. Pollutants are released from peat, thus contaminating the water 
supply, and sand mining consumes vast amounts of water and may cause 
water pollution as well. Resource excavation can substantially alter 
watershed conditions when wetlands and small stream channels are 
disrupted. Effluent discharges to nearby streams can adversely impact 
the biological balance of the system, and cumulative effects of these 
discharges may prove to be significant. Groundwater hydrology may be 
altered, and the quantity of water in the shallow aquifer may be 
decreased enough to lower water levels. 



III-14-7 



r 



Mining operations in floodplain areas can pose environmental problems. 
This is partially due to the greater probabi 1 ity of water contamination 
of the surficial aquifer when borrow pits are formed with direct 
connection to the high water table in floodplain areas. If the resource 
excavation area is near a lagoon and/or the ocean, excavation in areas of 
a high water table may encourage saltwater intrusion. In addition, 
improperly reclaimed borrow pits may provide physicochemical , biological, 
and topographic conditions which are conducive to the development of 
eutrophic and/or anaerobic conditions which reduce the mined area's 
suitability as fish and wildlife habitat. 



Regional Natural Resources 

Hard rock phosphate 

Land pebble phosphate 

Gypsum 

Limestone 

Dolomite 

Clay 

Titanium 

Zircon 

Staurol ite 

Gypsum 

Oil 

Natural Gas 



Agencies: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Florida Department of Natural 
Resources, Department of Environmental Regulation, North Central Florida 
Regional Planning Council, water management districts, local governments. 

14.4. Regional Issue/Policy Cluster ff 55: Environmental Health Care 
Protection 

Background Analysis: Environmental concerns resulting from mining go 
beyond the detrimental effects to the physical environment. Important 
considerations are hazards to human health which can occur during or as a 
result of mining. Potential health hazards include contamination of 
domestic water supplies, the generation of hazardous wastes, and the 
effects of higher levels of radiation found in mined and reclaimed lands. 

During the mining process, as the overburden is removed, the resultant 

open pits are "dewatered". This is accomplished through the construction 

of drainage ditches, which channel the water generally found from 3 to 18 

feet below the surface away from the pit. This water comprises the 

surficial aquifer, which is typically composed of unconsolidated sands 

and lenses of clay. The effect of dewatering is the lowering of the 

water table, and the removal of the surficial aquifer in the vicinity of 

the mined area. Reclaimed lands may, when compared to premining 

conditions, have a greater probability of contaminating the aquifer. ^^ 

Once the site is reclaimed, depth to water table may change where the ^ 

III-14-8 



> 



> 



landform assumes a different configuration, and changes in the 
composition and compaction of the overburden can alter recharge and 
subsurface flow characteristics in reclaimed areas. 

Phosphate mining does not generate hazardous wastes. However, closely 

associated with phosphate mining are chemical plants and operations for 

the benef iciat ion , or concentration of the phosphate ore. The 

benef iciation process involves the generation of a quantity of hazardous 

waste in the form of spent laboratory reagents used in testing and other 

chemical processes. OXY reported the generation of approximately 24.5 

tons of hazardous waste in 1985. The hazardous waste is comprised 

primarily of spent laboratory reagents (21.9 tons) and ignitable paint 

waste (1.25 tons). Also for 1985, OXY reported recycling 23.5 tons of 

waste oils and greases. OXY is currently in compliance with applicable 

1 ? 
regulations. However, many hazardous wastes are acknowledged as 

carcinogenic and, if accidentally introduced into the groundwater, could 

become a problem. 

One final potential health problem resulting which may result from, mining 
is an increase in background radiation resulting from the disturbance and 
exposure of subsurface clays and sediments that have measurable levels of 
radioactivity. Radiation is derived from the presence of uranium which 
occurs in association with phosphorus and phosphate deposits. 

Reclamation of mined lands which mixes surface and subsurface materials 

can result in increased background radiation levels. Uranium breaks down 

into radium, a potential cancer-causing agent. However, current evidence 

is inconclusive as to the associated health hazards. Research is being 

conducted to determine the effects of long-term exposure to low-level 

1 "^ 
doses of radium. -^ Current land uses in the region for reclaimed land 

are improved pasture and pine plantations. These uses minimize prolonged 

human exposure to the higher radiation levels. 



Regional Natural Resources; 

Hard rock phosphate 

Land pebble phosphate 

Gypsum 

Limestone 

Dolomite 

Clay 

Titanium 

Zircon 

Staurol ite 

Gypsum 

Oil 

Natural Gas 



Agencies: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Florida Department of Natural 
Resources, Department of Environmental Regulation, North Central Florida 
Regional Planning Council, water management districts, local governments. 



III-U-9 



Endnotes : 



J. A. Ruffini, E. I. DuPont - Florida Plant: Maxville Site: General 
Information . (Environmental Services and Permitting, Inc., 
Gainesville, FL : June 1986), p. 2. 



Environmental Services and Permitting , Inc . , Environmental Evaluation 
of Existing and Proposed Mining Operations . V.I, (Department of the 
Army, Corps of Engineers, Jacksonville, Florida District: 1985), 
p. 77. 



3. Ibid . , pp. 1-1 - 1 -5 



North Central Florida Regional Planning Council, Natural Resources . 
(Gainesville, FL : 1977), pp. 76-77. 



5. Miller, James A., et. al.. Impact of Potential Phosphate Mining on 
the Hydrology of Osceola National Forest , (Florida Water-Resources 
Investigations, 78-6, U.S. Geological Survey, Tallahassee, FL : 1978), 
pp. 99-103. 



Bureau of Land Management, Environmental Assessment on State of 
Reclamation Techniques on Phosphate Mined Lands in Florida and Their 
Application to Phosphate Mining in the Osceola National Forest . 
(Eastern States Office: 1983), pp. 2-3 - 2-9. 



Environmental Services and Permitting, Inc., Technical Background 
Document: Environmental Evaluation of Existing and Proposed Mining 
Operations . Vol. IV, (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Jacksonville, 
Florida District: 1985), p. 6-156. 



8. Ibid . , p. 6-156. 

9. Ibid . . pp. 6-157 - 158, 



10. Boyule, James R. and Hendry, C.W. Jr., "The Mineral Industry of 
Florida, 1983", Information Circular No. 98 . (Florida Bureau of 
Geology, Tallahassee, FE : 1985), p. 2. 



11. Hamilton County Hazardous Waste Assessment . North Central Florida 
Regional Planning Council, (Gainesville, FL . : 1986). 



III-14-10 



12. Telephone conversation with Jane Mears, Enforcement, Department of 
Environmental Regulation, Jacksonville, FL : February 4, 1986. 



13. United Press International, "Reclaimed Land Crops Slightly 

Radioactive," The Miami Herald. Miami: January 14, 1986, p. ID, 



I 



) 



III-14-1 1 



} 



) 



STATE GOAL 15: PROPERTY RIGHTS 

Florida shall protect private property rights ajid recognize the existence 
of legitimate and often competing public and private interests in land 
use regulations and other government action. 

15.1. Regional Issue/Policy Cluster Title f/56: Protecting Property 
Rights 

Background Analysis: Equality under the law, the right to due process, 
and the right to compensation for the taking of private property comprise 
the fundamental property rights set forth in the United States 
Constitution. The laws of Florida, which more directly regulate private 
property rights than federal law, reflect these constitutional 
guarantees. The rights of an individual to use or develop his property 
as he wishes, however, can be limited by government in order to protect 
the health, safety, and welfare of the community and its citizens as a 
whole . 

Public controls on the use of land have been in existence to some degree 
as it is sometimes necessary for government to limit an individual's use 
of land for the protection of the rights of affected private landowners 
or in order to protect the health, safety, and welfare of the community 
and its citizens as a whole. Before the enactment of zoning ordinances 
and land use laws, the primary constraints on land use were embodied in 
nuisance law. Property owners who felt that another individual or 
adjacent property owner was infringing on their right to the peaceful and 
quiet enjoyment of their land had no legal recourse but to take the 
offending individual to court under local nuisance laws. Cities enacted 
zoning ordinances, at least in part, to prevent certain obvious forms of 
nuisances from occurring in the first place. Thus, the first zoning 
ordinances provided a standard of protection for property owners from 
common nuisances. 

Other forms of regulation soon followed. Cities began to formalize and 
limit the number and location of curb cuts, or access points, from 
private property to public roads for the safety of the motoring public. 
Building construction setback lines were established for better 
visibility on busy streets and for future highway widening. Setback 
lines were mutually advantageous to both the public and affected property 
owners as they reduced the cost of land acquisition for government and 
prevented individuals from losing their home when the roadway had to be 
widened. Minimum lot sizes for properties using septic tanks were 
established in an effort to protect the public from contagious diseases 
found in human effluent. 

Land is now regulated or acquired for a multitude of public purposes such 
as regulating drainage, protecting water quality, preserving the 
environment, and protecting critical plant and animal species. Sometimes 
the regulations appear so complicated that its difficult to understand 
how the regulation does what it is supposed to do and/or the reason 
behind the regulation in the first place. Even when the public does 
understand, individuals often disagree with the effectiveness of the 
regulation or its original intent. 

III-15-1 



Property values and the economic use of land in north central Florida 
depends upon a regulatory environment which strikes a proper balance 
between controlling the externalities of human activities and preserving 
private property rights. Externalities produced by one property owner, 
such water pollution by industry, can have significant adverse, even 
disastrous impacts, upon another industry, such as fishing. Farming and 
forestry both require the application of chemicals to the ground in order 
to produce commercially viable crops and trees. The impacts, or 
externalities, of this action may include reduced surfacewater quality 
due to runoff containing domestic livestock wastes as well as 
fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides used in agricultural production. 
Polluted waters entering the Suwannee River System and the coastal marsh 
could have an adverse economic impact on the coastal fishing industry as 
well as resource-based recreation and tourism. 

Other examples of externalities include the construction of housing and 
other structures along the Suwannee River System. Houses constructed 
close to the riverbank can have an adverse impact upon the river system's 
wilderness setting or otherwise adversely affect river aesthetics ^o as 
to reduce the river system's value as a tourist attraction. Residential 
developments located within or in close proximity to agricultural lands 
and private commercial forests can, through nuisance laws, adversely 
impact agricultural and si Ivicultural production management practices 
such as aerial applications of fertilizers, herbicides, and pesticides as 
well as controlled burning practices. 

Unfortunately, land use regulation is an area of law which is not precise 
due, in part, to the many-varied forms of human activity and the 
uniqueness of individual properties. Government regulations which may be 
deemed a violation of property rights for one piece of land may not lead 
to a similar violation next door. 

In addition, government policies and implementation devices can differ 
widely among counties and from city to city within a single county. 
Government needs to ensure a good fit between regulations and property 
rights. This means that comprehensive plans must have a close fit with 
both state and federal constitutional guarantees. Implementing devices, 
such as zoning ordinances and subdivision regulations, should be limited 
to enacting the comprehensive plan. Finally, an administrative appeals 
mechanism needs to be established which provides a method of relief for 
individuals from regulations when, due to unique circumstances, the 
regulation is unreasonably restrictive upon an individual. 

Regionally Significant Facilities: 

State and Federal court systems 

Agencies: State and federal court systems, all state regulatory 
agencies, Florida Attorney General, Florida Department of Community 
Affairs, North Central Florida Regional Planning Council, water 
management districts, local governments. 



III-15-2 



) 



) 



STATE GOAL 16: LAND USE 

In recognition of the importance of preserving the natural resources ajid 
enhancing the quality of life in the state, development shall be directed 
to those areas which have in place, or have agreements to provide, the 
land ajid water resources, fiscal abilities, and the service capacity to 
accommodate growth in an environmentally acceptable majiner. 

16.1. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #57: Balanced and Planned 
Development 

Background Analysis: The North Central Florida Region contains 6,813 
square miles or 12.6 percent of Florida's land area. Less than 
one-third (29.0^) of the region's 355,114 residents lived in rural areas 
in 1985 while 70.1 percent resided in urban areas. The majority of the 
region's urban population (51.65^) resided in the Gainesville Metropolitan 
Statistical Area (MSA).' 

The Gainesville MSA (Alachua and Bradford Counties) had a population 
density in 1985 of 191 persons per square mile and, when included in the 
statistics for the region, produced a region-wide population density of 
49.2 persons per square mile. When the Gainesville MSA is excluded, the 
regionwide population density was only 28.9 persons per square mile. The 
differences in population densities between the Gainesville MSA and the 
remainder of the region emphasizes the need for comprehensive planning 
strategies that specifically address the competition between 
agricultural, recreational, and urban uses of land, water, energy 
supplies, and other natural resources. 

Due in part to the rural nature of the region, most local governments 
within north central Florida have only recently enacted detailed land use 
plans and complementary implementation devices. Although every county 
government now has a land use plan, not every county has adopted the 
means to implement the plan through zoning ordinances, subdivision 
regulations, and capital improvement programs. In most counties, areas 
designated in the land use plan as agricultural can be subdivided into 
one acre single-family residential lots. 

There are significant public sector costs associated with unplanned, 
sprawled development. The public sector is traditionally responsible for 
providing police and fire protection, schools, public water and sewer, 
ambulance service, roadway expansion, hospitals, and garbage collection. 
Essentially, the more spread out urban development is, the higher the 
cost for providing such public services and facilities. Therefore, local 
government comprehensive plans should direct future population growth 
towards existing urban areas. Future land use acreage should be based on 
accurate population projections. The planned mix of land uses should be 
appropriate to the projected population. Regionally significant natural 
areas as identified by the Council should be designated in local plans 
for compatible land uses. The conversion of rural land use types to 
urban uses should occur around existing urban areas. Land use 



III-16-1 



designations should be properly implemented with supporting zoning 
ordinances, subdivision regulations, and capital improvements programs. 

As of 1984, there were 48,967 subdivided undeveloped single-family 
residential lots within the region. Many of these lots are located 
some distance from existing urban centers. These lots, should they ever 
be developed, will comprise an additional service burden to already 
financially-strapped county governments who are experiencing difficulties 
maintaining current levels of service to existing residential areas. 

In addition to the high public cost of unplanned, scattered urban 
development is the problem of incompatible land uses. Essentially, urban 
land uses are incompatible with some agricultural or commercial forest 
management practices such as the aerial application of fertilizers and 
pesticides as well as controlled burnings. Conflicts can occur when 
residential subdivisions are allowed in areas traditionally used for 
commercial forestry and agriculture. It is entirely possible for 
nuisance lawsuits to be filed by the new residential property owners 
against neighboring farmers and foresters. In such cases, it matters 
little to the court which land use was there first. It is possible for 
foresters and farmers listed as defendants in such a suit to be required 
to modify their business practices and incur substantially higher 
operating costs in order to comply with a court order.-' 

Agricultural lands present special problems. Many of the farms and 
ranches in north central Florida, as throughout the United States, are 
experiencing financial difficulties. Farmers routinely borrow money 
using their land as collateral. When the price of agricultural land 
drops, so to does the amount of money which can be borrowed. The value 
of agricultural land in rapidly urbanizing areas is, to a large extent, 
based not on the ability of the land to produce traditional agricultural 
products but rather on the likelihood of its conversion to urban uses. 
However, the conversion of agricultural lands to urban use cannot be 
allowed to occur indiscriminately due to potential land use conflicts and 
the financial burden such development patterns present to local 
government. At some point, local governments must set limits on the 
conversion of agricultural lands to urban use. 

When government forestalls such action, it invariably hurts farmers and 
ranchers who have become dependent upon inflated land values. When local 
governments finally place restraints upon urban development, it is 
possible for declines to occur in agricultural land values and subsequent 
reductions in the amount of money which farmers and ranchers can borrow. 
Local governments in north central Florida are better cff tc designate 
through the planning process which areas will remain in agricultural use 
and which will be allowed to convert to urban uses before development 
pressure further increases rural land values. Such action will help to 
stabilize land values and minimize potential financial hardship to the 
agricultural community. 



III-16-2 



) 



■':^tXi!'f": 



) 



Another problem area in terms of land use is the siting of locally 
unpopular land uses, often referred to as LULU ' s . This is both a 
regionwide and statewide problem. LULU ' s typically include prison 
facilities, mental institutions, landfills (perhaps to a lesser degree) 
ajid other types of land uses which people do not generally wish to live 
near. Historically, this region has accepted more than its share of 
state prison facilities and enlargement of these facilities is currently 
planned.^ In this case, the LULU has provided a major employment base 
for the residents of Bradford and Union counties ajid the resident's 
general acceptance of the facilities reflects this fact. Other LULU ' s 
which are currently being addressed by the Council in conjunction with 
local governments in the region are the designation of a possible site 
for a regional hazardous waste treatment facility and the preparation of 
a regional solid waste management plan. 

There are areas in the region which should not be developed. These areas 
include the 100-year floodplains of the major rivers ajid the hurricane 
surge zone. It makes little sense to build structures in areas which are 
known to be subject to flooding and hurricanes. However, due to 
aesthetics and recreational amenities, these are precisely the areas 
where many people want to live. Other areas which should not be 
developed include low elevation areas within a watershed. These are the 
areas where stormwater routinely collects. One city in the region. Live 
OaJc, is located in just such a place. Live OaJc is routinely flooded due 
to its "bottom of the bowl" location. 

In order to alleviate the flooding, a large number of drainage wells have 
been established to funnel untreated stormwater directly to the FloridaJi 
aquifer, the prir.ary source of the region's potable water.. This problem 
will obviously need to be addressed before significant additional growth 
occurs in the Live Octk area. Other natural areas which perform important 
water manaigement functions, particularly high percolation recharge areas 
and wetlands, should not be developed at urbain density levels; rather, 
these areas require special consideration in land use planning so that 
their beneficial functions are not compromised. 

One method which could be used by the Council to help ensure the proper 
development of high hazard and regionally significant natural areas is to 
establish lower Development of Regional Impact (DRI) thresholds for large 
projects proposed within or immediately adjacent to these areas. A lower 
threshold would result in smaller-scale developments undergoing a review 
for regional impacts. Conversely, this technique, which requires 
approval by the State Administration Commission, could also be used to 
encoursLge growth in areas designated for future urban development by 
raising the DRI review thresholds for projects proposed within these more 
appropriate areas. 

While future growth should be directed towards existing urban areas, this 
growth will not be distributed equally among the centers. In an 
historical context, all towns across the nation competed with one ajiother 
to become dominant commercial, governmental, and cultural centers. The 
dominant cities in north central Florida have emerged with Gainesville 
being the largest city. While other cities such as LaJce City, Live OaJt, 



amd Perry will continue to strengthen their population and economic base, [ 

it is clear that Gainesville will remain the largest community within the 

region through the end of the century and beyond. This relationship 

among cities and their spheres of influence has been studied in an effort 

to explain the way areas develop into a pattern of urban centers of 

varying sizes. One particular theory developed by a German geographer 

earlier in this century is especially useful in attempting to project 

future patterns of regional growth. 

As published in his treatise entitled Theory of Location of Cities , 
Walter Christaller noted that a basic function of a city is to be a 
central place providing goods and services for a surrounding tributary 
area. He further noted that the larger the city, the greater number of 
goods and services provided. Thus, there existed a relationship between 
the size of a city and its market area since people would travel to the 
larger city to obtain certain goods and services which require a larger 
population base to support their existence. From this evolved a 
hierarchy of cities based upon the number of functions they perform 
which, as noted above, is directly related to size. Christaller 
continued to develop this theory to explain not only the relationship but 
to determine the number, size ajid location of cities that would develop 
in an area given certain assumptions of equality. He also noted 
deviations to the "marketing principle" when dealing with the real world. 

Utilizing a model developed by an American geographer, Briaui J. L. 

Berry, which is based on this theory, each urban area in the region has M^ 

been classified and its market area delineated. In addition, « 

county-level population projections will be disaggregated to the "central 

place" market area level. A listing of these urbaji areas in order of 

their hierarchy is included at the end of this discussion. Using 

nationally accepted or empirically derived land use to population ratios, 

this classification (including the market area projections) provides a 

basis for local communities to know how much land should be allocated for 

future commercial and, perhaps, other activities. The development of 

this classification system for the region is described in greater detail 

in the more detailed version of the Regional Description Element . For 

purposes of the comprehensive regional policy plan, the following places 

have been identified as designated urban development areas: 

Place County 

Alachua Alachua 

Archer Alachua 

Gainesville Alachua 

Hawthorne Alachua 

High Springs Alachua 

LaCrosse Alachua 

Melrose Alachua 

Micanopy Alachua 

Newberry Alachua 

Waldo Alachua 

Brooker Bradford /^ 

Haunpton Bradford 

III-16-4 



) 



) 



Place 

Lawtey 

Starke 

Fort White 

Lake City 

Cross City 

Horseshoe Beach 

Oldtovn 

Suwannee 

Bell 

Fajining Springs 

Trenton 

Jasper 

Jennings 

White Springs 

Day 

Mayo 

Greenville 

Lee 

Madison 

Bramf ord 

Bowling Park 

Live Oak 

Wellborn 

Cedar Islajid 

Dekle Beach 

Keaton Beach 

Perry 

Steinhatchee 

Lake Butler 

Raif ord 

Worthington Springs 



County 

Bradford 

Bradford 

Columbia 

Columbia 

Dixie 

Dixie 

Dixie 

Dixie 

Gilchrist 

Gilchrist 

Gilchrist 

Hamilton 

Hamilton 

Hajnilton 

Lafayette 

Lafayette 

Madison 

Madison 

Madison 

Suwannee 

Suwannee 

Suwannee 

Suwannee 

Taylor 

Taylor 

Taylor 

Taylor 

Taylor 

Union 

Union 

Union 



Regional Facilities: 

Designated Urban Development Areas 

First Order Urbaji Area (Small Town) 



Name 



County 



) 



Bell 
Brooker 

Cedar Island 
Day 

Dekle Beach 
Dowling Park 
Famning Springs 
Fort White 
Hampton 
Horseshoe Beach 



Gilchrist 

Bradford 

Taylor 

Lafayette 

Taylor 

Suwainnee 

Gilchrist 

Columbia 

Bradford 

Dixie 



III-1 6-5 



Jennings Hamilton 

Keaton Beach Taylor 

LaCrosse Alachua 

Najne County 

Lee Madison 

Oldtown Dixie 

Raiford Union 

Steinhatchee Taylor 

Suwannee Dixie 

Wellborn Suwannee 

White Springs Haimilton 
Worthington Springs Union 



Second Order Urban Area (Town) 



name 



County 



Archer 

Branf ord 

Greenville 

Hawthorne 

Lawtey 

Mayo 

Melrose 

Micanopy 

Waldo 



Alachua 

Suwannee 

Madison 

Alachua 

Bradford 

Lafayette 

Alachua 

Alachua 

Alachua 



Third Order Urban Area (Small City) 



Najne 



County 



Alachua 
Cross City 
High Springs 
Jasper 
Lake Butler 
Madison 
Newberry 
Trenton 



Alachua 

Dixie 

Alachua 

Hamilton 

Union 

Madison 

Alachua 

Gilchrist 



Fourth Order Urbsm Area (City) 
Najne County 



Lake City 
Live Oak 
Perry 
Starke 



Columbia 
Suwainnee 
Taylor 
Bradford 



III-16-6 



) 



> 



) 



Fifth Order Urban Area (Regional City) 

Name County 

Gainesville Alachua 

Other Regional Facilities: 

Regional Transportation Corridors 
State Trajisportation Corridors 



Agencies: Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, 
Department of Corrections, Department of Environmental Regulation, 
Department of Community Affairs, Department of General Services, 
Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Department of Natural 
Resources, Game and Freshwater Fish Commission, Suwannee River Water 
Management District, St. Johns River Water Management District, North 
Central Florida Regional Plajining Council, local governments. 



16.2. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #58: Natural Resources Preservation 

Background Analysis: North central Florida is rich in natural resources 
amd undeveloped natural areas which, if properly managed, can continue as 
an asset for future generations. In 1976, less than 4.0 percent of the 
land area was used for urbaji purposes; most of the region was covered by 
forests (60.05^), while approximately one-fourth was utilized for 
agriculture. The remaining 10. B percent mostly consisted of water ajid 
wetland areas. 

A recent study by the North Central Florida Regional Planning Council 
identified 37.0 percent of the region as a regionally significant natural 
area. These areas consist of state- and federally-owned parks, forests, 
and preserves, major rivers, springs and sinks, large wetlands, the 
coastal marsh, areas with direct sheet flow connection to the coastal 
marsh, and recharge areas to the Floridan aquifer. 

Soils provide the medium for growing food and fiber and also provide the 
foundations for buildings, roads, playgrounds and all other land uses. 
Fifty-nine soil associations have been identified in north central 
Florida. Characteristics of soils shown to have a direct influence on 
the feasibility of a particular development include permeability, 
infiltration, wetness, depth-to-water table, depth-to-bedrock, texture 
and slope. 

Mapped soil associations with a description of their limitations have 
been prepared by the State of Florida for the region in a document 
entitled. The Florida General Soils Atlas with Interpretations for 
Regional Planning Council Districts III and IV . The generalized 
information provided in this atlas is being gradually replaced by more 
detailed county-by-county soil surveys conducted by the U.S. Department 
of Agriculture Soil Conservation Service in cooperation with the 



J. J.1- I o- ^ 



state and local governments. Given increasingly limited finances at all 
levels of government, it is not known when these surveys will be 
completed for the entire region. 

The natural features of the region, such as soils, topography, rivers, 
ajid wetlands help shape patterns of urban growth. However, there are 
almost no areas within Florida, including north central Florida, where 
natural or topographic limitations are so great as to preclude urban 
development. Local governments within the region have historically 
relied on economic considerations to protect the region's wetlands and 
other natural resources. Florida has a well-known history of speculative 
subdivision and development practices. Floodplain development, dredge 
and fill activities in wetlands, and high density urban development have 
occurred in sensitive ecological areas. 

Many of the regionally significant natural areas are currently 
experiencing problems with subdivision activity. Some of these areas, 
such as the Suwannee River floodplain, will be extensively subdivided by 
the year 2010 unless local government comprehensive plajis aind supporting 
implementation devices limit development activity within these areas. 
For example, should the pace and type of development activity along the 
Suwainnee which has occurred over the past five years continue, the entire 
riverbajik will be subdivided into 125 foot wide, 1.25 acre lots by the 
year 2035. Other areas experiencing significant development pressure 
include privately-held lands which comprise the remainder of the 
ecosystems of Devil's Millhopper State Geologic Site, Sam Felasco Hammock 
and Payne's Prairie state preserves, Suwannee River State Park, 
California Swamp, Bee Haven Bay, as well as the Santa Fe , Ichetucknee, 
Steinhatchee , Aucilla, and Econfina rivers. 

The region contains a number of major rivers, including the Suwannee, 
Santa Fe, AlapaJia, Aucilla, and the Vithlacoochee which have been 
identified as Works of the District under recently enacted Suwannee River 
Water Management Surfacewater Management. The District has adopted a 
non-structural approach to floodplain management. A nonstructural 
approach means that the construction of levees or other devices to 
control river flooding are minimized. Instead, the rivers are allowed to 
flood as they always have. 

Local governments within the region have adopted floodplain ordinances 
for the Suwannee River to regulate the construction and location of 
structures within the 100-year floodplain. In addition, the Suwannee 
River Water Management District's recently adopted Works of the District 
rule has established similar regulations for these rivers. However, 
there are several smaller rivers in the region which are alsc ir-pcrtant 
and deserve protection. These are the three coastal rivers, the 
Steinhatchee , the Fenholloway, and the Econfina. Currently, there are no 
special floodplain regulations, construction setback requirements, or 
Works of the District rules being applied to these rivers. 

The principal source of water for industrial, residential, and 
agricultural uses in the region is the Floridan aquifer. This aquifer, 
which extends beneath almost all of Florida and parts of three adjoining 



III- 1 6-6 



) 



states, is one of the most extensive groundwater bearing formations in 
the United States and, as such, transmits and stores more water than any- 
other aquifer in Florida. 

Water enters the Floridein aquifer in north central Florida primarily by 
direct recharge through sinkholes auid groundwater percolation. Care must 
be taken to insure those surf acewaters entering sinkholes have been 
properly treated so as to not contaminate the water supply. This could 
translate into a minimum setback for development from sinkholes, special 
surfacewater management design considerations, or other measures to 
remove contaminants such as automobile oils, fertilizers, and pesticides 
from surfacewater. Areas which provide large quantities of water to the 
Floridan through percolation have yet to be well defined. Additional 
study is needed in this area. 

Due to the undeveloped nature of the region, north central Florida 
supports a large number of native plant and ajiimal species as well as 
habitat types. The Florida Committee on Rare and Endangered Plaints ajid 
Animals (FCREFA) study of 1978 identified 153 species of reptiles and 
amphibians, approximately 3,500 species of plants, and 76 species of land 
mammals presently existing in Florida. Critical species are those which 
have been recognized by the state or federal government to be of special 
concern due to threat of extinction or extirpation. The FCREPA study 
identified 210 critical species statewide, 82 of which are found within 
the region. 

Habitats perform valuable functions essential to the environmental 
quality and the survival of native species within the region. Examples 
include biologically active wetlands, forests, ajid rivers. Ten natural 
sites in the region are currently under state or federal ownership. Nine 
other areas have been designated as state wildlife management areas. 

Native plant communities are important to the region. They constitute an 
original Florida landscape which is rapidly disappearing in other parts 
of the state. Vegetative communities, commonly known as habitats, 
constitute the homes of the native animal species found within the 
region. In general, plant communities may be subdivided into two very 
broad categories, upland communities and lowland or wetland communities. 
Upland communities of north central Florida include sandhills, sand pine 
scrub, mixed hardwoods, pine flatwoods, planted pine plantation, and 
xeric and messic hajnmocks . Lowland communities include mixed swajnp , 
hydric hammocks, bayhead swamp, coastal hammock, freshwater and saltwater 
marsh, cypress-tupelo swajnp, and submerged lands. 

Hammocks , the cli:::ax vegetation of most of north central Florida, are 
clusters of broad-leaved trees usually growing in relatively rich soil. 
Based on a recently completed qualitative survey assessing wildlife 
values of Florida's plant communities, the Game and Fresh Water Fish 
Commission has recognized hardwood hajnmocks as first priority 
communities. Such a designation indicates those communities most 
deserving of protection based on estimated wildlife values, scarcity 
within the watershed and endangerment of the plant community. 



III-16-9 



A recent study of vertebrate species using north Florida habitat types 

observed that natural pine flatwoods support the largest total number of 

species of Florida wildlife and intensively managed pine plantations the 
fewest numbers. 

In addition, pine flatwoods and coastal marshes provide habitat for the 
largest number of critical species within the region. Managed pine 
plantation is by far the dominajit plant community in the Gulf coastal 
zone and is widespread throughout the region. Dixie and Taylor Counties 
have large areas of majiaged pine plantations, most of which is managed by 
the lumbering and pulp industries which own vast tracts in these 
counties . 

Salt marshes and submerged lands are plant communities that have 
developed in intertidal zones along low energy coasts. Tidal marshes 
extend along the full length of the coast of Dixie and Taylor Counties, 
broken only by streams and a very few areas of beach. In such areas, a 
few inches of vertical elevation may be the only suitable habitat for a 
given species or community. Salt marshes are of particular importance to 
Florida. Nutrients from the land and sea combine to produce more protein 
than some of the most efficiently managed farms. 

Many commercial fish, shellfish, and crustaceans depend on the salt 
marshes ajid submerged lands for food, protection, and breeding. Since 
commercial fishing provides the economic base for many of the region's 
coastal ajid inland residents, their lives also depend, to various 
degrees, on the salt marshes of the region. However, if unlimited 
development is allowed to occur along the coast, the salt marsh will 
likely be substantially in:paired. In order to protect the salt marsh, 
the quality of runoff waters and waters flowing into the Gulf from the 
Gulf coastal drainage basin must not be degraded. Development within the 
coastal drainage basin should be carefully designed so as to not degrade 
surfacewater quality or alter seasonal flows. 

Certain land use types and intensities of land use are incompatible with 
some native plant and animal species. Species once found in north 
central Florida but now extirpated or extinct include the Florida red 
wolf, the North American bison, the Florida panther, the Carolina 
parakeet, and the passenger pigeon. Unfortunately, available information 
is generally inadequate to Justify specific land use restrictions for the 
preservation of critical species. The minimum area necessary to support 
specific species is not well known. Also, the number of individuals 
necessary to assure survival of a species (minimum threshold 
population) is subject to much scientific debate. Types of habitat and 
minimum acreage of each habitat type necessary to sustain an individual 
is also unknown. 

For exajnple, the Florida panther once inhabited north central Florida. 
It is now limited to the southern part of the state where it is 
experiencing difficulties. It may be necessary to transplant the species 
to a less-populated area in order to insure its survival or develop a 
state-wide travel corridor system to allow it to range over a very large 
area. Given the panther's preference for undisturbed areas, how much 



1 1 1- 1 6- 1 



) 



human disturbance can the animal's territory sustain? How wide must a 
travel corridor be for this animal to use it? Similar concerns exist for 
the Florida black bear as well as several other species still found in 
the region. 



Certain variables should be considered to properly protect native 
species. These include habitat type and diversity of habitat types 
necessary to sustain the species, primary threats, degree of habitat 
degradation ajid modification, territory size ajid range, nesting and 
breeding sites, travel corridors, edge or interior species status, food 
sources, degree of specialization, key species designation, minimum 
sustainable threshold population, ajid degree of sensitivity to man. 
Unfortunately, little is known about animal species in relation to these 
variables. Even less is known about habitats themselves. How large must 
a habitat be in order to be self-sustaining? 

Additional study is needed for the development of appropriate 
regulations. However, the answers may not be found in time to save these 
species from extinction or extirpation. Steps must now be taken based 
upon available information as the region's population growth and land use 
development activities may otherwise eliminate these species and habitat 
types. 



Regional Natural Resources; 



) 



Drainage Basins 
Aucilla River Basin 
St. Marks River Basin 
Ochlocknee River Basin 
Suwannee River Basin 
St. John's River Basin 

Aquifers 
Floridan aquifer 
secondary artesian aquifers 
water table aquifers 

Freshwater Wetlands 
California Swajnp 
Spring Warrior Swamp 
Bee Haven Bay 
Gum Root Swamp 
Wacassassa Flats 
Hixtown Swamp 
Santa Fe Swamp 
Pinhook Swamp/Sandlin Bay 
Tide Swamp 
Mai lory Swamp 
San Pedro Bay 



) 



Rivers 
Suwannee River 
Santa Fe River 
Vithlacoochee River 
Alapaha River 
Ichetucknee River 
Aucilla River 
Steinhatchee River 
Econfina River 
Fenholloway River 
Spring Warrior Creek 

Coastal Drainage Basin 
Big Bend Seagrass Beds Aquatic 

Preserve 
Coastal Marsh 
Coastal Estuaries 
Coastal Freshwater Wetlands 

Springs 
Alachua County 
Hornsby Spring 
Poe Springs 

Columbia County 
Ichetucknee Springs 
Bell Springs 



III-1 6-1 1 



Dixie County- 
Copper Springs 

Gilchrist County 
Blue Springs 
Ginnie Springs 
Hart Springs 
Rock Bluff Springs 
Sun Springs 

Hamilton County 
Morgan's Spring 
White Springs 
Alapaha Rise 
Holton Spring 

Lafayette County 
Allen Mill Pond Spring 
Blue Spring 
Fletcher Spring 
Mearson Spring 
Owens Spring 
Ruth Spring 
Troy Spring 
Turtle Spring 

Madison County 
Blue Spring 
Suwanacoochee Spring 

Suwannee County 

Branford Spring 
Charles Spring 
Ellaville Spring 
Falmouth Spring 
Little River Springs 
Peacock Springs 
Running Springs 
Suwannee Springs 
Telford Springs 

Sinks 
Alachua County 
Devil's Millhopper 
Haile Quarry 
Alachua Sink 
Sinkholes and quarries in 

Newberry Area 
Alachua Sink 
Kanapaha Sink 
Robinson Sink 



Bradford County 
Brooks Sink 

Columbia County 
Alligator Lake 

Dixie County 
Lime Sink 

Hamilton County 
Alapaiia Rise 

Madison County 
Blue Sink 
Campbell Sink 
Johnson Sink 
Patterson Sink 
Rogers Sink 

Suwannee County 
Sailor Hole 
Challenge Sink 
Cisteen Sink 
Olson Sink 
Orange Grove Sink 
Terrapin Sink 

Taylor County 
Adajns Sink 
Aucilla River Sinks 
California Sink 
Page Sink 

Stream-to-Sink watersheds 
Alachua County Recharge Area 
Columbia County Southern Recharge 

Area 
Columbia County Western Recharge 

Area 
Hamilton County Recharge Area 
Madison County Recharge Area 
Suwannee County Recharge Area 

High Percolation Recharge Areas 
Yst to be Identified 

State Parks ajid Preserves 

National Forests ajid Wildlife 
Refuges 

State Wildlife Management Areas 



III-16-12 



) 



Lakes 

Alachua County 
Orange Lake 
Santa Fe Lake 
Little Santa Fe LaJce 
Bivans Arm 
Newnsins Lake 
Lochloosa Lake 

Bradford County- 
Lake Sampson 

Columbia County 
Vatertown LaJce 

Dixie County 
Governor Hill Lake 

Madison County 
Lake Francis 

Union County 
Lake Butler 



Agencies: Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, 
Department of Corrections, Department of Environmental Regulation, 
Department of Community Affairs, Department of General Services, 
Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Department of Natural 
Resources, Gajne and Freshwater Fish Commission, Suwannee River Water 
Management District, St. Johns River Water Majiagement District, North 
Central Florida Regional Planning Council, local governments. 



Endnotes; 



University of Florida, Bureau of Economic aind Business Research, 
1985 Florida Statistical Abstract , (Gainesville, FL . : 1985), pp. 
33-54-. 



University of Florida, Bureau of Economic ajid Business Research, 
Florida Estirriates of Pc-^ulaticn , AtII 1 , 1 9S5 
and Municipalities , (Gainesville, FL.: 1985). 



Xi. J.- I o- I p 



For purposes of this study, the ufban population of the North 
Central Florida Region is defined as the population of the 
Gainesville MSA (Alachua and Bradford Counties) and the 
remaining incorporated areas of the region. Similarly, urban 
population for the state is calculated as the sum total of 
population in MSA's and incorporated areas. All persons not 
classified as urban are considered rural population. 



University of Florida, Department of Urban and Regional 
Plainning, Florida Land Use Data Inventory , [A computer program] 
(1985). 



Jacob A. Buescher , Robert V. Wright, Morton Gitelman, Cases and 
Materials on Land Use , 2nd edition, American Casebook Series, 
(St. Paul, Minn.: Vest Publishing Co., 1976), p. 45. 



6. Florida Department of Corrections, Comprehensive Statewide 

Study To Determine The Current and Future Needs For All Types 
Of Correctional Facilities In The State And Development Of A 
Siting Criteria To Be Used In Evaluating Sites For Location Of 
Correctional Facilities , (February, 1984), pp. 2-4. 



Brian J.L. Berry, Geography of Market Centers and Retail 
Distribution , (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Kali, 1967), 
pp. 1-27. 



Randy S. Kautz, Criteria for Evaluating Impacts of Development 
on Wildlife Habitats , Office of Environmental Services, Florida 
Game and Freshwater Fish Commission, (Tallahassee, FL . : 1985). 



III-16-14 



> 



) 



STATE GOAL 17: DOVNTOVN REVITALIZATION 

In recognition of the importance of Florida's developing and redeveloping 
downtowns to the state's ability to use existing infrastructure and to 
accommodate growth in an orderly, efficient, and environmentally 
acceptable manner, Florida shall encourage the revitalization of 
commercial, governmental, retail, residential, and cultural activities 
within downtown areas. 



17.1. Regional Issue/Policy Cluster Title #59: Promotion of Downtown 
Areas 

Background Analysis: North central Florida downtowns have been adversely 
affected by the creation of outlying shopping centers in much the same 
manner, but to a lesser degree than the larger Florida cities. The 
development of residential and commercial uses in the peripheries of 
north central Florida communities has contributed more to the lack of 
full development of their downtowns as major commercial areas than to 
their decline as major commercial centers. The smaller communities of 
the region have also been affected by the development of regional retail 
commercial centers in larger cities both within and outside the region. 

Like many small cities, north central Florida communities typically 
originated as service centers for nearby farmers. These farm communities 
continue to provide governmental, cultural, financial, and commercial 
services. However, due to their small size and easy automobile access to 
"nearby" larger cities (Gainesville, Tallahassee and Jacksonville), there 
has never been the demand for the development of large commercial areas 
within the small farm communities of north central Florida. Therefore, 
while problems exist with declining north central Florida downtowns, the 
extent of the problem is less in north central Florida than in the more 
urban areas of the state. 

In the region's larger urban areas, the major shopping malls are locating 
at the urban peripheries of the cities, particularly at locations 
adjacent to interstate highways. Interstate highway locations allow the 
malls to enlarge their market areas which, in turn, encourages even 
greater concentrations of commercial activity at these locations. 
Shoppers from rural locations and nearby towns driving to the mall have 
easy and convenient access to these commercial areas via limited-access 
highways. They do not have to contend with driving on congested roads in 
the larger urban areas which would increase driving time considerably 
were the malls located in downtown areas. 

In an effort to keep downtowns from further deterioration and to maximize 
the use of existing infrastructure, many cities have established downtown 
revitalization programs. Gainesville is the only north central Florida 
community with a permanent downtown redevelopment authority, although 
other communities in the region have made efforts to revitalize their 
downtowns through public improvement projects. Especially noteworthy 
downtown public improvement projects have occurred in the towns of 
Micanopy, Starke, and Alachua. 



III-17-1 



The Gainesville Downtown Redevelopment Agency is an advisory board to the 
Gainesville City Council on downtown redevelopment and parking issues. 
Programs of the Downtown Redevelopment Agency are funded through a 
special downtown taxing district levied by the City through a special act 
of the Florida Legislature. 

One of the most significant sources of revenue for financing downtown 
redevelopment projects is tax increment financing. Tax increment 
financing utilizes the incremental increase in ad valorem tax revenues 
within a designated geographic area to finance redevelopment projects 
within that area. As property values rise above an established aggregate 
valuation (the so-called "frozen" tax base), the tax increment is 
generated by applying the millage rate to that increase in value and 
depositing in a trust fund an amount equal to such increased tax revenue. 
The trust fund is the source for repayment of bonds used to finance 
redevelopment projects. In some states the deposit is made directly by 
the tax collector to the trust fund. In Florida, ad valorem taxes are 
collected in the normal manner, remitted to the local governments and 
appropriations are made by "taxing authorities" from any source in an 
amount equal to the ad valorem tax revenue increase. 

One of the major incentives for purchasers of these bonds has been 
federal income taxation exemption on the interest income received from 
the bonds. Due to recent changes in the federal tax code, however, such 
exemptions are now limited. Thus, tax increment financing may be of 
lesser significance in future redevelopment projects. 

Downtown Redevelopment Plans. Florida Statutes authorizes local 
governments to create community redevelopment agencies. These agencies 
are responsible for preparing redevelopment plans for areas so designated 
as needing redevelopment. Such plans are subject to the approval of 
local governments. The statutes also include legislation which allows 
local governments to include optional general area redevelopment elements 
in their comprehensive plans. 



Regionally Significant Resources: 

Downtown areas of the region's municipalities. Community Development 
Block Grants, Urban Development Action Grants. 

Agencies: Florida Department of Community Affairs, Florida Department of 
State, local chambers of commerce, Florida Department of Commerce, U.S. 
Department of Housing and Urban Development, NCFRPC, local governments, 
Unitea Gainesville Community Development Corporation, Central Florida 
Community Action Agency, Gainesville Neighborhood Housing Services, 
Gainesville Downtown Redevelopment Agency. 



III-17-2 



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yj 



STATE GOAL 18: PUBLIC FACILITIES 

Florida shall protect the substantial investments in public facilities 
that already exist, and shall plaji for and finance new facilities to 
serve residents in a timely, orderly, and efficient manner. 



18.1. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #60: Maximizing the Use of Existing 
Public Facilities 

Background Analysis: Public facilities, or infrastructure, comprise the 
physical devices and means for the functioning of urban settlements. 
They include but are not limited to airports, parks, roads, police 
stations, fire stations, waste water treatment plants, water supply 
systems, schools, libraries, solid waste disposal facilities, hazardous 
waste treatment facilities, swimming pools, jails, prisons, and mental 
health facilities. 

Maximizing the use of existing facilities equates to optimizing use. 
Public facilities are designed with an optimal operating capacity. When 
funds are scarce or rapid population growth occurs, existing public 
facilities often operate beyond their design capacity with a resulting 
drop in the quality, or level, of service. Federal, state, and local 
governments have developed level of service categories and service 
standards for various public facilities over the years in an effort to 
measure their efficiency and effectiveness in providing a service, and to 
provide the agency with a threshold of service below which the facility 
should not fall . 



The term "level of service" (LOS) may refer to a single category or range 
of performance for a public facility or service. The term "standard," 
often called "service standard," refers to a level of service category 
adopted by government as the specific service category to be provided to 
the public. Many standards are based on public health and safety 
considerations. Some standards use the facility's optimal operating 
capacity, while still other standards are based on providing the best 
possible level of service. Often, these criteria overlap and the 
resulting standard is based on a combination of public health and safety, 
optimal facility operating capacity, and the best possible facility 
performance . 

The state road system is a good example of the distinction between the 
level of service concept and a standard. The state has established five 
level of service categories for the state road system, referred to as LOS 
A, B, C, D, and E. Each level of service represents a different level of 
traffic congestion ranging from free-flowing conditions (LOS A) to heavy 
congestion (LOS E). From these five level of service categories, one 
category is adopted as a standard. The Gainesville Metropolitan 
Transportation Planning Organization has adopted a service standard of 
"D" for the Gainesville urbanized area. In order to effectively 
accommodate future demand for public services, all levels of government 
need to incorporate level of service standards in their plans and 
implementation programs. 



III-18-1 



Information on existing public facilities within the region is limited. 
However, available data suggests that many public facilities are 
currently operating at or above thei^ design capacity. In particular, 
the majority of sewage treatment plants, water supply systems, sanitary 
landfills, and local jails are in need of expansion or replacement. 

North central Florida contains thirty-three incorporated communities, 
twenty-eight of which have populations of less than 5,000, four have 
between 5,000 and 10,000, and one exceeds 80,000. Of these thirty-three 
communities, twenty-six have a central water supply and distribution 
system, while only seventeen of the twenty-six also have a sanitary 
sewage treatment plant and collection system. Sixteen communities have 
police departments with at least one full-time professional and ten have 
fire departments with at least one full time professional on staff. Most 
of the other incorporated communities contract for extra police 
protection with county sheriff offices and use volunteer firefighters for 
fire protection. All other communities in the region have either a 
hospital or a medical clinic located within the same county. 

The regional road network cortsists of approximately 1,200 miles of 
interstate, U.S., and state highways. The road network includes segments 
of local roads which link regional and state facilities such as parks and 
airports to the Interstate, U.S., and state highways. The regional road 
network generally operates smoothly and FDOT-defined service standard C 
is in effect throughout the regional road network with the exception of 
the Gainesville urbanized area. 

The primary purpose of the regional road network is to move traffic 
between counties and urban areas of the region. Ingress and egress to 
private property adjacent to the road network is provided by local roads. 
Access to private property should not interfere with the primary purpose 
of the regional road network. Therefore, maximizing the use of regional 
road network requires limiting ingress and egress directly from private 
property . 

Excess curb cuts can reduce the capacity of segments of the regional road 
network and increase traffic hazards. Buildings must be constructed with 
setbacks of sufficient depth to allow cost-effective lane widening or the 
installation of access roads on the network. Of particular concern is 
strip commercial development. Such development generates significant 
traffic volumes. Unchecked strip development has reduced the capacity of 
the regional road network in -the Gainesville urbanized area and has the 
potential to reduce traffic volumes in other urbanizing areas in the 
region . 

Public facilities are typically designed with excess capacity to handle 
foreseeable increased demand. However, development may not occur in a 
manner which maximizes the use of existing public facilities. If left 
exclusively to private market forces, development, especially residential 
development, is likely to occur where land values are lower. Such 
locations may have no relationship to the availability of public 
facilities. In an effort to influence the location of new development, 



III-18-2 



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local governments adopt land use plans, zoning ordinances, and 
subdivision regulations for the expressed purpose of guiding growth to 
those areas which can be most economically served by existing and planned 
public facilities. 

Public facilities are very expensive. The cost of just one of these 
items can represent an outlay of millions of dollars. While costs vary, 
nationally, fire stations cost approximately $250,000, excluding fire 
trucks and land purchases. Elementary schools cost approximately $5.6 
million. A high school can cost $31 million while a middle school is 
approximately $14 million. A small county jail costs roughly $500,000. 
Waste water treatment plant costs vary widely, depending upon design 
capacity. A 200,000 gallon per day plant can cost approximately one 
million dollars, excluding sewer lines. A 200,000 gallon per day water 
supply treatment plant can cost one million dollars as well, exclusive of 
land and piping costs. 

Efficient use of existing public facilities dictates that their location 
and remaining service capacity be taken into consideration when siting 
urban development. New subdivisions should be located close to existing 
fire departments, schools, and other public facilities. Similarly, local 
government should make an effort to coordinate the siting of such 
facilities in close proximity to each other in places appropriate for 
urban development. 



Regional Facilities: 

All public and quasi-public facilities, including electrical utilities, 
which serve residents of more than one jurisdiction. 



Agencies: Federal Highway Administration, Florida Department of 
Transportation, Department of Corrections, Department of Commerce, 
Department of Community Affairs, Department of Environmental Regulation, 
Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Department of Natural 
Resources, Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Suwannee 
River Water Management District, St. Johns River Water Management 
District, North Central Florida Regional Planning Council, local 
governments . 



18.2. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #61: Planning for Public Facilities 

Background Analysis: North central Florida's population is expected to 
increase by 41.5 percent between 1985 and 2010 to a population of 
474,200. While a more detailed analysis is necessary, this suggests 
that a 41.5 percent increase in public facilities is necessary just to 
maintain current levels of service. 



III-18-3 



The anticipated cost for needed public facilities within the region by 
the year 2000 is staggering. Between 1982 and 2000, expenditures for 
county and city roads, water treatment and distribution facilities, as 
well as wastewater treatment and collection facilities is expected to be 
nearly $500 million.' Expenditures on school facilities during the same 
time period is estimated at $460 million.'^ 

The federal government was a principal supplier of funds for the 
construction of roads, sewers, and other public infrastructure during the 
1960's and I970's. However, recent declines in federal expenditures for 
domestic programs suggest that state and local governments must bear an 
increasing portion of the financial burden for public facilities. Few, 
if any, local governments in the region are presently equipped to handle 
any significant growth without substantial capital investment in public 
facilities. Local governments already face serious financial 
difficulties in funding replacement solid waste disposal facilities and 
new local jails. Given the inevitable population growth, how will the 
needed facilities be funded? 

Public facility expenditures can be thought of as consisting of three 
broad, yet different, categories: (1) new and replacement public 
infrastructure to service an existing population; (2) additional required 
infrastructure due to technological change and changes in state or 
Federal law brought about by increased scientific knowledge; and (3) 
additional infrastructure to service population growth and new 
development. The distinction between the three is important when 
considering who should, or will, pay for public facilities. 

Some local governments finance replacement facilities through "accrual 
funding." Using this procedure, an accruing fund is created for the 
public facility. The estimated life and replacement cost of the facility 
is projected. An annual sum is budgeted to the replacement fund which 
accumulates year-to-year so that, by the end of the life of the facility, 
adequate funds are available for its replacement. While this approach 
may be adequate for servicing a static population, it does not generate 
funds for the provision of public facilities for additional growth. 

No such accruing fund mechanism is used by local governments within the 
region. Instead, a new bond issue is floated to finance the construction 
of replacement as well as many new capital facilities. The state places 
strict limits on the amount of debt that a local government can carry. 
Interest payments on bonds commonly add 50 percent to the cost of the 
public facility.^ 

There is considerable doubt about whether or not new residential 
development can pay for its share of new public facilities. In 1984, 
there were 59,971 site-constructed single-family residences and 15,351 
mobile homes within the region. The 1984 regionwide average taxable 
value for a mobile home was $5,196 and the regionwide average taxable 
value for a site-constructed single-family residence was $18,549. The 
taxable value figures are substantially lower when Alachua County is 
removed from consideration. For the remaining ten-county area, the 



III-18-4 



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) 



average taxable value for a mobile home was $1,809- The average taxable 
value for a site-constructed single-family residence in the remaining 
ten-county area was $9,545. Mobile homes represent 21 percent of all 
single-family residences in the ten-county area. Mobile homes appear to 
comprise a growing proportion of the new single-family residential units 
within the region. 

For new development to not degrade the service standard provided by 
existing public facilities or to not unduly burden the existing 
population for financing the construction of facilities designed solely 
to service new development, some other form of alternative financing may 
be necessary. Numerous techniques have been employed by local 
governments throughout the nation to place the financial responsibility 
of new public facilities upon the new users of those facilities. 

Local governments commonly require developers to install and pay for 
roads, sewers, and sidewalks within their development. Some local 
governments have taken this concept a step further by requiring land 
dedication by large scale developers for the construction of new public 
facilities such as schools, parks, and fire stations. Some have actually 
required developers to construct the buildings as well. Some governments 
have required small-scale developers to contribute a cash sum in lieu of 
land dedication for the future construction of these facilities by local 
government. Still other local governments have taken the concept further 
and required developers to contribute ten percent of their residential 
units for low and moderate income housing or to set aside a cash sum for 
general street improvement purposes in proportion to the expected 
increased demand on public roadways caused by the new development. 

Local governments should establish measurable service standards for 
public facilities and services to facilitate financing methods based upon 
impact fees. Measurable service standards allow local governments to 
determine at what point new development will degrade the public facility 
or service to the point where (as well as how much) additional monies 
must be spent to maintain/restore the service standard. An impact fee 
can then be derived for new development based upon its portion of impact 
upon the established level of" service standard. 

Service standards are likely'to vary depending upon city size, i.e., 
urban functional classification. For example, as an urban area becomes 
larger, there will be an increasing need to establish a public water 
supply system and wastewater treatment plant. On the other hand, the 
scattered development pattern of residential subdivisions in rural areas 
can place excessive strains on existing public facilities. Volunteer 
fire departments must cover a longer distance or a new station must be 
built. School buses must spend more time transporting students or a new 
school must be constructed. It is financially unrealistic for local 
governments within the region to provide the same level of service 
county-wide . 



III-18-5 



One approach for local governments to share some of the financial burden 
of public facilities is the establishment of regional facilities such as 
jails or solid waste disposal facilities. The Council is currently 
coordinating a three-county study of a regional solid waste facility. 



Regional Facilities: 

All public and quasi-public facilities, including electrical utilities, 
which serve residents of more than one jurisdiction. 



Agencies: Federal Highway Administration, Department of Transportation, 
Department of Corrections, Department of Commerce, Department of 
Community Affairs, Department of Environmental Regulation, Department of 
Agriculture and Consumer Services, Department of Natural Resources, 
Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Suwannee River Water 
Management District, St. Johns River Water Management District, North 
Central Florida Regional Planning Council, local governments. 



Endnotes 



Telephone interviews with staff members of the Alachua County 
School Board; Alachua County Public Works Department; Florida 
Department of Transportation, Lake City; and Gainesville 
Regional Utilities February, 1987. 



University of Florida, Bureau of Economic and Business 
Research, 1985 Florida Statistical Abstract . (Gainesville, FL . 
The University Presses. 1985), pg. 36. 



3. University of Florida, Bureau of Economic and Business 

Research, Florida Counties Must Spend Billions To Meet Future 
Needs . Economic Leaflets, Vol. 4-3 No. 3, March 1984. pp. 2-3. 



The region currently has 96 public schools. Assuming an 
average cost of $6 million per school and an additional 38 
schools (405^ of 96), an expenditure of approximately $228 
million will be necessary to maintain current service levels. 
Furthermore, assuming an average school life cycle of 50 years, 
58 of the existing 96 schools will have to be replaced or 
substantially refurbished. Assuming an average 

replacement/refurbishing cost of $4 million per school, capital 
costs for the existing school system represents an additional 
$232 million. 



III-18-6 



Sipe, Neil G. and Starnes, Earl M., Florida's Infrastructure 
Needs & Resources. 1982-2000: A Preliminary Analysis , 
(Gainesville, FL . : Bureau of Economic and Business Research, 
University of Florida, 1983), p. 13. 



The number of single-family residences in Alachua County in 
1984 was 32,093, slightly over 1/2 of all single-family 
residences in the region. Alachua County had a lower 
proportion of mobile homes, 2,917, or approximately 22 percent 
of the region's mobile home total. University of Florida, 
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Florida Land Use 
Data Base . 1986. 



) 



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III-18-7 



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STATE GOAL 19: CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL RESOURCES 

By 1995, Florida shall increase access to its historical and cultural 
resources and programs and encourage the development of cultural programs 
of national excellence. 

19.1. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #62: Access to Cultural and Historical 
Resources 

Background Analysis: The history and prehistory of North Central Florida 
is a vital cultural and historical resource. Archaeology, a scientific 
discipline dedicated to reconstructing cultural and physical aspects of 
the past, is the primary method to physically access and therefore 
provide public access to cultural and historical resources. The State of 
Florida's Bureau of Historic Preservation in Tallahassee has started a 
preliminary survey of historically and archaeological ly significant sites 
in the region. The opportunity to identify, protect, excavate 
archaeological sites and renovate historical sites will be greatly 
enhanced by the completion of this project. 

The Bureau of Historic Preservation documents approximately 1,025 
archaeological sites in the region and 1,993 historical sites The 
significance of most of these sites has not been assessed. The region 
contains 26 buildings which are documented in the National Register of 
Properties in Florida, 1984.^ 

Florida statutes protect archaeological (human) remains which are located 
on private property. Private citizens should contact local law 
enforcement officials or local chapters of the Florida Anthropological 
Society upon the discovery of burial sites or other archaeological 
findings . '' 

Section 580.06(6) F.S. states that historical and archaeological sites on 
the development site must be identified and described in the application 
for a Development of Regional Impact. The documentation may be attached 
in the form of a letter from the Division of Historical Resources 
indicating the need for, or results of an archaeological or historical 
survey.^ If historical or archaeological sites are listed, the developer 
must provide a statement as to the steps that will be taken to protect 
them and to provide public access, where appropriate. However, the 
problem with this process is that if an archaeological find is discovered 
after the development is approved, the developer is under no obligation 
to report the finding.-' For example, in the wetlands environment, 
archaeological sites are especially difficult to determine through survey 
methods. If a DRI is approved and actual draining and development 
exposes an archaeological site, local ordinances in the region do not 
obligate the developer to report the find.° 

The City of Gainesville and Dixie County have historic preservation and 
conservation ordinances to ensure and oversee the protection of historic 
sites. The Town of Micanopy, which contains a historic district, also has 



III-19-I 



an ordinance for historic preservation. None of the 10 remaining 
counties or county seats have created historic preservation and 
conservation ordinances. Such legislation may be necessary to establish 

n 

the right to access and develop to historic and cultural resources. 
Seven out of 11 counties have historic societies and 5 out of 11 have 

a 

historic museums. 



Regionally Significant Resources: Five Historic Museums, University of 
Florida Department of Anthropology, Florida State Museum, 1,025 
pr ehistor ical ly significant sites, 1,995 historically significant sites, 
5 underwater sites. 

Agencies: Bureau of Historic Preservation, Bureau of Archaeological 
Research, local city and county governments. 



19.2 Regional Issue/Cluster Title #63: Development of Historical and 
Cultural Programs 

Background Analysis: Local arts councils are lacking in many counties of 
North Central Florida, and many traditional art forms are inaccessible to 
the residents of the region. These include storytelling, music, crafts, 
and dance of native American tribes, black culture and traditional white 
culture . 

Art and culture is available to residents of the region through various 
theater and performing centers in Alachua County. An $18 million fine 
arts center is planned to be located in Gainesville. A 1,500- to 1800- 
seat performing arts hall and Samuel P. Harn Art Museum will be operated 
by Santa Fe Community College and the University of Florida, 
respectively. The University of Florida collected approximately $1.5 
million in state money and about $4 million in private contributions to 
build the museum. Locating the fine arts center on the same site is 
intended to defray the cost of installing a parking lot, which will serve 
the university by day and the fine arts center by night." 

The Hippodrome State Theater, which offers both film and theater 
productions, recently raised approximately $250,000 from local sponsors 
which prevented the closing of the theater. The Hippodrome also received 
a $100,000 building and operation grant from the state for further 
renovation of the building.^ 

Acrosstown Repertory Theater is an innovative theater performance group 
also located in Gainesville. Acrosstown offers locally written and 
produced theater productions which are available to the public at low 
cost. The Gainesville Community Playhouse produces light musicals and 
comedies, and has a strong subscriber interest. 



III-19-2 



) 



Starke is forming a new community theater group. The Bradford Repertory 
Arts Theater recently produced their first fundraiser at the local high 
school . 

The Florida Theater in Gainesville, which opened in 1985, is a renovated 

1927 movie theater. The privately-owned theater, which seats about 800 

1 ? 
persons, offers music, dance, art and theater programs. 

The Florida Arts Celebration, a private not-for-profit organization 
sponsors several programs which increases public access to the following 
cultural resources: the Performing Arts Spring Festival; provision of 
funds for local artists; providing artists to guest teach in the Alachua 

County School System; and art in public places which provides for the 

1 "5 
display of art in highly visible places in the Gainesville community. -^ 

Most counties in the region put on county fairs, and other cultural 
festivities such as the Newberry Watermelon Festival and the Stark Arts 
Festival . 

The Stephen Foster State Folk Culture Center, located on the Suwannee 
River, honors Stephen Foster and provides a gathering place for persons 
who are involved in keeping alive early Florida crafts, music and 
legends . ^ 

Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings' home at Cross Creek is also a cultural and 
historical attraction. 

The Florida State Museum at the University of Florida sponsors numerous 
shows and exhibits dealing with local, national and international art and 
culture. Smaller historical museums are also located in other parts of 
the region. 

The local chapter of the Florida Motion Picture and Television 
Association (FMPTA) is developing a production guide of local talent 
available to work in motion picture productions. The local chapter is in 
the process of opening an office to serve North Central Florida. -^ 
Locally produced motion pictures bring in a substantial amount of revenue 
to the area and also promote cultural growth by employing local actors, 
actresses and technicians.^" 

Regionally Significant Resources: Hippodrome State Theater, Crosstown 
Repertory Theater, Florida Theater, future performing arts theater 
operated by Santa Fe Community College, Samuel P. Harn Art Museum, 
Florida State Museum, Historical Museums, Steven Foster State Folk 
Center, the home of Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, local chapter of the 
Florida Motion Picture and Television Association. 

Agencies: County and City Commissions, Chambers of Commerce, Florida 
Motion Picture and Television Association, Crosstown Repertory Theater, 
Hippodrome State Theater, Florida Theater, future performing arts theater 
operated by Santa Fe Community College, Samuel P. Harn Art Museum, 



III-19-3 



Florida State Museum, Steven Foster State Folk Center, local radio and 
television stations. Department of State. 



Endnotes: 

1. Bureau of Historic Preservation. Telephone interview with Louis 
Tesar , January, 1986. 



Florida Department of State, Division of Archives, History and 
Records Management. "National Register of Properties in Florida. 
Tallahassee, Florida, May, 1984. 



Four federal laws address the protection of cultural, historical 
and archaeological resources. The National Environmental 
Protection Act, Historical Preservation Act which protects 
historical buildings and sites, American Antiquities Act which 
protects archaeology sites, and the Native American Religious 
Freedom Act which protects sacred sites, burial sites and any 
Native American religious areas. 



A- . The Division of Historical Resources was formerly the Division of 
Archives, History and Records Management. 

5. Alachua County Planning and Development, Marc Dupree, County 
Planner . 



6. University of Florida Department of Anthropology. Telephone 

interview with Dr. Barbara Purdy, Professor of Archaeology, October, 
1986. 



7. Clerk of the Court for each county in the region. Telephone 
interviews, January 1987. 



8. Ibid . 

9. Gainesville Sun . "Site is chosen for arts center," September 16, 
1986. 



10. Hippodrome State Theater, Telephone interview with Ms. Mary Haush 
September 17, 1986. 



III-19-4 



^ 



11. Telephone interview with Mr. David Dodge, a citizen of Starke who is 
an arts promoter and organizer, November, 1986. 



12. Florida Theater, telephone interview with co-founder Ms. Linda 
McGurn, September 17, 1986. 



13. Florida Arts Celebration, telephone interview with Ms Phyllis 
Bleiweis, September 17, 1986. 



14. Stephen Foster State Folk Center, public information brochure. 

15. Local Chapter Florida Motion Picture and Television Association 
telephone interview with Mr. Gene Craven. 



16. Telephone interview with local Hippodrome actress Jennifer 
Pritchett, November, 1986. 



III-19-5 



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STATE GOAL 20: TRANSPORTATION 

Florida shall direct future transportation improvements to aid in the 
majiagement of growth and shall have a state transportation system that 
integrates highway, air, mass transit, and other transportation modes. 

Background Analysis: North central Florida is heavily dependent on 
private automobile and truck transportation. In general, existing motor 
vehicle ground transportation as well as rail freight transportation 
systems are adequate. The region is served by four public transit 
systems, two major and three commuter air carriers, one passenger and 
three freight rail systems, two national bus lines, and a regional road 
network of approximately 1,200 miles. 

Interstate highways 10 and 75 provide ground transportation to south 
Florida, Jacksonville, Tallahassee, and Atlanta. In addition, intercity 
travel between incorporated cities within the region is adequately 
serviced by existing U.S. highways and roads which are part of the state 
highway system. U.S. Highway 27 connects Gainesville and Perry and 
continues to Tallahassee. U.S. 90 follows a route parallel to Interstate 
10 and U.S. 98 parallels the Gulf coast. U.S. 301 is a major north-south 
highway through the eastern portion of the region, providing access 
between the Gainesville and Jacksonville areas. State roads 51 and 349 
connect Live Oak with the Gulf coast. State Road 100 passes through Lake 
City and Starke in it's route to the Atlantic Ocean. Overall, the 
regional road network consists of 1,101 miles of rural and 130 miles of 
urban roadways. Included in this is 177 miles of interstate highways and 
1,054 miles of state and county roads and highways. 

The primary public transit systems serving the region consist of the 
Gainesville Regional Transit System, the Suwannee Valley Transit 
Authority, and Big Bend Transit Authority. In addition, many social 
service agencies provide transportation services for their clients. 
Presently each county in the 'region has service provided by a transit 
system or a social service agency. 

Currently, the Gainesville Regional Transit System (RTS) operates ten 
fixed main bus routes which serve the City of Gainesville and the 
adjacent surrounding urbanized area of Alachua County. The fixed route 
system operates on a radial pattern with six of the ten routes 
originating at a downtown transfer point. 

A 1981 cost/revenue analysis indicated that RTS farebox revenues covered 

p 
approximately 22 percent of operating costs for the main bus system. 

<jTi^a.Ti iiaso J. r anspor t at 1 cn nu.ministration (UMTAy ejection 5 Operating 

Assistance funds offset a portion of this operating deficit. An 

anticipated reduction in federal funding and continually rising per mile 

costs suggest a need for greater assistance from state and local 

governments to maintain current service levels. 



III-20-1 



Chapter 427 of the Florida Statutes requires each metropolitan area and 
county to have a "designated coordinated community transportation 
provider" to serve the transportation disadvantaged population in their 
area. The intent is to reduce the fragmentation and duplication of 
service provision among all the state or federally-funded programs that 
provide transportation services to disadvantaged individuals. 

Big Bend Transit is the designated coordinated community transportation 
provider for Madison and Taylor counties. Big Bend Transit provides 
access to employment, specialized medical services, vocational training 
and social service programs. The majority of Big Bend Transit's 
ridership consists of developmental ly disabled persons, dialysis 
patients, medicaid recipients, and elderly persons who require consistent 
and reliable transportation. Total passengers served in 1984 was 
reported as 225,582 with 85 percent (191,857) of those being 
subscription/prepaid clients, i.e., regular route ridership.-^ 

Suwannee Valley Transit Authority (SVTA) is the designated coordinated 
community transportation provider in Columbia, Hamilton, and Suwannee 
counties. SVTA offers a variety of transportation services. These range 
from a weekly service which brings residents of the outlying area into 
the county seats, to daily commuter runs which carry workers to several 
major employment locations. Other services provided by SVTA include the 
Gainesville Medical Bus which is a daily run departing from Jasper, 
through Live Oak and Lake City, and on to the regional medical facilities 
in Gainesville, Purchase of Service which services the needs of local 
human service agency clients, and Charter Services for groups needing 
special transportation arrangements. Annual ridership for all routes 
totaled 74,776 in fiscal year (FY) 78-79 and was expected to increase to 
more than 90,000 by the end of FY 79-80.5 

Other counties in the region are provided limited services by social 
service agencies such as the Tri-County Council for Senior Citizens. 
These agencies are usually the designated coordinated community 
transportation provider which provide services to the transportation 
disadvantaged. These paratransit agencies, however, usually serve a 
limited clientele. 

There are nine civil airports in the region, seven of which are publicly 
owned. All but one of these facilities, the Division of Adult 
Corrections field in Union CcJunty , is open to the general public. 
Air carrier service to the North Central Florida Region is provided 
through the Gainesville Regional Airport by two major airlines and three 
smaller shuttle/commuter airlines which provide access to national air 
transport hubs. Along witn proviaing service to the Nortn Central 
Florida Region, the Gainesville Regional Airport also services the needs 
of another high growth area to the south, Marion County. Other major 
airports accessible to the citizens of the region include Jacksonville 
International Airport, Tallahassee Municipal Airport, Tampa International 
Airport, and Orlando International Airport. 



III-20-2 



1 



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Railroad activity in the region is primarily freight transportation with 
a major north-south east-west intersection of medium density freight 
lines in the City of Live Oak. Passenger rail service in the region 
consists of two routes, one to Jacksonville then north, and the other to 
Ocala then south, with the region's only passenger rail station located 
in the City of Waldo (Alachua County). 

Two commercial bus lines also provide access routes to all parts of the 
nation and Canada. With scheduled stops throughout the region, these 
carriers provide relatively good alternative freight and passenger 
service to residents of the region. 

In contrast to the adequacy of intercity ground transportation, intracity 
transportation on the regional road network is inadequate in a few 
roadway segments within the Gainesville Urbanized Area. A recently 
completed planning estimate of 105 selected transportation data stations 
(i.e., locations) suggest that ten data stations were operating below 
Level of Service D during peak hour periods during 1986. The same study 
estimates that this number will increase to 32 stations by the year 
2005. Although similar information is unavailable for the region's 
other urban areas, it is suspected that they are all operating at or 
above Level of Service D (peak hour). 

The use of bicycles can relieve congestion on intracity elements of the 
regional road network. However, the only north central Florida city 
which has established special bicycle lanes is the City of Gainesville. 



20.1. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #64: Integrated Transportation 
Systems 

Background Analysis: Public transit, passenger rail, and air 
transportation systems appear underutilized in north central Florida. 
Usage is so low that reductions in service could occur in all three 
transportation modes in the near future. There is little coordination 
between public transportation providers. It is difficult to transfer 
between private automobile, air, and passenger rail transport modes. 
Cooperation between the region's public transit service providers does 
not exist. Public transportation could be more attractive if it were 
easier to transfer between modes and transit service areas. 

Only a small percentage of the region's residents use public transit. As 
of 1980, only 2,014 persons in the region (1,694 in Alachua County alone) 
reported public transportation as their primary or most frequent means of 
commuting xo and from tneir place of work." Population densities are so 
low in the region that traditional fixed-route, regularly-scheduled, 
public transit systems cannot be supported by ridership alone. ^ 
Furthermore, population levels and densities in almost all urban areas of 
the region are well below the threshold necessary for financial 
self-sufficiency of traditional fixed-route public transit systems. 



III-20-5 



Existing public transit facilities are so underutilized that they require 
substantial government subsidies. Given recent declines in federal 
domestic program expenditures, increasingly high liability insurance 
premiums, and traditionally low population densities, public transit in 
north central Florida is threatened with the elimination of all 
government-subsidized public transit systems by 1991 unless increased 
financial support is received from either state government, local 
government, or system ridership. 

Although substantial population increases have occurred in the region, 
population density levels in the region's urban areas have not 
substantially increased since 1970. Between 1970 and 1980, the region's 
population increased by nearly 82,000 persons. However, excluding 
Alachua County, urban population declined by 1.3 percent while rural 
population increased by 48.9 percent during the same period. 

Available data on public transit ridership trends is inconclusive. In 

1982, the Gainesville Urbanized Area had an average weekday public 

transit ridership of 6,200. By 1984, average daily ridership had 

dropped to 5,600, representing a 9-7 percent decline in public transit 

ridership. However, paratransit ridership in other public transit 

systems in the region appears to be increasing. Between fiscal year 

(FY) 1978-79 and FY 1879-80, the average revenue ridership for the 

Suwannee Valley Transit Authority on scheduled routes increased by 15.7 

1 ? 
percent . 

Public transportation systems in the rural areas of the region consist of 
a combination of large public transit systems as well as paratransit 
systems operated by a number of social service agencies providing special 
transportation services to their clients. These agencies may be able to 
provide service on schedules that meet their clients' transportation 
needs more efficiently and economically than traditional fixed-route 
public transit systems. Non-transit agencies appear to incur lower 
liability insurance premiums than general public transit system providers 
due to their limited transportation services status. In addition, these 
agencies tend to have lower overhead costs related to the financing and 
maintenance of public transit vehicles. Additional research is needed in 
this area. 

Passenger rail service in the region is virtually non-existent. The 
region's only passenger rail depot is located in the City of Waldo, 
approximately 15 miles northeast of Gainesville. At present, Amtrak 
stops at the Waldo station twice daily. Use of the existing route is 
minimal, possibly due to the station's location and lack of scheduled 
public transit to the train station from larger cities in the region. 

Airline service within the region, like other forms of public transit, is 
underutilized. Although the combined Gainesville and Ocala areas have a 
scheduled airline potential qf more than 300,000 annual enplaned 
passengers, Gainesville's airline passenger traffic is far below this 
figure. The number of annual enplanements has declined since 1980 
(178,500 in 1980 and 155,681 in 1985).^^ 



III-20-4 



1) 



) 



Population growth necessitates more intensive use of airspace by airports 
and airways transportation systems. Growth also generates competing and 
conflicting demands for the same airspace by tall buildings and 
broadcasting towers. Broadcast antennas can obstruct airspace and limit 
access routes to airports. The reduced number of access routes and 
maneuvering airspace contributes to increased air traffic congestion, 
delays, and the likelihood of aircraft collision with obstructions as 
well as other aircraft. The construction of multi-storied buildings near 
airports can further compound traffic delays and increases collision risk 
by restricting approach and departure paths. 

Structures such as antennas And tall buildings which requires the 
displacement of safe, efficient, orderly, and quiet flow of air traffic 
to and from airports should not be erected. Local government 
comprehensive plans should ensure compatible land uses and height 
restrictions near existing and planned airports. 



Regional Transportation Facilities: _ 

Regional Road Network 
All Interstate Highways 
All U.S. Highways 
All State Roads 
Hurricane Evacuation Routes 

All Local Roads Which Link Regional Facilities and Developments of 
Regional Impact (DRI's) to either Interstate, U.S., or State Highways 

Airports 
Gainesville Regional Airport 

Rail 
Amtrak Station in Waldo 
All railroad rights-of-way • 

Large Public Transit Systems Serving More Than One Jurisdiction 
Gainesville Regional Transit System 
Big Bend Transit System 
Suwannee Valley Transit Authoritj"- 



Agencies: Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. Department of 
Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Florida Department of 
Transportation, Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, 
Department of Commerce, Department of Community Affairs, Department of 
Environmental Regulation, Department of Highway Safety and Motor 
Vehicles, Department of Natural Resources, Department of State, Game and 
Freshwater Fish Commission, North Central Florida Regional Planning 
Council, Regional Transit System, Tri-County Council Transit System, Big 
Bend Transit System, Suwannee Valley Transit Authority, local 
governments . 



III-20-5 



29.2. Regional Issue/Cluster Title ^65: Transportation to Aid Growth 
Management 

Background Analysis: The regional road network consists of 1,200 miles 
of interstate, U.S., and state highways. The road network includes 
segments of local roads which link regional and state facilities such as 
parks and airports to the interstate, U.S., and state highways. The 
level of service C or higher appears to be in effect throughout the 
regional road network with the exception of the Gainesville urbanized 
area. 

Wherever new roads are constructed, urban development inevitably follows. 
North central Florida contains the interchange of two interstate 
highways, 1-75 and 1-10, near Lake City. The interchange is a driving 
force in the growth of Lake City and is anticipated to continue to be a 
major stimulus to growth in Columbia County through the year 2010. 

While transportation facilities can have positive economic impacts, they 
require an increased level of government regulation in order to maximize 
their use. The primary purpose of the regional road network is to move 
traffic between counties and urban areas of the region. While access 
must be provided to private property, such access cannot interfere with 
the primary purpose of the regional road network. 

Excess curb cuts, in combination with additional traffic generated by 
strip commercial development, can reduce the level of service of the 
regional road network and increase traffic hazards. Improperly planned 
strip commercial development has reduced the level of service of portions 
of the regional road network in the Gainesville urbanized area and has 
the potential to reduce level of service in other growing urbanized areas 
in the region. Currently, there are few restrictions on curb cuts or 
requirements for the construction of access roads. In addition, required 
building setbacks are generally of insufficient depth to allow 
cost-effective lane widening or the installation of access roads. The 
Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) does not have standardized 
curb cut regulations other than a minimum of 50 feet between curb cuts. 
This FDOT standard is inadequate. In north central Florida, the existing 
right-of-way width for State highways averages 60 feet. However, a 
60-foot right-of-way is generally too narrow for segments of the regional 
road network. 

Many communities nationwide have constructed by-pass roads in an effort 
to reduce congestion on city streets by redirecting through traffic 
around the periphery of urban areas. Unfortunately, many by-pass roads 
were not afforded adequate curb cut and setback restrictions. Many 
by-pass roads are now as congested as the roads they were intended to 
relieve. As recent history has demonstrated, the by-pass represents 
wasted money unless local and state governments adopt adequate controls 
to protect the road for that purpose for which it was designated. 



III-20-6 



) 



) 



) 



Traditionally, transportation planning focused on the provision of safe, 
efficient, and economical transportation facilities and services with 
little regard to secondary impacts. However, new priorities are emerging 
in the provision of transportation facilities and services which consider 
social, economic, and environmental impacts. 

There is currently a problem with some segments of the road network which 
cross habitat islands and corridors. Many of the roads in the region 
were constructed in the 1920's and 1930's prior to understanding the 
functions of habitat corridors and islands. No provisions were made on 
these roads for the safe passage of wildlife. For example, the Florida 
Department of Transportation is currently replacing bridges over small 
creeks and streams with large box culverts. Box culverts destroy the use 
of the streambank under the roadway for use as a wildlife travel 
corridor, forcing animals to .cross the roadway. 

The problems such road segments create for wildlife is easily 
identifiable by the many wildlife "road kills" which litter segments of 
the regional road network. Although data on the impacts of road k_ills on 
population levels of endangered species is not available, it appears to 
be of significance. For example, U.S. Highway 4-41 through Paynes Prairie 
State Preserve is well-known for its many road kills. U.S. 441 
transects the middle of the prairie and does not have any barriers to 
prevent the movement of animals over the roadway. In addition, the road 
has few below-grade pathways for safe wildlife passage. 

Little is known about the location of existing habitat corridors.^ 
Specific corridors have not been identified or mapped. However, it is 
generally known that riverbanks, streambanks, low elevation points, and 
ecotones are often used as habitat corridors.^ In addition to 
corridors, identified regionally significant natural areas are known to 
contain high concentrations of wildlife (habitat islands) and should be 
avoided when locating a new transportation corridor. 

The coastal area of north central Florida is sparsely populated and 
generally undeveloped. Part of the reason for the absence of development 
may be attributed to the lack of a coastal highway. The closest coastal 
highway is U.S. Highway 19 which parallels the coast 10 to 15 miles 
inland. Although four roads provide access to the coast from U.S. 
Highway 19, the circuitous route from one coastal community to another 
has probably retarded urban development in coastal areas. The region's 
coastline is not conducive to urban development due to the coastal marsh 
which occupies its entire length. The coastal marsh is a natural 
resource of regional, state, and, perhaps, even national significance. 
Care should be taken to minimize the potential for adversely affecting 
this resource. 

Growth management is very important in north central Florida. The 
combination of low population density and high public transit costs 
severely restricts the level of transportation service provided in the 
region, particularly in rural areas. Approximately 50 percent of the 
region's elderly population live in rural areas yet it is precisely this 
population which is most in need of public transit assistance. 



III-2( 



Approximately 20.0 percent of the elderly residents of the region suffer 

1 7 
from a public transportation disability. This percentage is 

anticipated to increase over time as the proportion of elderly over the 

age of 75 increases. The region's elderly population age 75 and over is 

1 ft 
projected to increase by 60.0 percent between 1985 and the year 2000. ° 

Since government has a responsibility to provide essential services to 

its citizen's, it should direct growth to areas which can be economically 

served . 



Regional Transportation Facilities: 

Regional Road Network 
All Interstate Highways 
All U.S. Highways 
All State Roads 
Hurricane Evacuation Routes 

All Local Roads Which Link Regional Facilities and Developments of 
Regional Impact (DRI's) to either Interstate, U.S., or State Highways 

Airports 
Gainesville Regional Airport 

Rail 
Amtrak Station in Waldo 
All railroad rights-of-way 

Large Public Transit Systems Serving More Than One Jurisdiction 
Gainesville Regional Transit System 
Big Bend Transit System 
Suwannee Valley Transit Authority 



Agencies: Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. Department of 
Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Florida Department of 
Transportation, Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, 
Department of Commerce, Department of Community Affairs, Department of 
Environmental Regulation, Department of Highway Safety and Motor 
Vehicles, Department of Natural Resources, Department of State, Game and 
Freshwater Fish Commission, North Central Florida Regional Planning 
Council, Regional Transit System, Tri-County Council Transit System, Big 
Bend Transit System, Suwannee Valley Transit Authority, local 
governments . 



Endnotes : 



1 . University of Florida, Bureau of Economic and Business Research 
Florida Statistical Abstract 1984 . Table 15.01: Transportation 
To Work, (Gainesville, FL . : The University Presses of Florida, 
1984), p. 356. 



III-20-8 



North Central Florida Regional Planning Council, Transit 
Development Program: Phase 1 -Transit Management Information 
Report . (Gainesville. FL . : 1985). p. 31. 



According to Table 4B-1 in the Florida Transit Manual for Small 
Urban and Rural Areas , written by Schimpeler-Corradino 
Associates (June 1978), one indicator used to determine an 
area's potential to use transit is population density. 
According to this Manual . indicators of transit use are as 
follows: Transit indicator Low population per acre: to 
3.99; Medium population per acre. 4.00 to 10.99; High 
population per acre. 11.00 and above. 



Florida Department of Transportation and Gainesville 
Metropolitan Transportation Planning Organization. Gainesvi lie 
Urbanized Area Transportation Study (GUATS) Year 2005 Plan . 
(Gainesville, FL . : August, 1982). 



Paratransit services refer to dial-a-ride and similar types of 
services which provide on-demand, door to door (as opposed to a 
fixed route), transportation service. 



In addition there are three smaller commuter airlines which 
provide service to the Gainesville Regional Airport. Interview 
with Richard A. Campbell, Exel Travel, Gainesville Florida, 
February, 1986. 



Special planning study (unpublished). Metropolitan Transportation 
Planning Organization for the Gainesville Urban Area staff. City of 
Gainesville, Traffic Engineering Department, Alachua County Public 
Works Department, Gainesville, FL . : February, 1987. 



University of Florida, Bureau of Economic and Business 
Research, Florida Statistical Abstract 1984 . Table 13.01: 
Transportation To Work, (Gainesville, FL . : The University 
Presses of Florida, 1984), p. 356. 



According to Table 4B-1 in the Florida Transit Manual for Small 
Urban and Rural Areas , written by Schimpeler-Corradino 
Associates (June 1978), one indicator used to determine an 
areas of potential to use transit is population density. 
According to this Manual , indicators of transit use are as 
follows: Transit indicator Low population per acre, to 

III-20-9 



3.99; Medium population per acre, 4.00 to 10.99; High 
population per acre, 11.00 and above. 



10. Florida Department of Transportation and Gainesville 

Metropolitan Transportation Planning Organization, Gainesvi lie 
Urbanized Area Transportation Study (GUATS) Year 200^ Plan . 
(Gainesville, FL . : August 1982). 



11. Paratransit services refer to dial-a-ride and similar types of 
services which provide on-demand, door to door (as opposed to a 
fixed route) transportation service. 



12. Information was not available on ridership trends for the Big 
Bend Transit and Tri-County Council of Senior Citizens. 
North Central Florida Regional Planning Council, Suwannee Valley 
Transit Development Program , (June, 1980), p. 9. 



13. J. A. Nammack Associates, Gainesville's Air Service Market (A 
Classic Case of Untapped Potential). A report to the City of 
Gainesvi He . (September, 1984-). 



14. A wildlife corridor is a strip of land forming a passageway. 
Corridors allow animals to travel and intermingle, instead of 
being isolated in a wildlife island. 



15. An ecotone is an area where two different habitat types, such 
as a meadow and a forest, meet. 



16. The statistic used in tljis report is the number of elderly aged 
65 and over. University of Florida, Bureau of Economic and 
Business Research, 1980 Census Handbook: Florida Counties , 
Table 7.14, "Rural Residence: Persons Aged 60-64, Aged 65 and 
Over, and Aged 75 and Over Living in the Rural Portions of 
Counties in the State and Counties of Florida, 1980," 
(Gainesville, FL . : The University Presses of Florida, 1984), p. 
329. 



17. A transportation disability is defined as a health condition 
which has lasted six or more months and which makes it 
difficult or impossible for a person to use buses, trains, 
subways, or other forms of public transportation. 
University of Florida, Bureau of Economic and Business 
Research, 1980 Census Handbook: Florida Counties . Table 7.18, 
"Disability Status: Noninsti tutional ized Persons Aged 65 and 
Over with a Public Transportation Disability in the State and 
Counties of Florida, 1980," (Gainesville, FL . : The University 

III-20-10 



^ 



18. 



Presses of Florida, 1980). p. 341. 



State of Florida, Florida Consensus Estimating Conference 
State of Florida Population & Demographic Forecast. Fall 



Conference . Table 5(A), "Florida Population Estimates and 
Projections by Age: April 1," (Tallahassee, FL . : 1985). 



) 



III-20-1 1 



f 



STATE GOAL 21 : GOVERNMENTAL EFFICIENCY 

Florida governments shall economically and efficiently provide the amount 
ajid quality of services required by the public. 



21.1. Regional Issue/Policy Cluster Title ^66: Intergovernmental 
Coordination 

Background Analysis: Successful growth management will require active 
intergovernmental coordination beyond traditional agency interactions. 
Areas in need of increased coordination, communication, and cooperation 
between local governments, state agencies, and the private sector include 
the planning, development, and provision of public services and 
facilities such as police and fire protection, emergency services, and 
transportation, particularly at jurisdictional boundaries. Other areas 
include public/private sector cooperation for electrical power utilities 
and transportation services as well as data standardization and use. 

County governments were originally established by the state as its local 
administrative arm. The size of counties and the location of county 
seats were based upon a 30 mile radius, which roughly equalled a full 
day's journey by horse and wagon to the county seat from the farthest 
part of the county. Rivers were commonly used as county boundaries as 
they were transportation barriers. 

With the advent of automobiles, bridges, modern roadways, and 
telecommunications, the 30 mile radius limitation was overcome. In order 
to improve efficiency in the delivery of services, the county ceased to 
be the state's service delivery unit. Almost all substate service 
districts now include more than one county. As the functions of state 
government has increased, the number of state agencies, divisions, and 
bureaus have increased as well. Each agency's substate service districts 
were selected to optimize efficiency based upon circumstances and 
criteria which were unique to each agency. 

Today, Florida's (and the region's) system of overlapping substate 
district boundaries can be confusing to citizens and government officials 
alike. At its worst, time, monej', and energy that could be more 
profitably spent on the implementation of state policies are spent on 
their coordination. Various analyses have concluded that the state's 
scheme of overlapping district boundaries contributes to duplication of 
services, a lack of coordinated data collection and interpretation, 
difficulty in maintaining efficient interdepartmental working 
relationships, difficulty in transmitting state and regional policies to 
local jurisdictions, confusion to the public resulting in a reduction of 
accessibility and accountability, increased administrative costs, and 
inability to facilitate the integration of land and water planning. 

The discrepancy in regulatory requirements between state agencies and 
local governments can be par£icularly aggravating to property owners and 
developers who are trying to build homes and contribute to the economy. 
The large number of state agencies from whom permits are required, the 



III-21 -1 



conflicting regulatory requirements, the overlapping service boundaries, 
and the lack of understanding of the entire regulatory process by local 
and state regulatory officials contributes to the confusion. 

Florida contains over 500 substate districts, including counties and 
school boards. The North Central Florida Region, exclusive of county 
governments and school boards, is serviced by 46 state agencies, 
divisions, and bureaus. The region contains 81 substate service 
districts and is split by three or more substate service districts for 5 
different state agencies. Only one agency. Criminal Justice Standards 
and Training, has a service district with boundaries coterminous with the 
region . 

Current efforts at intergovernmental coordination at the state level lie 
primarily in the Interagency Management Committee (IMC) and the 
Governor's cabinet. The IMC is comprised of the Secretaries of the 
Departments of Commerce, Environmental Regulation, Transportation, Health 
and Rehabilitative Services, and Community Affairs, as well as other 
agencies. The Governor's cabinet consists of the eleven agency 
seer etar ies . 

The Committee for the Study of Substate District Boundaries is continuing 
to examine the substate district framework and to develop an outline of 
criteria needed to redraw substate districts. Until then, the Council, 
state agencies servicing the region, and local governments are challenged 
to cooperate and to coordinate at a level sufficient to cope with 
regional problems and consequences of individual government actions upon 
the region. 

The advantages of interlocal government agreements and economies of scale 
are widely recognized by north central Florida government officials. 
Examples of coordination between local government within the region 
include the Alachua County Library system, City of High Springs Fire 
Department which provides fire service protection to portions of southern 
Columbia County as well as second response unit to the City of Alachua, 
and the Alachua County Fire Department which contracts with many smaller 
cities of Alachua County to provide fire protection services. In 
addition, the Council is currently studying the feasibility of a regional 
solid waste treatment facility. In addition, there has been some 
consideration given by local officials to the establishment of a regional 
jail . 

Annexation policies can have a significant impact upon agreements between 
cities and counties. A checkerboard annexation pattern can wreak havoc 
on emergency response services which often will respond without either 
the caller or the emergency service knowing whether or not the subject 
property is located within the corporate limits. Similarly, development 
regulations may be more lax in rural areas. Development built in 
unincorporated areas and later annexed can create problems when built to 
inadequate standards such as shallow building setbacks, inadequate curb 
control, and excessively large signs. 



r 



III-21-2 



Problems can arise with street naming when city and county governments do 
not coordinate their street naming activities. This can result in 
needless confusion for emergency services as well as for others just 
trying to find an address. Once a street has been named, it can be 
difficult to change the name as individuals do not like to undergo the 
expense of changing stationery, business cards, and the notification of 
friends of the new address. 

Coordination problems can result along the boundaries of government 
jurisdictions which have stable boundaries, such as between counties. 
Here, concerns exist regarding compatible land uses and coordinated 
delivery of services. It may be possible for one fire department to be 
located at or near a county boundary which could handle fires in the 
nearby county such as provided by the City of High Springs to southern 
Columbia County. 

Schools, as public facilities, are unique in that they are planned for 
and financed by separate local entities. Specific intergovernmental 
coordination activities are required to implement school board siting 
decisions with the local planning process. 

Public transportation is an example of coordinated services provided by 
the public and private sector. Florida law requires each county to 
designate a coordinated community transportation provider for the 
transportation. Every county in the region has designated a coordinated 
community transportation provider in an effort to reduce and/or prevent 
fragmented and duplicated service. 

A Metropolitan Area Transportation Planning Organization (MTPO) has been 
established within the Gainesville Urbanized Area to develop a 
coordinated urban transportation planning program. The MTPO is composed 
of the five City of Gainesville Commissioners, the five Alachua County 
Commissioners, and two non-voting representatives of the Florida 
Department of Transportation. Staff services to the MTPO are provided by 
the Council. The MTPO administers the Gainesville Urbanized Area 
Transportation Study (GUATS). GUATS is the continuing, comprehensive, 
and cooperative urban transportation planning program for the Gainesville 
Urbanized Area. 

An area which appears to need increased coordination efforts between the 

public and private sectors is the provision of electricity. Two 

communities in the region, the City of Gainesville and the City of 

Starke, operate their own power generation facilities. The City of 

Starke's facility consists of a small generation plant requiring 

additional purchases from the private sector. The remaining north 

central Florida communities and rural areas purchase their electricity 

from one or more private sector power companies. At present, customers 

may receive power service from any company they choose as long as 

conformity to Public Service Commission (PSC) requirements are 
p 

maintained . 



III-21 -3 



Currently, few major problems are reported to exist related to undefined 
service boundaries for electric utilities in the region. Although a 
competitive market is generally desirable, where two or more service 
providers exist, duplication of services may be inevitable and may 
ultimately result in higher costs to the consumer. The PSC is actively 
attempting to prevent future problems by encouraging utility companies to 
create boundary agreements among themselves and by requesting service 
area maps to be submitted which will be reviewed for potential 
territorial disputes and as an aid to growth management. 



r 



To aid in the coordination of growth management, accurate and compatible 
data must be maintained. The implementation of electronic information 
management in local government appears to be inevitable. Computers are 
already used to tabulate election results. They are also used by county 
property appraisers offices. These offices are required by the 
Department of Revenue to provide a machine readable computer tape of 
property tax records in a DOR-pr escribed format. Many of the tax 
assessors offices in north central Florida contract with private market 
services to produce the tape. 

State and local government electronic information management systems can 
maximize the utility of information currently collected manually by 
different agencies. The property appraiser records are a valuable source 
of information for local, regional, and state planning functions such as 
keeping tract of land use acreage over time. 

Electronic permitting information can be utilized in a similar manner, 
provided that common formats are used. It may be possible for the 
Council to minimize the cost of conversion to electronic systems by 
writing model programs which can be used by all local governments within 
the region. 

Electronic systems can also serve as a method of reducing the confusion 
of the development permitting process by providing information on request 
regarding the type of permits required for different development 
projects, who to contact, necessary information required to apply for the 
permit, in what sequence the permits should be obtained, as well as an 
estimate of how long it will take to obtain all necessary permits. 

An integrated permit management and parcel-level data system could allow 
for automatic updating of records and easy tracking of property permit 
history. Furthermore, the cost of special studies which rely upon such 
information could be reduced, the time involved reduced, and the accuracy 
of the results greatly increased through integrated automated information 
systems. For example, the Suwannee River Water Management District's 
Geographic Information System could be recognized as a standard for 
electronic permitting and parcel-level data systems. All state agencies 
and local governments using this as a standard system would benefit from 
the work already undertaken in this field by the district. 



r 



III-21-4 



7 



r 



Electronic information systems can be used to increase coordination and 
communication between north central Florida local governments and state 
agencies. A remote bulletin board system (RBBS) could be established and 
maintained by the Council to hold panel discussions and allow for the 
exchange of ideas and concerns on various regional issues between local 
elected officials. The RBBS could be called at the users convenience. 
The user could read and download previous discussions, leave messages and 
questions for further discussion by other callers and Council staff. The 
remote bulletin board system could also be used to electronically 
transmit Council publications and information to members. 



Agencies: All state agencies and local governments, North Central Florida 
Regional Planning Council, the Gainesville Metropolitan Transportation 
Planning Organization. 



21.2. Policy Cluster /Regional Issue /'67: Efficiency in Government 

Background Analysis: The North Central Florida Region contains 11 county 
and 33 municipal governments. A large majority of the region's cities 
are small rural communities with populations less than 5,000.^ Few of 
the region's local governments can, individually, provide both economical 
and adequate levels of community services and facilities. It is often 
necessary for local governments to enter into interlocal agreements in 
order to provide adequate levels of police, fire protection, and 
emergency medical response services. 

Sixteen incorporated communities in the region have their own 
professional police departments. The remaining communities contract with 
county sheriff offices for police protection. Ten communities in 
the region have their own professional fire department. The remaining 
communities and rural areas rely on volunteer firefighting services. 
All of the region's eleven counties have at least one Emergency Medical 
Service (EMS) agency.^ Interlocal agreements for police, fire 
protection, and emergency services exist throughout the region. Informal 
"as needed" arrangements are rapidly being replaced by formalized 
agreements, due in part, to liability problems. 

Innovative funding sources must be developed to finance regional 
facilities, such as a regional jail and a regional solid waste treatment 
site. One approach may be the use of special taxing districts, which can 
avoid restrictive government debt limits, and enable the financing of 
multi- jurisdictional facilities. In addition, state and federal funding 
programs must be developed to encourage the construction of large 
regional facilities that benefit from centralization and economies of 
scale. Proportionate impact fees and local option taxes could be 
developed to provide local sources of funding for regional facilities and 
services . 



III-21 -5 



Agencies: All state agencies and local governments, North Central 
Florida Regional Planning Council, Metropolitan Transportation Planning 
Organization of the Gainesville Urbanized Area. 



Endnotes : 



1. North Central Florida Regional Planning Council, Regional Profiles 
(Gainesville, FL . : October, 1982). 



2. Interview with Bob Moye , Gainesville Regional Utilities, and Jack 
Mclean, Florida Public Service Commission, February, 1986. 



Bureau of Economic and Business Research, University of Florida, 
1 983 Estimates of Population . Unpublished Data, February, 1986. 



North Central Florida Regional Planning Council, Regional Profiles 
(Gainesville, FL . : October, 1982). 



North Central Florida Health Planning Council Inc., Council on Rural 
Emergency Medical Services. 1983-84 EMS Resources in North Central 
Florida . (Gainesville, FL . : May, 1984). 



III-21-6 



STATE GOAL 22: THE ECONOMY 

Florida shall promote an economic climate which provides economic 
stability, maximizes job opportunities, and increases per capita income 
for its residents. 

22.1. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #68: Economic Stability 

Background Analysis: The quality of life for the residents of north 
central Florida is, first and foremost, dependent upon a healthy regional 
economy. The region has for many years enjoyed a stable economy based 
upon an abundance of high quality natural resources. Yet the region 
contains sharp economic contrasts. While unemployment rates have 
historically been significantly below state and national averages, north 
central Florida is the poorest region in the state. The region has the 
highest percentage of households living at or below the poverty level and 
many of the region's historically important industries are in decline. 
Therefore, economic development and job creation are primary concerns of 
the regional plan. 

North central Florida has enjoyed historically low unemployment rates 
significantly below state and national averages. In addition, 
unemployment rates have remained relatively stable over time. 
Fluctuations in yearly unemployment rates are also significantly below 
state and national averages. To a large extent, government employment 
has kept unemployment rates from experiencing cyclical swings typically 
experienced in the manufacturing and construction industries. In 1980, 
government employment represented 38.8 percent of total regional 
employment . 

The stabilizing influence of government employment in Alachua, Bradford, 
and Union counties is evident from the low unemployment rates 
characteristic of these counties. The average unemployment in these 
counties during 1980-1985 was 4.5 percent, 4.2 percent, and 4.0 percent 
respectively. Unemployment rates were somewhat higher in Columbia 
(7.1^), Gilchrist (6.95^), Lafayette (7.0^), and Madison (6.95^) counties. 
The counties showing highest unemployment rates were Dixie (7.9^), 
Hamilton (8.65^), Suwannee (7.55^), and Taylor (7.4^). North Central 
Florida counties showing the greatest fluctuations in yearly unemployment 
rates over time are Columbia, Dixie, Madison, and Taylor where rates have 
frequently exceeded the statewide average. 

Although government employment has a desirable stabilizing influence, it 
offers only limited employment opportunities, tends to maintain wages at 
a level lower than the State and national levels, has limited indirect 
and induced impacts, and adds no real contribution to the gross state 
product. Despite the low unemployment rates, north central Florida is 
the poorest region in the state. In 1985, the per capita income in the 
North Central Florida Region was $9 , 407--lowest in the state, a figure 
which represented only 70.0 percent of the state's per capita income of 
S15,384. While regional per capita income is increasing at a rate more 
rapid than that of the state, if existing trends continue, north central 
Florida will remain the poorest region in the state through the year 
2000. '' 

III-22-1 



Economic stability is lacking for the families that live at or below the 
poverty level. Every county in the North Central Florida Region is in 
the upper 50.0 percent of the State of Florida in terms of percentage of 
families living at or below the poverty level. To live below the poverty 
level is, by definition, to be unable to afford nutritionally adequate 
meals. A report issued in January, 1986, by the Physician's Task Force 
on Hunger in America used the criteria of more than twenty percent of 
residents living below the poverty level and fewer than one-third of the 
eligible needy residents receiving food stamps to identify the 150 worst 
"hunger counties" in America. 

Alachua County ranked 97th in the nation in hunger, while Suwannee County 
ranked 109th. ^ Madison County, with 26.4 percent of families below the 
poverty line, ranked highest in the entire state in terms of the 
percentage of total families living at or below the poverty level. 
Madison, Dixie, and Hamilton counties are among the top 7 counties out of 
67 in the state in terms of the highest percentage of families living 
below poverty. Suwannee, Lafayette, and Taylor are included in the top 
14 counties of the state measuring percentage of total families below 
poverty . 

Historically important industries in the region include fishing, 
agriculture, and forestry, although combined these industries represent 
only 5.2 percent of the total 1983 regional employment. However, 
agriculture employment accounts for a relatively large percentage of 
total employment in Gilchrist (11.55^), Hamilton (11.5^), and Madison 
(15.2?t) counties. 

Recently, there has been a decline in the amount of land in agricultural 
production and a reduction in both the number and average size of farms. 
When Dixie County is removed from consideration, farm acreage in the 
remainder of the region declined by 11.4 percent, from 1,314,781 to 
1,164,696 acres. Six of the region's counties experienced declines in 
farm acreage in excess of ten percent. Gilchrist County experienced the 
greatest percentage loss of farm acreage at 19.0 percent. Other counties 
experiencing notable losses include Alachua (12. 75^), Bradford ( 1 6 . 1 5^ ) , 
Columbia (17. 55^), Hamilton (17.75t), and Suwannee (14. 35^). Again, when 
Dixie County is removed from consideration, the number of farms within 
the region fell by 4.7 percent for the same period. The region's average 
farm size, exclusive of Dixie County, declined by 3.7 percent, from 274 
acres in 1978 to 264 acres in 1982. The statewide average farm size 
declined by 1.9 percent, from 360 to 353 acres for the same period.-' 

Forestry in north central Florida is a major source of income. In the 
region, it is estimated that $559 million is generated through the sale 
of stumpage ($52 million) and manufacturing values added. Commercial 
forest land and land capable of producing timber comprises 71.0 percent 
of the region. Approximately 3.1 million acres are classified as 
commercial timberland. Forestry industries own 1.7 million acres, which 
represents 39.0 percent of all commercial forest land in the region. 
National Forests represent 2.5 percent, State and Counties land represent 
0.7 percent and lands in private ownership represent 58.0 percent. 



III-22-2 



f 



The region's coastal fishing industry is also declining. Statewide, 
fish landings have increased by 25.0 percent between 1978 and 1985, from 
158,152,341 to 193,257,711 pounds. However, total fish and shellfish 
landings within the region declined by 34.0 percent during the sajne 
period, from 3,836,815 to 2,534,168 pounds.^ 

Phosphate mining has held an important role in the regional economy. 
Despite being a small percentage of total regional employment, the 
Occidental Chemical and Agricultural Company (OXY) mining complex in 
Hamilton County is of major significance to the economies of Hamilton, 
Columbia and Suwannee Counties, as well as the economy of the state. It 
is estimated that approximately 24.0 percent of all jobs as well as 36.0 
percent of total salary and wage income in the three-county area are 
attributable directly or indirectly to OXY mining operations in Hamilton 
County. OXY is the single-largest private employer in the region. The 
mining and chemical processing operation employs 2,150 workers at full 
employment and directly adds approximately $48,200,000 per year (1982 
dollars) to the earned income of north central Florida families. 

Estimates of the total regional economic impact of the OXY mines vary. 
However, the Florida Department of Commerce estimates the annual economic 
impact on the region is approximately $73 million." A substantial share 
of the output of the Hamilton County complex is exported through the Port 
of Jacksonville, with an economic impact of roughly $23 million annually 
on the port facility.' 

Closure of the two Hamilton County phosphate mines is projected to occur 
within twenty to twenty-five years. Unless steps are taken now, the loss 
of this basic industry is likely to have significant adverse economic 
consequences for the regional economy. A gradual relocation of 
personnel, a decreased share of total three-county employment represented 
by OXY by the year 2010, and the number of OXY employees reaching 
retirement age by the time the mine-out occurs may reduce the severity of 
mine closure impacts. However, a more comprehensive approach appears to 
be needed to plan for and mitigate the adverse impacts of closure. 

Regional employment trends in manufacturing are not favorable. The 
percentage of total regional employment that is contributed by the 
manufacturing sector declined from 15-9 percent in 1970 to 12.7 percent 
in 1984. Despite a statewide increase in manufacturing employment of 
34.3 percent between 1972 and 1982, 3 of the region's 11 counties 
actually experienced declines in manufacturing employment over the same 
period. Only three counties (Hamilton, Suwannee, and Union) experienced 
increases in manufacturing employment at rates greater than the statewide 
average . ' " 

The economic future of north central Florida may depend upon wise 
management of existing resources and attributes of the region, and 
coordinated local government economic development efforts. To address 
agricultural and development problems in north Florida, the Task Force on 
the Future of Agriculture in Florida recommended that the State 
Comprehensive Plan be amended and a section on Economic Development be 
included, and that the state target north Florida as an area to locate 



III-22-3 



business and employment opportunities that require low infrastructure 
needs and sparsely populated areas. Regional attributes include unique 
natural resources, the University of Florida, the 1-10 and 1-75 
interchange, and the large number of existing small businesses. 

The majority of private economic enterprises in the region are small 
businesses employing less than 500 persons. The private companies in the 
region with greater than 500 employees are Buckeye Cellulose, Occidental 
Chemical Agricultural Products, Nationwide Insurance, and General 
Electric. Manufacturing employment is a significant employment source in 
seven counties (Hamilton, Lafayette, Dixie, Madison, Suwannee, Taylor and 
Union ) . 

It is a widely accepted principle that the majority of new employment 
growth occurs from expansion of existing firms rather than the attraction 
of relocating businesses. Therefore, priority should be given to 
assisting the expansion efforts of existing small businesses. Locally- 
owned businesses are less likely to relocate when government incentives 
expire. In addition, locally-owned firms are considered more likely to 
recycle their profits and expenditures in the local and regional 
economies . 

Different counties in the North Central Florida Region have different 
needs for economic development planning. Whereas, some counties may need 
considerable help in preparing promotional materials, providing business 
and technical assistance to existing firms or in planning and, 
implementing visitation programs, other counties are already well 
equipped to do all of these. Some north central Florida counties 
(Alachua, Columbia, Madison, and Taylor) already have professionally 
staffed economic development organizations. Two counties are just now 
making greater commitments to industrial development and have plans for 
additional staff (Bradford, Suwannee). Others have full- or part-time 
staffs who take on the responsibility for economic development in 
addition to their other responsibilities, or work with other multi-county 
development organizations to carry out their programs (Dixie, Gilchrist, 
Hamilton, Lafayette, Union). '^ 

While a legitimate need exists for many companies in snowbelt areas to 

relocate in order to tap the nation's snowbel t-sunbelt population 

migration, some firms move to avoid higher tax rates and to take 

advantage of economic incentives provided by state and local governments. 

After relocation, such industries may move again when government 

incentives expire. State and local government economic development 

efforts should avoid attracting such firms. While economic incentives 

have an appropriate function in attracting new industry with intentions 

to remain within the local economy, local governments are advised to 

avoid spiraling and mutually self -destructive economic incentive "wars" 

in which governments offer perpetually escalating incentives to attract 

out-of-state companies. Industries are not heavily concentrated within 

North Central Florida due, in part, to more favorable tax structures and 

1 ? 
other government-funded incentives in nearby Alabama and Georgia. The 

levels of government effort required to attract out-of -region firms may 

not correspond to the number of jobs created. Industrial recruitment is 



III-22-4 



by far the most competitive, difficult, and hence, the most expensive 
economic development strategy available to local governments. 

Another reason for the region's relative lack of industrial/manufacturing 
firms is historically poor access to markets. ^ The completion of 
interstate highways 10 and 75 near Lake City is a relatively new and 
major stimulus to the regional economy. Completed in the mid-1970s, the 
two interstate highways provide improved access from the region to 
Jacksonville, Orlando, Atlanta, and New Orleans. Lake City, located near 
the 1-75 and 1-10 interchange, is a strategic location for wholesale 
services and manufacturing operations seeking convenient access to 
multiple southeastern markets. It is anticipated that the City of Lake 
City will experience significant growth as a result of this interchange. 

The University of Florida may also serve as a catalyst for regional 
economic growth. Regional employment is projected to increase due to the 
development of Progress Center, a planned research and industrial park 
located within the city limits of Alachua. Progress Center is intended 
to serve as a private sector incubator for ongoing research efforts, such 
as Bioglass, conducted at the University of Florida. Progress Center may 
employ as many as 13,300 individuals and serve as a major stimulus to the 
regional economy.^ However, employment at Progress Center is likely to 
require specialized skills and training not presently available in the 
labor force. Some of the special skills and training required for 
employment may be obtained from the University of Florida.^ 

The economic stability of the North Central Florida Region depends upon 
wise management of existing natural resources and a regulatory 
environment which strikes a proper balance between controlling the 
externalities of economic activities while minimizing the regulatory 
costs and the production impediments to private firms. Externalities 
produced by one industry, such as water pollution, can have significant 
adverse, even disastrous impacts, upon another industry, such as fishing. 

For example, farming requires the application of chemicals to the ground 
in order to produce commercially viable crops. The impacts, or 
externalities, of this action may include reduced surfacewater quality 
due to runoff containing domestic livestock wastes as well as 
fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides used in agricultural production. 
Polluted waters entering the Suwannee-Santa Fe river system and the 
coastal marsh could have an adverse economic impact on the coastal 
fishing industry as well as on resource-based recreation and tourism. 

Other examples of externalities include the construction of housing and 
other structures along the Suwannee-Santa Fe river system. Houses 
constructed close to the riverbank can have an adverse impact upon the 
river system's wilderness setting or otherwise adversely affect river 
aesthetics so as to reduce the river system's value as a tourist 
attraction. Residential developments located within or in close 
proximity to agricultural lands and private commercial forests can, 
through nuisance laws, adversely impact agricultural and silvicultural 
production management practices such as aerial applications of 
fertilizers, herbicides, and pesticides as well as controlled burning 
practices. 

III-22-5 



The natural resources of the region may still play an indispensable role 
in north central Florida's economic future. Tourism is an infant 
industry in the seven counties that border the Suwannee River. While 
Florida has an especially large concentration of its employment in 
services and retailing (i.e., 50. 05^) to accommodate 
tourists, the Suwannee River economy (Columbia, Dixie, Gilchrist, 
Hamilton, Lafayette, Madison and Suwannee counties) has 41.1 percent of 
its total employment in these two tourist-oriented sectors. 

The Suwannee River supplies fishing, canoeing, swimming, and camping 

opportunities to recreation users. In 1983, in terms of the economic 

impact of tourism on the Suwannee River economy, outdoor recreation 

accounted for an estimated $26.5 million from residents of the region, 

$6.4 million from tourists, and $7.4 million in wages to 826 recreation- 

1 7 

support and service jobs. By the year 2000, the economic impact of 
Suwannee River recreational use is projected to reach $55-2 million from 
residents of the region and $6.8 million from tourists. Total spending 
should reach $48.7 million, while employment is anticipated to rise to 
1 ,026 jobs.""® 

However, the economic projections for recreational use of the Suwannee 

River may not materialize unless local governments take an active role to 

ensure a quality recreational experience for tourists. Care must be 

taken in land use planning along the river to preserve a high quality 

recreational experience. Efforts should also be made to inform tourists 

of the river system's recreational opportunities. Economic projections 

actually suggest a slight decline in the region's share of the state 

tourist market over the next ten years. However, if just 1.0 percent of 

the total state tourist days could be attracted to the Suwannee River, 

total recreational spending in the region would rise to nearly $100 

million annually. Suwannee River recreation-based employment would 

double. If the combined 1-75 and 1-10 tourist markets were tapped for 

only three percent of their potential, Suwannee River recreation spending 

would increase to approximately $228 million annually while Suwannee 

1 Q 
River recreation-based employment would rise to nearly 4,800 workers. 

In addition to recreation activities, the Suwannee River could be the 
center of a revitalized American caviar industry. The American caviar 
industry was essentially eliminated in the early part of the 20th century 
due to water pollution. However, given the worldwide scarcity of the 
product and the fact that Atlantic sturgeon normally spawn within the 
Suwannee River, a sturgeon hatchery may be able to create a commercially 
viable caviar industry in the region. The Suwannee River is one of the 
few Gulf of Mexico rivers clean enough to support this now threatened 
specie . 



III-22-6 



Regional Facilities: 

North Central Florida Private Industry Council 

Suwannee River Economic Council, Inc. 

North Central Florida Areawide Development Company, Inc 

North Central Florida Job Training Consortium 

County offices of Job Service of Florida 

The University of Florida 

Local government fire stations 

Progress Center 

The 1-75 & 1-10 Interchange 

Solid waste landfills 

Hazardous waste treatment and transfer sites 

Hamilton County phosphate mines 



Agencies: Federal Aviation Administration, Florida Department of 
Commerce, Department of Community Affairs, Department of Agriculture and 
Consumer Services, Job Employment Service of Florida, North Central 
Florida Regional Planning Council, local governments. 



22.2. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #69: Job Opportunities 

Background Analysis: Regional economic stability is closely associated 
with job opportunities. Maintaining current employment levels and 
attracting additional jobs helps insure economic stability. An estimated 
net increase of 39,050 jobs must be created in the region by 1995 to 
maintain a 4.6 percent unemployment rate. However, many of the 
existing jobs are in mature and/or declining industries such as 
agriculture, timber, and phosphate mining. It is likely that a certain 
percentage of existing jobs will be eliminated over time due to 
structural changes in the economy. Therefore, the total number of new 
jobs needed to maintain a 4.6 percent unemployment rate may be 
significantly larger than 39,050. 

Many of the region's future job opportunities are anticipated to be 
highly skilled positions requiring college degrees and high levels of 
specific technical skills. Employment opportunities for individuals 
without high education attainment levels or who lack requisite technical 
skills may be quite limited. Without improved educational opportunities, 
individuals with low educational attainment levels and out-of-date 
vocational/technical skills may be forced out of the region while highly 
skilled people from outside north central Florida, specifically recent 
University of Florida graduates, garner the region's high-tech jobs. 

Many jobs within the region are in the government sector. Alachua County 
is a statewide center for education and health services. The region is 
in the unique position of having professional, technical, and kindred 
workers comprising the region's largest employment category. 
Approximately 58.0 percent of the north central Florida work force is 
comprised of white collar workers--especially professional, technical, 
and clerical workers. Blue collar jobs constitute approximately 24.0 
percent of the work force, with most of these equally divided between 

III-22-7 



craftsmen and operative type positions. Most of the remaining jobs are ^k 

in the service category. This is largely due to both the heavy influence ^^ 

of the University of Florida and the increasing numbers of government 

p 1 
jobs in Alachua County. In addition, the region has a very large 

number of scientists and engineers. It is reported that Alachua County 

contains the largest single pool of scientists and engineers in the 

state. Well over 2,000 doctoral level scientists and engineers reside in 

op 

the Gainesville urban area. 

The University of Florida may serve as a catalyst for regional economic 
growth. Regional employment is projected to increase due to the 
development of Progress Center, a planned research and industrial park 
located within the city limits of Alachua. Progress Center is intended 
to serve as a private sector incubator for ongoing research efforts, such 
as Bioglass, conducted at the University of Florida. Progress Center may 
ultimately employ as many as 13,500 individuals and function as a major 
stimulus to the regional economy.^ 

The region's only four-year academic institution is the University of 

Florida. Despite the projected increase in population, it is entirely 

possible that fewer north central Florida students, both in absolute 

numbers as well as in the percentage of total high school graduates, will 

gain admission to this institution. The University of Florida is the 

State's flagship university and attracts students from all parts of the 

state and nation. The university has placed a cap on enrollment in order 

to shift students to other state universities and to increase the 

academic standing of the university. Competition for admission may m 

become so intense that only the very best and brightest of the region's 

students will have the opportunity to attend a four-year university 

without undergoing the additional financial burdens involved in living 

away from home. 

The region's local public school districts must place increased emphasis 
on upgrading their academic programs in order for students to remain 
competitive for admission to the University. In addition, further 
enhancement of the region's community colleges will be needed to provide 
up-to-date vocational/technical skills. 

Four industrial groups in the region are projected to increase employment 
opportunities at rates greater than 20.0 percent between 1982 and 1995. 
These are Wholesale and Retail Trade (29.85^), Government (28.7 %) , Mining 
(27.55^), and Transportation, Communications and Utilities (26.95^). 
Manufacturing employment is projected to increase 19-0 percent in the 
region between 1982 and 1995. This includes a projected 16.9 percent 
increase for durable goods manufacturing employment and a 20.9 percent 
increase in non-durable goods manufacturing employment. Construction 
employment in the region is projected to increase 10.1 percent by 1995- 
Finance, Insurance, and Real Estate shows the smallest percentage 
increase at 0.03 percent.^ 

However, these employment projections may not materialize unless 

government takes an active role to ensure that public facilities d^ 

necessary to accommodate growth are provided in a timely manner. For V 

example, although the region is anticipated to experience growth in the 

III-22-8 



manufacturing sector, growth cannot safely occur without adequate 
hazardous waste transfer sites, treatment, and collection facilities. 
Adequate wastewater treatment capacity must be available to accommodate 
any and all forms of economic growth. Fire prevention and suppression 
services must also be able to dispatch industrial fires which may involve 
many different industrial chemicals and require very special fire 
fighting skills. 

Many small north central Florida communities do not have the financial 
capacity to purchase sites suitable for industrial development or to 
extend the necessary utilities to those sites. Nor do they have the 
financial resources to make community improvements such as central water 
and sewer systems, recreation facilities, or cultural centers. The 
provision of adequate water supply, sewerage, and hazardous waste 
transfer sites are essential to advancing economic development. The 
provision of recreational and community facilities are also important for 
economic development as they make a community more attractive to private 
investors . 

Small- and medium-sized businesses employing less than 100 employees 
create 80.0 percent of all new jobs in the nation. However, north 
central Florida small-and medium-sized firms often are unable to acquire 
affordable long-term capital financing. The non-profit North Central 
Florida Areawide Development Co., Inc. has been established to make 
reasonably priced long-term, fixed asset financing available to private 
small-and medium-sized businesses and industries in the region. 

The North Central Florida Private Industry Council (PIC) and the North 
Central Florida Job Training Consortium are charged with developing 
regional economic development strategies and coordinating local economic 
development efforts, including industrial recruitment and retention 
programs as well as job training programs. The Private Industry Council 
consists of representatives from the region's businesses and 
organizations interested in job training programs. The Private Industry 
Council serves as the region's administrative entity and grant recipient 
for several federally-sponsored employment training programs. The Job 
Training Consortium consists of County Commission Chairmen from the 
region. Their mission is to strike a balance between the needs of the 
market for skilled workers and the needs of the unemployed for jobs. 

The Private Industry Council has undertaken a study to determine likely 
target industries for industrial recruitment efforts. Identified 
industries and services best suited for north central Florida include 
office furniture; metal partitions and fixtures; periodicals, commercial 
printing, and manifold business forms; rubber, plastic hose, belts, and 
miscellaneous plastic products; fabricated metal products, valves, pipe 
fittings, and fabricated pipe fittings; electrical current carrying 
wiring devices, communications equipment, and semiconductors; engineering 
and scientific instruments; measuring controlling instruments; and 
medical and surgical instruments.^^ 

Industrial recruitment efforts must be closely coordinated with the 
government's comprehensive planning process for the provision of 
necessary supporting public facilities and appropriate site locations. 

III-22-9 



Many of the identified target industries use hazardous materials in the 
production process and generate hazardous waste as byproducts. Small 
businesses in these industries will require conveniently located 
hazardous waste storage facilities. 

Increased job opportunities appear to be urgently needed by some 
residents of the region. Unemployment for individuals under the age of 
24 already appears to be a problem. Regional unemployment rates are the 
highest for individuals between the ages of 16 to 19 and between the ages 
of 20 to 24. In 1980, unemployed males aged 20-24 represented 13-3 
percent and unemployed females aged 20-24 were 14.9 percent of total 
regional unemployment. 

Despite low unemployment rates, underemployment appears to be a 
significant regional problem.^' The percentage of north central Florida 
families living at or below the poverty level is 61 .0 percent higher than 
the statewide average. Although the percentage has declined 
significantly since 1969, from 20.5 to 16.3 percent by 1979, the number 
is unacceptably high. Alachua County is commonly thought to skew .. 
regional economic data due to the University of Florida student 
population. However, poverty rates within the region, exclusive of 
Alachua County, is actually higher when Alachua County is excluded. The 
1979 ten-county area poverty rate was 18.5 percent.^ 

The majority of north central Florida families below the poverty level 
appear to consist of female-headed households, elderly households, and 
black families. Female-headed households represented 38.4 percent of all 
families in the region below poverty level in 1979. Elderly households 
comprised 16.0 percent of all household below the poverty level. 
Incomplete data for minority fajnilies in four counties prevents a 
complete analysis of this category, but available information suggests 
that the percentage of black families below poverty level exceeded 34.0 
percent in 1979.^^ 

One important way to reduce economic inequities, resultant expenditures 
on assistance programs, and to increase the well-being of families below 
the poverty level is to increase the number of adults who have productive 
employment. Among many obstacles to employment for heads of households 
whose incomes are at or below the poverty level are a lack of day-care 
services for their children and a lack of job skills. On-the-job 
training, remedial education, retraining, and other support are needed to 
make these people competitive in the job market. 

The Federal Economic Development Administration designated the region as 
an Economic Development District in 1978. Two programs, the North 
Central Florida Areawide Development Company, Inc., and the Job Training 
Partnership Act Program, facilitate the improvement of the region's 
economic development. Job Training Partnership offices are located in 
Gainesville at the Job Service of Florida and the Alachua County School 
Board, in Lake City at the Job Service of Florida, in Perry at the Job 
Service of Florida, and in Live Oak at the Suwannee River Economic 
Council , Inc . 



III-22-10 



f 



Regional Facilities: 

North Central Florida Private Industry Council 

Suwannee River Economic Council, Inc. 

North Central Florida Areawide Development Company, Inc 

North Central Florida Job Training Consortium 

County offices of Job Service of Florida 

The University of Florida 

Community colleges of North Central Florida 

County school districts 

Local government fire stations 

Progress Center 

The 1-75 & 1-10 Interchange 

Solid waste landfills 

Hazardous waste treatment and transfer sites 

Hamilton County phosphate mines 



Agencies: Florida Department of Commerce, Department of Community 
Affairs, Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Job Employment 
Service of Florida, North Central Florida Regional Planning Council, 
county school boards, local governments. 



Endnotes : 



1. Minshall, et. al . , Report II: The Identification of Target 
Activities for the North Central Florida Area , (Battelle 
Laboratories, Columbus, OH: August, 1986), p. 1-4. 



The nation's official poverty level is based on two measures: 
(1) the proportion of income that poor families are expected to 
spend for food; and (2) the estimated cost of a minimally 
adequate diet. The U.S. Department of Agriculture determined 
that poor families spend about 1/5 of their incomes on food. 
Based on this determination, the government annually sets the 
federal poverty level at three times the cost of a minimally 
adequate diet. 



Physician Task Force on Hunger in America, Hunger Counties 
1986: The Distribution of America's High-Risk Areas . (Harvard 
University School of Public Health, Cambridge, MA.: January, 
1986), p. 22. 



Florida Department of Commerce, Division of Economic Development, 
Florida County Comparisons/ 1984 . (Tallahassee, FL . ) , pp. 140-141 



III-22-1 1 



Bureau of Economic and Business Research, University of 
Florida, l9e3_Florida Statistical Abstract . (Gainesville, FL , : 
The University Presses of Florida), pp. 244-246. 



Bureau of Economic and Business Research, University of Florida, 
1981 Florida Statistical Abstract , (Gainesville, FL . : The 
University Presses of Florida), pp. 258-259; and Bureau of Economic 
and Business Research, University of Florida, 1 985 Flor ida 
Statistical Abstract . (Gainesville, FL . : The University Presses of 
Florida), p. 273. 



OXY estimates that due to an employment "multiplier" each job 
at the mine adds an 5.66 additional full-time equivalent 
indirect and induced jobs in Florida; 1.99 of these additional 
jobs are located within Columbia, Hamilton and Suwannee 
Counties. In addition, each dollar of direct salaries 
resulting from the OXY operation generates an additional $2.68 
of indirect and induced income within the three-county area, as 
well as $1.59 statewide. 

Department of the Army, Jacksonville District Corps of 
Engineers, Environmental Impact Statement for Environmental 
Evaluation of Existing and Proposed Mining Operations . 
(Occidental Chemical Agricultural Products, Inc., May, 1985), 
pp. 53-55. 



8. OXY officials estimate the total economic impact on the three-county 
area economy at $276 million. The total economic impact on the 
Florida economy is estimated by OXY to be approximately $572 
million. "Grahajn blasts Oxy report," Jasper News , Jasper, FL . : 
August 1985, p. 1A. 



District Corps of Engineers, E.I.S. of Mining Operations for 
Occidental, May 1985. pp. 53-55. 



10. Florida Department of Commerce, Division of Economic 

Development, Florida County Comparisons/ 1984 . (Tallahassee, 
FL. ), pp. 16-17. 



11. Minshall, et. al . , Report III: The Preparation of an 

Act ion-Or i ented Economic Development Strategy for the North Central 
Florida Area . (Battelle Laboratories, Columbus, OH.: August, 1986), 
p. II-4. 

12. Bureau of Economic and Business Research, University of ^ 
Florida, "Industrial Growth Strong in Florida", Economic * 
Leaflets . Gainesville. FL . : May, 1980. 

III-22-12 



13. Ibid 



14. Chance, Eng & Denman Inc., Development of Regional Impact 
Application for Development Approval. Progress Center . 
(Gainesville, FL . : Apalachee Development Company, 1986), 
pp. 20-2 - 20-4. 



15. Ibid. . pp. 20-26 



16. Dr. Frederick Bell, Recreational Benefits and Economic Impact 

of the Suwannee River Vater Management District's Proposed Land 
Acquisition and Management Plan , (Live Oak, FL . : Suwannee River 
Water Management District, August, 1986), p. 46. 



17. Ibid. . p. 85 



18. Ibid. . p. 83. 



19. Ibid. . pp. 81-84 



20. Minshall, et . al . , The Preparation of an Action-Oriented 

Economic Development Strategy for the North Central Florida 
Area . (Battelle Laboratories, Columbus, OH.: August, 1986), p. 

1-5. 



21. State of Florida, Department of Labor and Employment Security, 
Division of Labor, Employment and Training, Bureau of Labor 
Market Information, Industry and Occupational Employment 
Projections to_1995 . (Tallahassee, FL . : October 1984), p. 7. 



22. Minshall, et . al . , A Targeted Economic Development Program for 
the North Central Florida Area . (Battelle Laboratories, 
Columbus, OH.: August 1986), p. 20. 



23. Chance, Eng & Denman Inc., Development of Regional Impact 
Application for Development Approval. Progress Center , 
(Gainesville, FL . : Apalachee Development Company, 1986), pp 
20-2 - 20-4. 



III-22-13 



24. State of Florida, Department of Labor and Employment Security, 
Industry and Employment Projections to 1995 . (Tallahassee, PL: 
October 1985), p. 6. 



25. A secondary group of identified industries include sauces, 

salad dressings, and frozen specialties; biological products, 
medicinals, botanicals, and pharmaceutical preparations; lawn 
and garden equipment, and miscellaneous special industry 
machinery; electronic computing machinery, calculating 
machinery, accounting machinery, and office machines; motors, 
generators, industrial controls, and welding apparatus; and 
automobile parts. 

Minshall, et. al . , Report II: The_Ident if ication of Target 
Activities for the North Central Florida Area . (Battelle 
Laboratories, Columbus, OH.: August, 1986), pp. 11-43 - 11-44. 



26. U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, General 
Social_and Economic Characteristics. Florida. 1980 . 
(Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 
1980), Table 176. 



27. Underemployment is employment on a part time or temporary 
basis, or employment in an occupation other than what an 
individual has received training, or employment at an annual 
salary which is at or below the poverty level. 



28. U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, General 
Social and Economic Characteristics. Florida. 1980 . 
(Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office 
1980), Table 176. 



29. Ibid. . Tables 61, 72, 82, 181 



III-22-14 



STATE GOAL 23: AGRICULTURE 

Florida shall maintain and strive to expand its food, agriculture, 
ornamental horticulture, aquaculture, forestry, ajnd related industries in 
order to be a healthy and competitive force in the national and 
international marketplace. 

23.1. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #70: Agricultural Industry 

Background Analysis: The long-term productivity of the soils as well as 
the indiscriminate conversion of agricultural and forested lands to urban 
uses are major concerns within the region. Agricultural and forested 
lands comprise the vast majority of the land acreage of the region. In 
1983, slightly over eighty percent of the region was comprised of either 
cropland (21.6?6), pastureland (12.5^), or commercial forest (47.6^). 
Commercial forestry operations is a major income producing source. An 
estimated $559 million is generated annually through the sale of stumpage 
($52 million), and manufacturing values added. 

North central Florida farms differ from those in other parts of the state 
in three ways. First, due to the colder climate, north central Florida 
farms do not produce citrus crops. Second, most of the region's farms 
are relatively small in size. The average farm size in ten of the 
region's eleven counties in 1982 was 264 acres compared to a statewide 
average of 352 acres. Third, the majority of farm income is derived 
from livestock and poultry as opposed to cash crops. 

North central Florida's agricultural income earnings is only half the 
statewide average. The region's 1982 agricultural land area represented 
12.4 percent of the state total yet the reported farm income from all 
products in the region was a little over seven percent ($246 million) of 
overall state farm income. The market value of livestock, poultry, and 
their associated products accounts for 70.0 percent of the region's farm 
income. This is significantly different from the statewide average where 
only 29.0 percent of farm income is derived from livestock, poultry, and 
their by-products. 

Corn is the region's most abundant field crop, averaging approximately 
127,000 harvested acres per year since 1980. The region produced 39.0 
percent of the state's 1980 corn production. Soybeans is the next 
largest crop in both acreage planted and harvest size with an annual 
harvested average of 81,600 acres since 1980. The region's soybean 
production represents approximately 18.0 percent of the total state 
annual soybean harvest and production.'^ The region's peanut acreage and 
actual peanut production represent more than 10.0 percent of statewide 
totals.^ Statewide, tobacco is a relatively small crop with annual 
harvested acreage of approximately 9,000 acres. However, over 90.0 
percent of the state's harvested acres of tobacco production is located 
within the region.^ 



III-23-1 



Due to continued urban pressures on land and water resources and due to 
the difficult nature of agricultural production in Florida, the viability 
of Florida agriculture is dependent on continued research and development 
programs in the state. 

The number of farms in the region declined by 6.0 percent, from 5,472 to 
5,130, between 1978 and 1982. The actual loss of agricultural acreage 
for the same period appears negligible due to a dramatic increase in 
farmland in Dixie County. However, when Dixie County is removed from 
consideration, farm acreage in the remainder of the region declined by 
11.4 percent, from 1,514,781 to 1,164,696 acres. 

Six of the region's counties experienced declines in farm acreage in 
excess of ten percent. Gilchrist County experienced the greatest 
percentage loss of farm acreage at 19.0 percent. Other counties 
experiencing notable losses include Alachua (12.7^), Bradford (16.1^), 
Columbia (17.5^), Hamilton (17.75^), and Suwannee (14. 35^). Again, when 
Dixie County is removed from consideration, the number of farms within 
the region fell by 4.7 percent for the same period. The region's average 
farm size, exclusive of Dixie County, declined by 3.7 percent, from 274 
acres in 1978 to 264 acres in 1982. The statewide average farm size 

'7 

declined by 1.9 percent, from 360 to 353 acres for the same period. 

Many of the farms and ranches in north central Florida, as throughout the 
United States, are experiencing financial difficulties. Farmers 
routinely borrow money using-their land as collateral. When the price of 
agricultural land drops, the amount of money which farmers can borrow 
declines accordingly. The value of agricultural land in rapidly 
urbanizing areas is, to a large extent, based not on the ability of the 
land to produce agricultural products but, rather, on the likelihood of 
its conversion to urban uses. 

Given the financial difficulties of farming and the potential profits 
resulting from land conversion, the possibility exists for haphazard, 
unplanned urban development and residential subdivisions occurring in a 
checkerboard pattern in agricultural areas. The indiscriminate 
conversion of agricultural lands to urban use and residential 
subdivisions should not be allowed due to potential land use conflicts 
and the financial burden such development patterns present to local 
governments. At some point, limits must be established on the conversion 
of agricultural lands to urban use. 

Urban land uses are incompatible with some agricultural or commercial 
forest management practices such as the aerial application of 
fertilizers and pesticides as well as controlled burnings. Conflicts can 
occur when residential subdivisions are allowed in areas traditionally 
used for commercial forestry and agriculture. Nuisance lawsuits have 
been filed by property owners within newly-created residential 
subdivisions against neighboring farmers and foresters. In such cases, 
it has traditionally made little difference to the court which land use 
was there first. 



III-23-2 



Foresters and farmers have sometimes been required by the courts to 
modify their business practices and incur substantially higher operating 
costs so as not to cause a nuisance to newly-developed residential 
subdivisions.® In 1985, the Legislature adopted the Florida Right to 
Farm Act which addresses this problem by prohibiting normal farming 
operations from being considered a nuisance. However, the act does not 
cover commercial timber production. 

When local governments place restraints upon urban development, such as 
large minimum lot sizes in agricultural areas, it is possible for 
declines to occur in agricultural land values and subsequent reductions 
in the amount of money which farmers and ranchers can borrow. Local 
governments in north central Florida may be better off to designate 
through the planning process which areas will remain in agricultural use 
and which will be allowed to convert to urban uses before development 
pressure further increases rural land values. Such action would help to 
stabilize land values and minimize future potential financial hardships 
to the agricultural community. However, without up-to-date soil surveys, 
local governments are not in "a position to properly evaluate all 
of the factors involved when considering proposals to take land out of 
agricultural or silvicultural production for urban uses. 

One state program which appears to have had some impact on reducing 
pressure upon agricultural areas to convert to urban uses is the 
greenbelt law. The greenbelt law is an agricultural lands assessment 
method which allows assessed values for agricultural lands to be based 
upon the income produced by the farm rather than upon the potential value 
of the land if converted to other land uses. However, numerous 
allegations have been made that this program is subject to abuse by land 
speculators. Widespread abuse of the greenbelt law could result in a 
repeal of the legislation. 

The quality of the soil is the single most important determinant of the 
ability of the land to produce agricultural products. North central 
Florida has a thin topsoil which is generally less than six inches in 
depth. The U.S. Soil and Conservation Service has determined an 
acceptable average annual rate of soil loss statewide of five tons per 
acre per year. However, only one county in the region is monitored for 
soil loss. Soil loss monitoring is vital to determining the 
effectiveness of agricultural practices designed to stabilize soil loss 
rates. 

The 1974 Florida General Soils Atlas with Interpretations for Regional 
Planning Council Districts III and IV, identified fifty-nine soil 
associa-cions in North central Florida. The atlas identified 24.6 percent 
of the region as having high value for woodland, 47.2 percent for 
pastureland, and 8.54 percent for cropland uses.^ However, these soil 
maps are considered very general and in need of updating. The 
generalized information provided in this atlas is gradually being 
replaced by more detailed county-by-county soil surveys. Currently, 
three counties in the region have modern published soil surveys. In 
addition, two additional counties are anticipated to have soil surveys 
completed and published by the end of 1987. 



III-23-3 



In an effort to assure the completion and publication of soil surveys, 
the National Cooperative Soil Survey and the state-funded Accelerated 
Soil Survey Program are completing soil survey reports for Florida 
counties at a rate that, if continued, would result in the mapping of all 
of Florida by 1990. There are four basic types of land to be identified: 
(1) prime farmland, (2) unique farmland, (5) additional farmland of 
statewide importance, and (4) additional farmland of local importance. 
The identification of prime and unique agricultural lands has been 
completed for 9 of the region's 11 counties. Within these counties, only 
2.3 percent of the total area has been identified as either prime or 
unique acreage. Madison (8.9%) and Alachua (4.3^) counties were 
identified as having the largest percentage of such lands. 
The U.S. Soil and Conservation Service has developed a land use decision 
system which takes into consideration soil suitability for various land 
uses and has been implemented in at least one Florida county. 

Agricultural practices, principally through the use of pesticides and 
fertilizers, may have potentially significant impacts upon both 
surfacewater and groundwater quality. The principal source of water for 
industrial, residential, and agricultural uses in the region is the 
Floridan aquifer. Care must be taken to insure that surf acewater s in 
agricultural areas, particularly within high percolation areas and 
stream-to-sink watersheds, have been properly treated to prevent 
contamination of the water supply. Special consideration may be 
warranted in the application of agricultural chemicals in order to 
prevent pollution of the potable water supply. These concerns could 
translate into a minimum setback requirement from sinkholes, special 
surfacewater management considerations, special cattle grazing setbacks 
from rivers, streams, and other surfacewater bodies, as well as measures 
to control potential contaminants such as automobile oils, fertilizers, 
and pesticides, along with increased education efforts in the proper 
application of such products. 

The U.S. Soil Conservation Service and the U.S. Environmental Protection 
Agency have developed Best Management Practices (BMPs) for agricultural 
areas. In addition, BMPs have been developed for silviculture practices 
by the Florida Division of Forestry. These manuals outline appropriate 
management practices which minimize water pollution caused by soil 
erosion, animal wastes, as well as fertilizer and pesticide application 
techniques. Some of these practices are more capital intensive than 
others and farmers are not always able to afford the financial costs 
associated with implementation of agricultural best management practices. 
Currently, information is not available indicating the type and extent of 
use of BMPs within the region. 

Agricultural irrigation practices can also have adverse impacts upon both 
the quality and quantity of underground water supplies and stimulate 
saltwater intrusion of coastal freshwater aquifers. Care must be taken 
to insure groundwater quality and quantity is assured through careful 
monitoring of agricultural water use within the region. Currently, 18.5 
percent of the farmed acres within the Suwannee River Water Management 
District are irrigated. However, virtually all of the cash crops are 
irrigated. Nearly all of the irrigation water was supplied by 



III-23-4 



^ 



groundwater sources. In 1985, 44.76 million gallons per day of water was 
withdrawn from groundwater sources for irrigation purposes, of which 
practically all was used in spray irrigation. 

Irrigation systems often fail to distribute water uniformly, in which 
case some parts of the field receive more water than can be used. The 
excess water simply runs off, percolates out of the root zone, or is lost 
through evaporation. Sprinkler irrigation generally has efficiencies in 
the 70 percent range. Reducing groundwater withdrawals through improved 
irrigation methods can make a reservoir or aquifer last longer. 

Low energy precision application is a new method superior to conventional 
sprinkler systems which spray water high in the air. This method brings 
water closer to the plants through drop tubes extending vertically from 
sprinkler stems. Efficiencies as high as 98.0 percent can be achieved 
when this system is used on leveled land. Because lower water pressure 
is needed, energy savings of 20.0 to 50.0 percent can result from this 
technique . 

Trickle or drip irrigation is a thrifty irrigation technique suitable for 
fruit, vegetable, and orchard crops. A network of porous or perforated 
piping is installed on or below the surface of the soil to deliver water 
directly to the roots. With this method, evaporation and seepage is kept 
at a minimum. 

Conservation tillage, or minimum tillage, is among the most effective 
water conservation measures. It involves leaving crop residues and 
stubble in the field after harvest. These residues hold rainwater, 
slowing runoff and reducing evaporation from the soil. 

While the region's coastal fishing industry has been declining in recent 
years, aquaculture represents a relatively new and exciting component of 
Florida agriculture and should be adequately addressed in future state 
efforts ^. Statewide, fish landings have increased by 25.0 percent 
between 1978 and 1985, from 158 to 193 million pounds. However, total 
fish and shellfish landings within the region declined by 34.0 percent 
during the same period, from 3.8 to 2.5 million pounds . ^ -^ 

Commercially valuable coastal and marine fish and benthic 
invertebrate species found along the north central Florida coast include 
the eastern blue oyster, blu^ crab, stone crab, bay scallop, pink shrimp, 
white shrimp, rock shrimp, spotted sea trout, red drum, mullet, 
sheepshead, Atlantic sturgeon, Spanish mackerel, bluefish, spotfish, 
mullet, and pompano. 



Regionally Significant Resources: 

Prime, unique, and locally important agricultural lands 

Big Bend Seagrass Beds 

Florida Middle Ground Live Bottom Area 

Other Marine Live Bottom Communities 

Coastal Marsh 



III-23-5 



Estuaries 

Coastal Freshwater Wetlands 

Coastal Rivers 

Suwannee River 

Aucilla River 



Agencies: U.S. Soil and Conservation Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, 
Department of Community Affairs, Department of Natural Resources, Game 
and Freshwater Fish Commission, Department of Environmental 
Regulation, Department of Commerce, Institute of Food and Agricultural 
Sciences (University of Florida), Suwannee River Water Management 
District, St. John's River Water Management District, North Central 
Florida Regional Planning Council, local governments. 



25.2. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #71: Expanding Agricultural 
Opportunities 

Background Analysis: The Task Force on the Future of Agriculture in 
Florida was created by Governor Bob Graham (Executive Order 85-227, 
October 28, 1985) and charged with the responsibility of assessing a wide 
range of issues and programs related to Florida agriculture. Items 
considered by the Task Force include basic and applied research programs, 
systems to transfer technological knowledge to agricultural producers, 
state actions to improve the competitive position of Florida agriculture, 
agricultural finance, and state and federal policies on land, water, 
taxation and community development. The Task Force developed 
recommendations and suggestions with regard to the agricultural and 
economic conditions in north Florida, as well as in the areas of research 
and education, marketing, state planning and regulation, and finance. 

Specific agricultural and development problems in north Florida are 
identified, and recommendations developed to address these problems. The 
Task Force recommended that: (1) the State Comprehensive Plan be amended 
and a section on Economic Development be included; (2) the state target 
north Florida as an area to locate business and employment opportunities 
that require low infrastructure needs and sparsely populated areas; (3) 
technical and monetary assistance be made available to rural north 
Florida counties that will help them develop initiatives to expand 
existing industries and attract new industries where feasible; (4) the 
state direct contracts for projects to rural areas whenever the funds are 
not required to alleviate population or geographic specific problems in 
otner sections of the state; and (5) adequate funding for research and 
extension of research results be made to the land grant universities. 
Funding should be made available to these institutions for production 
agriculture activities, as well as demographic, social and 
entrepreneurial activities that could improve the economic well-being of 
individuals in rural Florida.^ 



III-23-6 



I 



Recommendations of the Task Force with respect to research, extension and 
education programs for expanding agricultural opportunities include: (1) 
increase the concentration of research attention on problems of the 
environment and water quality; (2) the addition of a goal for extension 
programs which is to extend research data and information on agricultural 
production, marketing and economics to the planning and regulatory- 
authorities; (3) preparation of a long term plan for extension, including 
both IFAS and FAMU , to complement the expanded research plan proposed; 
(4) an examination and probable revision of extension's system of 
recording and disseminating research results, with consideration given to 
the creation of a central library of Florida agricultural research 
perhaps with access via telephone linked microcomputers; and (5) 
consideration and analysis of the suggestion by the Board of Regents' 
review team of a two year or less agricultural education course. 

The recommendations of the Task Force with respect to marketing of 
agricultural goods include: (1) adequate funding to meet the goal of the 
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services to extend the 
distribution, sale and consumption of Florida's agricultural products 
through product promotions, increased awareness of the importance of 
agriculture to consumers and the utilization of television and radio to 
reach mass audiences; and (2) provision for an agricultural liasion 
staff-level position in the Governor's office to serve as a conduit for 
agricultural interests with respect to state and federal legislation and 
regulation and interstate relations.^''' 

Financing agriculture and agricultural programs recommendations include: 
(1) that state agency heads be encouraged to review all agricultural 
programs with the purpose of identifying programs that are no longer 
needed or that duplicate the programs of some other state agency and that 
all new agricultural programs include criteria for evaluating program 
effectiveness and continuation; and (2) that the state review economic 
development and industry promotion programs to ensure that equal 
attention is devoted to agriculturally related industries and that state 
provided development incentives are equally available to these 
industries . 

The Task Force also recognized that aquaculture represents a relatively 
new and exciting component of Florida agriculture and should be 
adequately addressed in future state efforts. One potential area of 
commercial fishing growth in the region could be the r evital ization of 
the american caviar industry. The caviar industry was essentially 
eliminated in the early part of the 20th Century due to water pollution. 
However, given the worldwide scarcity of the product and that Atlantic 
sxurgeon normally spawn witnin the Suwannee River, a sturgeon hatchery 
may be able to create a commercially viable caviar industry in the 
region. The Suwannee River is one of the few Gulf of Mexico rivers clean 
enough to support this now threatened specie. 

The Department of Natural Resources Agency Functional Plan calls for a 
dramatic increase in the harvesting of commercial seafood. However, no 
studies have been undertaken to determine the annual maximum sustainable 



III-25-7 



yield of coastal or marine seafood resources. Such a study should be 
undertaken before dramatic increases in seafood harvesting occur. 



Regionally Significant Resources: 

Prime, unique, and locally important agricultural Lands 

Big Bend Seagrass Beds 

Florida Middle Ground Live Bottom Area 

Other Marine Live Bottom Communities 

Coastal Marsh 

Estuar ies 

Coastal Freshwater Wetlands 

Coastal Rivers 

Suwannee River 

Aucilla River 



Agencies: U.S. Soil and Conservation Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, 
Department of Community Affairs, Department of Natural Resources, Game 
and Freshwater Fish Commission, Department of Environmental 
Regulation, Department of Commerce, Institute of Food and Agricultural 
Sciences (University of Florida), Florida Agricultural and Mechanical 
University, Suwannee River Water Management District, St. John's River 
Water Management District, North Central Florida Regional Planning 
Council, local governments. 



Endnotes : 



University of Florida, Bureau of Economic and Business 
Research, 198^ Florida Statistical Abstract . (Gainesville, FL : 
The University Presses of Florida: 1985), p. 230. 



Dixie County skews the region-wide average. The region-wide 
average farm size, including Dixie County, is 308 acres. In 
addition, when Dixie County is included, the average farm size 
increased from 287 acres in 1978 to 308 acres in 1982. The 
total number of farms declined from 5472 in 1978 to 5132 in 
1982. 



5. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, 
Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, Flor ida 
Agricultural Statistics: Field Crop Summary . 1980, 1982. 1984 



4. Ibid , 



III-23-8 



5. Ibid . 



> 



) 



Governor's Task Force on the Future of Agriculture in Florida, 
"Summary of Report Recommendations for Actions and 
Recommenations for Further Consideration," (December, 1986), p, 
i ii . 



University of Florida, Bureau of Economic and Business 
Research, 1983 Florida Statistical Abstract . (Gainesville, FL 
The University Presses of Florida, 1985), pp. 244-246. 



8. Buescher, Jacob A., Robert V. Wright and Morton Gitelman, Cases 
and Materials on Land Use . American Casebook Series, Second 
Edition, (St. Paul, Minn.: Vest Publishing Co., 1976), p. 43. 



Florida Department of Administration, Division of State 
Planning, The Florida General Soils Atlas with Interpretations 
for Regional Planning Districts III & IV , (Tallahassee, 
Florida: July, 1974), pp. 5-43. 



10. R.B. Brown, "Florida Agricultural Land Use - What Do We Know?" 
(Unpublished paper. Soil Science Department, University of 
Florida, 1984). 



11. Lloyd E. Wright, Warren Zitzmann, Keith Young, and Richard 
Googins, "LESA-Agr icultural Land Evaluation and Site 
Assessment," Journal of Soil and Water Conservation . Vol. 38, 
Number 2, (March-April 1983), pp. 82-86. 



12. Governor's Task Force on the Future of Agriculture in Florida, 
"Summary of "report Recommendations for Actions and 
Recommendations for Further Consideration," December, 1986. 



13. University of Florida, Bureau of Economic and Business 

Research, 1981 Florida Statistical Abstract , (Gainesville, FL . : 
The University Presses, 1981), pp. 258-259; and. University of 
Florida, Bureau of Economic and Business Research, i 985 
Florida Statistical Abstract . (Gainesville, FL . : The University 
Presses , 1 985 ) , p . 273. . 



14. Governor's Task Force on the Future of Agriculture in Florida, 
"Summary of Report Recommendations for Actions and 
Recommendations for Further Consideration," (December, 1986), 
p. i. 



III-23-9 



1 5 . Ibid. , pp . v-vi 



16. Ibid . , pp . vi-vi i 



17. Ibid. , p. vii 



18. Ibid. , p. X. 



r 



III-23-10 



STATE GOAL 24: TOURISM 

Florida will attract at least 55 million tourists annually by 1995, and 
shall support efforts by all areas of the state wishing to develop or 
expajid tourist-related economies. 

24.1. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #72: Tourism Promotion 

Background Analysis: North central Florida is rich in natural resources 
and natural areas to provide for resource-based recreation, yet tourism 
is still an infant industry in the region. Other potential tourist 
attractions in the region include sports and cultural events at the 
University of Florida, and historical /cultural events in the many small 
but historically rich towns. 

Few of the tourists traveling by auto through the region take advantage 
of the many potential tourist activities offered by the Suwannee-Santa Fe 
River system. In 1970, the number of tourists visiting north central 
Florida was 215,096. While the regional population was 3.2 percent of 
the state, tourism in the region in 1970 represented only 0.9 percent of 
the state total. Tourism was primarily due to visits to Gainesville, 
representing 55.2 percent of the total tourism activity in the region. 
This was probably due to visitors to football and basketball games at the 
University of Florida.^ In 1985, 15.8 million tourists entered Florida 
by auto, of which 31.7 percent used 1-75, a main artery running through 
the region. Nearly 20.0 percent of all tourists enter Florida on 1-10 
which crosses Madison, Suwannee, Hamilton and Columbia Counties. 
Tourists travelling by air typically have destinations in central and 
southern Florida and are not easily available to Suwannee River counties 
that lack airport facilities and suitable enticements. 

As the region's population and the number of tourists increase, the 
natural areas which insure the scenic qualities of the region will 
require careful management to preserve water quality, wildlife, flora, 
and other natural scenic values. Given the large amount of undeveloped 
land and low population densities in the region, resource-based 
recreation should be emphasized, and state parks in the region are 
potentially important tourist attractions. Although attendance figures 
of the state parks include residents of the area who visit the state 
parks, the figures indicate their relative popularity. The state parks 
in the region, in order of highest attendance during Fiscal Year 
1983-1984, are Ichetucknee Springs, O'leno, Devil's Millhopper, Suwannee 
River, Stephen Foster, Payne's Prairie, Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Forest 
Capital and San Felasco Hammock. Total attendance during Fiscal Year 
i963-i964 was 520,176, down from 720,794 in 1960-1961. This decline was 
apparently due to decreases in visitor counts in recent years at 
Ichetucknee Springs due to a management program which limits the numbers 
of persons in an effort to study the impact of human use on the river. 
However, biologists report that recreational use of the Ichetucknee still 
needs to be reduced in order to prevent erosion of the river banks and 
loss of bank vegetation eaten by the Suwannee cooter, an endangered 
specie found along the river. -^ 



III-24-1 



Does the Ichetucknee River foretell the future of the Suwannee? In ^ 

response to concerns over the use and management of the Suwannee River, v 

the Save Our Rivers Program has authorized 80 million dollars over the 
next 20 years to the Suwannee River Water Management District for the 
purchase of lands along the Suwannee for preservation and protection of 
water quality. 

Without the Save Our Rivers program, the Suwannee-Santa Fe river system 
would most likely develop in a manner similar to the Ichetucknee. 
Subdivision activity on the Suwannee River is proceeding at an alarming 
pace. A recent Council study projects that if the same amount of 
development activity which has occurred on the Suwannee since 1977 
continues into the future, 92 percent of the entire riverbank will be 
subdivided into 1.75 acre residential lots by the year 2050. Using the 
same projection technique for the Santa Fe River, 46 percent of the lands 
adjacent to the Santa Fe will be subdivided into 1.25 acre lots by the 
year 2030. 

The intent of the Save Our Rivers program is to protect the water quality 

of the region. In addition to water quality protection, these areas may 

be used, in certain circumstances, as recreational areas for a variety of 

uses. Despite the large amount of money, the entire river cannot be 

purchased. Rather, what is likely to emerge is a sequence of 

publicly-owned lands interspersed with farms, single-family homes, and 

higher density residential uses at urban centers. The important 

questions are to what extent and how much of the lands purchased with 

Save Our Rivers funds should be put to recreational use, and what impacts ^ 

will increased recreational use have upon the Suwannee-Santa Fe river 

system in terms of water quality, habitats, flora, and wildlife? 

The Suwannee has not been significantly degraded due to human use. The 
river's water quality is high and its banks are relatively free of 
streamside development. Given the projected increase in subdivision 
activity within the remaining privately-held lands adjacent to the river 
and the projected increase in the regional population it is likely that 
the Suwannee River will be increasingly used as a recreation resource. 

A carefully derived balance must be struck between recreational use of 
the river system and the preservation of water quality, habitats, plants, 
and wildlife. For example, it appears that heavy recreational use of the 
Suwannee between the Gulf Coast and Manatee Springs State Park is not 
advisable since it serves as a travel corridor during the spring and fall 
months for the West Indian manatee. In addition, the Suwannee is the 
spawning grounds of the Atlantic sturgeon and is considered to be the 
last major spawning grounds in the Gulf of Mexico for this enaangered 
fish specie. To protect the -sturgeon , it may be necessary to designate 
certain parts of the river as a conservation district or reduce 
recreational use of the river along their migratory routes and spawning 
grounds during spawning and migratory runs. 



i 



III-24-2 



I 



In 1983, in terms of the economic impact of tourism on the Suwannee River 
economy, outdoor recreation accounted for an estimated $26.3 million from 
residents of the region, $6.4 million from tourists, and $7.4 
million in wages to 826 recreation-support and service jobs. By the year 
2000, the baseline economic impact is estimated to be $35.2 million in 
spending by residents and $6,774 million in spending by tourists. Using 
the Suwannee River regional multiplier of 2.0, total spending should 
reach $48.7 million, while employment could increase to 1,026 jobs to 
support those spending money on outdoor recreation.^ If the combined 
1-75 and 1-10 tourist markets were tapped for only 3.0 percent of their 
potential, this would increase annual spending on the Suwannee River to 
near $228 million and would employ nearly 4,800 workers.^ 

Historic areas are also attractive to tourists. Presently, there are 
three historic districts in the region. In Alachua County, the Northeast 
Gainesville Residential Historic District includes approximately 400 
structures, of which 222 contribute to the designation. Also in Alachua 
County, the Micanopy Historic District is comprised of significant late 
19th and early 20th century residential and commercial structures. It 
includes 51 structures, of which 39 contribute to the designation. In 
Bradford County, the Call Street Historic District in Starke contains 
approximately 30 structures. In addition, there are 41 sites in the 
region listed on the National Register of Historic Places. These sites 
could become tourist attractions if they are properly restored and 
promoted. Sites nominated to the Register receive a degree of 
protection from actions funded or licensed by the federal government and 
are eligible for federal historic preservation grant funding for 
acquisition and development. 



Regional Facilities: 

Parks: Ichetucknee Springs, O'Leno, Suwannee River 

Special Feature Sites: Devil's Millhopper, Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings 

Preserves: Payne's Prairie, River Rise, San Felasco Hammock 

Museums: Forest Capital, Stephen Foster Folk Culture Center, Florida 
State Museum. 

Registered Natural Landmarks: Devil's Millhopper, Payne's Prairie, San 
Felasco Hammock, Ichetucknee Springs 

Wildlife Management Areas: Osceola, Aucilla, Tide Swamp, Steinhatchee , 
Cypress Creek, Lochloosa, Occidental, Raiford, Cypress Creek, Jena, Lake 
Butler , Perpetual . 

Other: Save Our Rivers Lands, Florida Trail System 



Agencies: Florida Department of Natural Resources, Division of Parks and 
Recreation; Department of State, Division of Historical Resources; Game 



III-24-3 



and Fresh Water Fish Commission; Department of Commerce; Department of 
Education; Department of Community Affairs; Department of Environmental 
Regulation; Department of Transportation; Department of Agriculture and 
Consumer Services; North Central Florida Regional Planning Council; 
Suwannee River Water Management District; St. Johns River Water 
Management District; U. S. Department of the Interior; U. S. 
Environmental Protection Agency; U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Army 
Corps of Engineers; local governments; county school boards. 



Endnotes : 



Bureau of Economic and Business Research, University of Florida, 
Florida Statistical Abstract 1972 . (Gainesville, FL . : The University 
Presses of Florida, 1972), Table 21.832, p. 582. 



Dr. Frederick W. Bell, "Recreational Benefits and Economic Impact of 
the Suwannee River Water Management District's Proposed Land 
Acquisition and Management Plan," (Unpublished report for the 
Suwannee River Water Management District, Live Oak, Florida: 1986), 
p. 83. 



3. Telephone conversation with Don Younker , Biologist, Department 
of Natural Resources, District 3 Office, late summer, 1986. 

Florida Natural Areas Inventory . Region 3, July 1985. 



4. Bell, "Recreational Benefits and Economic Impact of the SRWMD 
Proposed Land Acquisition Plan," for the SRWMD, 1986, p. 83- 



Ibid . , pp. 81 -82 



O 



( 



III-24-4 



STATE GOAL 25: EMPLOYMENT 

Florida shall promote economic opportunities for its unemployed and 
economically disadvantaged residents. 

25.1. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #73: Opportunities for Unemployed 
and Economically Disadvantaged 

Background Analysis: The regional unemployment rate is less than the 
statewide average. However, several counties have high unemployment 
rates and unemployment is particularly high for minority youth, families 
receiving food stamps, recipients of Aid to Families with Dependent 
Children ( AFDC ) , persons with work disabilities, elderly, veterans, and 
dislocated workers. The regional unemployment rate (total number of 
unemployed persons/total number of persons in the labor force) for 
minority youth is approximately 28.1 percent. The unemployment rate for 
handicapped persons (with a work disability) is 9.7 percent. The rate 
for families receiving Aid to Families with Dependent Children is 
approximately 91.0 percent. The rate for food stamp recipients is_ 
approximately 67.0 percent.^ Other disadvantaged groups include the 
elderly, veterans, and dislocated workers, though information on the 
unemployment rate for these groups is not available. 

The design of public employment and training systems should be based on 
the type and number of recipients of public assistance. The provision of 
child day care is a pr e-requisite for unemployed single mothers to take 
advantage of employment and training programs. In 1985, 4,475 families 
and 12,624 persons in the region received direct AFDC assistance. In 
Fiscal Year 1984-85, 12,567 households and 50,365 individuals received 
food stamps.'' Program recipients are often low- or semi-skilled and, 
therefore, are in the most difficult position to obtain employment. 
Educational and employment training programs targeting these groups would 
offer a means for some of these households to increase earnings and free 
themselves from government dependence. Expansion of employment 
opportunities at all skill levels, with emphasis placed upon upgrading 
educational and vocational training, is necessary. 

There is a clear and striking relationship between family instability and 
poverty.^ Continued failure to provide decent job opportunities for 
everyone results in a large, intractable, and costly dependent 
population. The costs are not merely the cost of public assistance 
payments, but the incalculable, indirect costs of lost productivity, 
crime, public discontent and private misery.'' 

Reducing familial aependency on government assistance is accomplished 
when the head of household is able to work full-time at a living wage. 
The provision of this opportunity should be the overriding goal of 
regional employment training policies and programs. The only 
able-bodied adults on welfare are those on the AFDC rolls. Since less 
than 5.0 percent of the families receiving AFDC include an able-bodied 
man, the only category of recipients with any potential for joining the 
work force are women with dependent children, the very persons AFDC was 
designed to assist in staying home. The father is absent in these 
families mainly through divorce, separation, desertion, or never having 

III-25-1 



been married to the mother. Providing job opportunities to these women 
would break the cycle of poverty, instability, and feminization of 
poverty. 

According to the Special Tasli Force to the Secretary of Health, 
Education, and Welfare, the majority of women now on AFDC would prefer to 
work and support their families. Adequate child care facilities and a 
decent job at a living wage are necessary for these women. HRS licensed 
day care is provided in the region. However, evidence indicates there is 
a need for more day care.^ 

The eraployabi 1 i ty of the economically disadvantaged is adversely affected 
by health problems, physical handicaps, family situations requiring 
child-care services, lack of transportation, low education attainment 
levels, and low vocational/technical skill levels. 

Job training and support services for the unemployed and economically 
disadvantaged in the region are limited. Training is provided by the Job 
Training Partnership Act (Job Training Program) in the North Central 
Florida Service Delivery Area #5 and, to a lesser extent, by other 
government programs. 

Since 1970, the regional unemployment rate has been lower than the state 
average and the regional economy has been stable despite the recessions 
of the national economy. The recession of the early 1 970 ' s was reflected 
in the regional unemployment rate changing from 1.9 percent in 1970 to 
6.6 percent in 1975, a modest increase compared to other areas of the 
nation. By 1980, the regional unemployment rate was 5-2 percent, 
compared with 5-9 percent for the state and 7.0 percent for the nation. 
In 1984, regional unemployment equalled 4.9 percent, compared with 6.5 
percent for the state and 7.4 percent for the nation.^® 

While the regional unemployment rate is less than the state average, the 
rural counties have unemployment rates above statewide rates. This 
occurs because Alachua County represents the majority of the labor force 
in the region and has a low unemployment rate. North central Florida 
counties with the highest unemployment rates in August 1986, were 
Columbia at 9.0 percent, Madison at 8.1 percent, Hamilton at 6.9 percent 
and Taylor at 6.4 percent. ^^ 

The problem of unemployment in the region is worse for young workers. 
In 1980, unemployment rates were highest for the 16-19 and 
20-24 age groups. Males between the ages of 16-19 represented 10.3 
percent of total regional unemployment, while comprising only 6.0 percent 
of total regional population. Females in the age group 16-19 represented 
12.5 percent of total regional unemployment, but only 5-7 percent of 
total regional population. Males between the ages of 20-24 represented 
15.3 percent of total regional unemployment and 9-5 percent of total 
regional population. Females between the ages of 20-24 were 14.9 percent 
of total regional unemployment and 8.3 percent of total regional 
population. 



111-25-2 



Youth unemployment rates alsQ indicate that the problem is worse in some 
areas of the region. In 1980, the highest unemployment rates in the 
16-19 age group for males were Bradford County (10.4^), Dixie County 
(10.5^), and Hamilton County (11. 75^). Highest unemployment rates in the 
region in this age group for females were Lafayette County (11.45^), 
Suwannee County (8.9^), and Bradford County (8.9^). In the 20-24 age 
group, the highest unemployment rates for males were Taylor County 
(9.75t), Madison County (7.3^), and Hamilton County (6.2?t). Highest 
unemployment rates for this age group for females were Lafayette County 
(12.85t), Union County (I1.55f), and Gilchrist County (10.2^).''^ 

Special educational programs for disadvantaged groups improve 
opportunities for employment. The Alachua County Continuing Education 
for Pregnant Teens (ACCEPT) is a voluntary educational program to meet 
the needs of pregnant school-age women ( See Policy Cluster 1.2). 
Training and support services are also offered for the developmentally 
disabled and physically handicapped (See Regional Issues 2.4, 2.8, 6.1, 
6.9). 

Employment training enables the unemployed and economical Ij'' disadvantaged 
to improve their employabi 1 ity skills. Special programs in the region 
are designed to provide for special sectors of the disadvantaged 
population . 

The North Central Florida Regional Planning Council is both the grant 
recipient and administrative entity for the Job Training Partnership Act 
(JTPA) program. The JTPA provides a range of education and job training 
services for economically disadvantaged adults and youths including 
on-the- j ob-training, work experience, and institutional skills training. 
The JTPA also provides training and placement of older individuals and a 
summer youth employment and training program. Participants of the older 
individuals program must be at least 55 years old and economically 
disadvantaged. This program enables attainment of certificates of high 
school equivalency in addition to the activities offered by the job 
training programs. The Summer Youth Program offers youth aged 14 to 21 a 
chance to gain valuable work experience while exploring a variety of 
vocations . 

JTPA is a successful job placement program, but it does not meet all the 
job training needs of the region. A total of 641 individuals (424 adults 
and 217 youth) were served by the JTPA's two major programs during 
program year 1984-85. Overall, 498 participants completed the program 
with 590 (78.5^) entering unsubsidized employment. This compares to the 
placement of 254 of 328 (74. 45^) participants in 1984. The Older 
Individuals Program served a total of 13 persons, of which 5 gamed 
unsubsidized employment . ^ ^ 

JTPA offers job training to economically disadvantaged persons in the 
region. Of the persons participating in the JTPA program in 1985, 26.0 
percent were dropouts, 59.0 percent were female, 63.0 percent were 
between the ages of 22 and 55, 5.0 percent were handicapped, 6.0 percent 
were displaced homemakers, 8.0 percent were ex-offenders or parolees, 
12.0 percent were veterans, and 3.0 percent were unemployment 
compensation claimants. 

III-25-3 



The JTPA program coordinates with other agencies to provide employment 
training to the economically disadvantaged. Applicants to JTPA who 
require specialized support services are referred to the Florida 
Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services. In addition, the Job 
Training Program coordinates with many local agencies, organizations and 
programs in an effort to reach eligible individuals and to increase 
employment and training opportunities. 

Another job training program, the Jobs Corps Center in Gainesville, 
offers educational and vocational training to enrollees aged sixteen to 
twenty-two. The program seryes approximately one thousand students 
annually. Educational training allows the participants to obtain a GED. 
Vocational programs include business/clerical, business/retail, health 
occupations, electrical assembly, building and apartment maintenance, 
^-utomotive repair and automotive body work. The program also provides 
training in carpentry, printing and masonry through working agreements 
with the AFL-CIO. 

The Displaced Homemaker program at Santa Fe Community College (SFCC) in 
Gainesville provides employabi 1 i ty skills training to recently divorced, 
separated or widowed women, as well as to women with disabled spouses and 
women receiving public assistance. The program also includes instruction 
in personal growth and development. It provides for HRS licensed day 
care and transportation services. In FY 85-86, this program served 198 
clients and provided job counseling to 111 women. Of these, 73.0 percent 
continued in a job training program or became employed. -^ 

The Displaced Homemaker program at SFCC also serves the counties in HRS 
District III, which includes eight other counties in the North Central 
Florida Region. Using local resources in these counties, including Job 
Service and community colleges, the program holds 1-2 day seminars for 
displaced homemakers. Inadequate funding limits the program. 

Other job training programs specifically for women in the region are the 
JTPA Word Processing program, the Sex Equity program, and the Single 
Parents and Homemakers program at SFCC. 

General vocational and technical training is provided at Lake City 
Community College, Santa Fe Community College, North Florida Junior 
College, Bradford-Union Vo-Tech Adult Education Center, Live Oak-Suwannee 
County Vo-Tech Adult Education Center, and the Taylor County Vo-Tech 
Adult Education Center. 

Priority should be given to job training programs targeted to projected 
job openings in the region. Between 1982 and 1995, industry employment 
in the North Central Florida Region is expected to increase by 54,000, an 
increase of 31.0 percent, reaching a total of approximately 145,000 jobs. 
From 1982 to 1995, the occupational profile in the North Central Florida 
Region is expected to shift only slightly. All occupational groups will 
increase. However, Service occupations. Professional, Technical, and 
Kindred occupations, and Clerical workers are expected to increase the 
most rapidly. North central Florida is unique in that the Professional, 
Technical, and Kindred workers make up the largest occupational category 
in both 1982 and 1995 largely due to both the heavy influence of the 

III-25-4 



o 







( 



$ 



University of Florida and the increasing number of government jobs in 
Alachua County. Specific occupational categories expected to increase 
more rapidly than average include Medical Workers, Secretaries, Typists, 
General Clerks and Cashiers, Data Processing Machine Mechanics, Dental 
Lab Technicians, Photoengravers and Lithographers, Food Service Workers, 
Cleaning Service Workers, Protective Service Workers, Health Service 
Workers, and Personnel Service Workers. 

Because of the rural nature of the region, agricultural employment is of 
significance and can offer opportunities for the unemployed and 
economically disadvantaged. The most agricultural production and service 
wage and salary employees in 1985 (500-999 employees) worked in the Fruit 
and Tree Nut category, all of those being in Madison County. Closely 
following was Landscape and Horticultural Services with approximately 300 

1 7 

employees, most of those in ^lachua County. 

Offender training in the region is important due to numerous correctional 
facilities located in north central Florida. Until June 30, 1986, the 
Department of Corrections, in conjunction with the Department of Labor, 
trained offenders to prepare them for entering the Job Service Program to 
seek employment. However, the program has been terminated as less than 
50.0 percent of the offenders who completed the program reported to Job 
Service after release. Currently, the Department of Labor is contracted 
to provide "employabi 1 ity skills training" (interview preparation, resume 
writing, etc.) to inmates within 90 days of release at four correctional 
institutions. For the 1986 fall term, 1,636 students were enrolled in 
this program. 



Regional Facilities: Santa Fe Community College, Bradford-Union 
Vocational Technical Center, Lake City Community College, Taylor 
Vocational Technical Center, Job Service of Florida offices. North 
Florida Junior College, Live Oak-Suwannee County Vocational Technical 
Adult Education Center. 



Agencies: Executive Office of the Governor, Florida Department of 
Education, Department of Corrections, Department of Health and 
Rehabilitative Services, Department of Labor and Employment Security, Job 
Employment Service of Florida, Department of Community Affairs, Food 
Stamp Offices, Division of Blind Services, Local Veterans Employment 
Representatives, North Central Florida Regional Planning Council, local 
governments, county school boards. 



III-25-5 



25.2. Regional Issue/Cluster Title ^74: Assuring Access to the Job ^ 

Market 

Background Analysis: Assuring access to the job market requires that the 
regional labor force is trained in those work categories where 
opportunities will be available, that day care is available where needed, 
and that the transportation network provides adequate access for all 
willing workers, including disabled persons, to employment centers. 

On October 1, 1983, an innovative approach to employment and training 
programs began under the Job Training Partnership Act. A cooperative 
effort between the public and private sectors was born. Formerly, 
private business had only a limited role in establishing policy for 
government job training programs. The establishment of the North Central 
Florida Private Industry Council, made up of a majority of private sector 
employers, is the vehicle through which local job training policies are 
established. Other organizations represented on the Private Industry 
Council include educational agencies, rehabilitation organizations, 
organized labor, and public employment organizations. The Private. 
Industry Council's primary goal is to strike a balance between the needs 
of the labor market for skilled workers and the needs of the unemployed 
for jobs. The North Central Florida Regional Planning Council provides 
staff services to the Private Industry Council, serves as the 
administrator of the job training program and coordinates program 
activities . 

One method of assuring access to the job market is increasing students' r # 

knowledge of the labor market. Outreach and recruitment of the Job 

Training Program and Job Service throughout the region is one means that 

labor market information is dispersed. Job Training Program staff work 

closely with educational institutions to provide presentations on a wide 

range of topics. Radio announcements and newspaper articles are also 

used to provide labor market information to the public. 

From 1982 to 1995, the occupational profile in the North Central Florida 
Region is expected to shift only slightly. All occupational groups will 
increase; however, Service occupations. Professional, Technical, and 
Kindred occupations, and Clerical workers are expected to increase the 
most rapidly. This region is unique in that the Professional, Technical, 
and Kindred workers make up the largest occupational category in both 
1982 and 1995 largely due to both the heavy influence of the University 
of Florida and the increasing number of government jobs in Alachua 
County. Specific occupational categories expected to increase more 
rapidly than average include Medical Workers, Secretaries, Typists, 
General Clerks and Cashiers, Data Processing Machine Mechanics, Dental 
Lab Technicians, Photoengravers and Lithographers, Food Service Workers, 
Cleaning Service Workers, Protective Service Workers, Health Service 
Workers, and Personnel Service Workers. 



Offender training in the region is important due to the numerous 
correctional facilities located in north central Florida. Until June 30, 
1986, the Department of Corrections, in conjunction with the Department 
of Labor, trained offenders to prepare them for entering the Job Service 



III-25-6 



( 



Program to seek employment. However, the program has been terminated as 
less than 50.0 percent of the offenders who completed the program 
reported to Job Service after release. Currently, the Department of 
Labor is contracted to provide "employabi 1 i ty skills training" (interview 
preparation, resume writing, etc.) to inmates within 90 days of release 
at four correctional institutions. For the 1986 fall term, 1,636 
students were enrolled in this program. 

As noted in earlier, (see Regional Issues 1.2. and 25.1.), day care 
services are a crucial need in the region. Access to the job market for 
female heads-of -households is only possible where quality and affordable 
day care is offered. 

The private automobile is the primary transportation mode available to 

the north central Florida labor force. The region has 1,101 miles of 

rural roadways and 150 miles of urban roadways. Included in this is 177 

miles of interstate highways and 1,054 miles of state and county roads 

and highways. Between 1979 and 1982, $25.4 million dollars were spent on 

the construction, improvement, and maintenance of roads throughout. the 

region. By the year 2000, there is an expected need of an additional 

1 Q 
expenditure of $240 million dollars for county and city roads alone- ' 

Assuring access to the job market requires that roads are properly 

maintained in order to keep the transportation network functioning. 

In June, 1982, the Gainesville Urbanized Area Metropolitan Transportation 
Planning Organization adopted an overall modal split goal for the 
Gainesville Urbanized Area (GUA) of 5.0 percent of all transportation 
trips on the highway network be by public transit system by the year 
2005. In 1982, the modal split for the GUA showed an average weekday 
transit ridership of 6,200 and an estimated 949,400 person trips per day 
(A person trip is defined as 'a one-way trip made for any purpose by any 
means of travel by one person). In 1984, the average ridership dropped 
to 5,600 with the estimated person trips increasing to 998,400. This 
represents a 9.7 percent decline in ridership while person trips 
increased by 5.2 percent. This suggests that use of the mass transit 
system is being replaced by some alternative mode of transit or that the 
system is not meeting route needs as development occurs. 

In addition to the Regional Transit System that operates in the 
Gainesville Urbanized Area there are two other transit systems which 
operate in the region, the Suwannee Valley Transit Authority and the Big 
Bend Transit Authority. Overall, 6 of the region's 11 counties have 
limited public transit services in operation. 

Transportation services for the disabled are provided by the 
Gainesville/Alachua County Regional Transit System (GACRTS) which 
operates a demand-responsive door-to-door minibus service in addition to 
its fixed route, fixed schedule main bus service. As of 1978, ten 
1 1 -passenger vans, including one equipped for wheelchair users, are 
dispatched throughout Alachua County. Whereas the service area of the 
main bus system is only 43.5 square miles, the minibuses pick up 
riders anywhere in the county, and transport them to their intended 



III-25-7 



destinations. Each minibus operates on a basic fixed-route to service 

op 

regular passengers, with deviations to pick-up additional ones. 

Regional Facilities: North Central Florida Private Industry Council, Job 
Service of Florida offices, Gainesville Urbanized Area Metropolitan 
Transportation Planning Organization, Gainesvi 1 le/Alachua County Regional 
Transit System, Suwannee Valley Transit Authority, Big Bend Transit 
Authority, and designated providers of county transportation 
disadvantaged services. 



Agencies: North Central Florida Private Industry Council, North Central 
Florida Regional Planning Council, Florida Department of Health and 
Rehabilitative Services, Gainesville Urbanized Area Metropolitan 
Transportation Planning Organization, Gainesvi 1 le/Alachua County Regional 
Transit System (GACRTS), Suwannee Valley Transit Authority, Big Bend 
Transit Authority. 



Endnotes: 

1. North Central Florida Regional Planning Council, North Central 

Florida Service Delivery Area Employment and Training Plan for July 
1 . 1 986 to June 30. 1 988 . (Gainesville, Florida: March, 1986), p. 
19. 



Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Aid 
to Families with Dependent Children, Data furnished by Mr. 
Beville, Tallahassee, Florida, November, 1986. 



5. , Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Food Stamp 
Issuance Section, telephone communications with Ms. Marlene Manke 
(Gainesville) and Mr. Jim Payne (Tallahassee), November, 1985. 



Special Task Force to the Secretary of Health, Education, and 
Welfare, Work in America , (Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 
1975), p. 180. 



Ibid . , p. 185 



Ibid. . p. 184 







( 



7. Ibid . , p. 177 



8. Ibid. . p. 178. 



III-25-8 



In September 1986, DHRS District III listed 143 AFDC families 
waiting for day care and 1467 total families (AFDC, subsidized, 
protective services, and WIN) waiting for day care. District III 
includes all counties in the North Central Florida Region except 
Madison and Taylor, as well as Levy, Marion, Lake, Sumter, Citrus 
and Hernando Counties. 

Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Data 
Management Systems, telephone conversation with Barbara Ropicki , 
October 15, 1986. 



10. North Central Florida Regional Planning Council, Population and 
Economic Study . (Gainesville, FL . : July, 1976). 

Florida Department of Labor and Employment Security, Bureau of Labor 
Market Information, Labor Market Summaries Annual Averages 
1980-1985. Months Jan. 1986-Aug. 1986. 

University of Florida, Bureau of Economic and Business Research, 
Florida Statistical Abstract 1983 . (Gainesville, FL . : The University 
Presses, 1983), pp. 195-197. 

University of Florida, Bureau of Economic and Business Research, 
Florida Statistical Abstract 1985 . (Gainesville, FL . : The University 
Presses, 1985), pp. 152-154. 



11. Florida Department of Labor and Employment Security, Bureau of Labor 
Market Information, Labor Market Summaries Annual Averages 1980- 
1985, Months Jan. 1986- Aug. 1986. 



12. U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. General Social 
and Economic Characteristics. Florida. 1980 . (Washington, D.C.: 
United States Government Printing Office, 1980), Table 176. 



13. North Central Florida Regional Planning Council, North Central 

Florida Service Delivery Area Training Activities by Occupation for 
the Period July 1. 1984- June 30. 1985 . (Gainesville, Florida: 
August 1985), p. 10. 



14. Agencies, organizations,* and programs in the region which coordinate 
with the JTPA program include: Alachua County Department of Social 
Services; American Legion; Area Agency on Aging; Association of 
Retarded Children; Community Action Agencies; Community Development 
Block Grant Program; Disability Awareness Now, Inc.; Disacivantaged 
Transportation Organizations; Displaced Homemakers; Exceptional 
Industries; Florida Department of Commerce; Florida Department of 
Corrections; Green Thumb; Local School Systems; Older Americans 
Council; Regional Coordinating Council; Senior Community Service 
Employment Program; Unemployment Insurance Offices; United States 

III-25-9 



Small Business Administration; Urban Development Action Grant 
Program; Veterans Administration; Veterans of Foreign Wars; 
Vocational Education-Community Colleges; and, Vocational Education- 
School Boards. 

North Central Florida Regional Planning Council, North Central 
Florida Service Delivery Area Employment and Training Plan for 
July 1. 1986 to June 30. 1988 . (Gainesville, Florida: March, 
1986) , p. 1 0. 



15. Telephone conversation with Nancy Griffeth, Director of Displaced 
Homemaker Program at Santa Fe Community College, October 9, 1986. 



16. State of Florida, Department of Labor and Employment Security, 
Division of Labor, Employment and Training, Florida Employment 
Prelections North Central Florida Regional Planning Council 
1982-1 995 . (Tallahassee, Florida: October, 1985), pp. 7-9- 



17. Ibid. , p. 240 



18. State of Florida, Department of Labor and Employment Security, 

Division of Labor, Employment and Training, Florida Employment ' 

Projections North Central Florida Regional Planning Council 
1 982-1 995 . (Tallahassee, Florida: October, 1985), pp. 7-9. 



19. University of Florida, Bureau of Economic and Business 

Research, Economic Leaflet . Volume 43, Number 3, March 1984 

University of Florida, Bureau of Economic and Business 
Research, Economic Leaflets . Volume 43, Number 7, July 1984 



20. Modal split is defined as "the distribution of trips made for 
any purpose among various means of travel (automobile, bus, 
bicycle, pedestrian, etc...). 



21. Florida Department of Transportation and the Gainesville 

Metropolitan Transportation Planning Organization, Gainesvi lie 
Urbanized Area Transportation Study (GUATS) Year 2005 Plan , 
(Gainesville, Florida: August, 1982). 



22. North Central Florida Regional Planning Council , Elderly and 

Handicapped Transit Planning . (Gainesville, Florida: July, 1978) 



III-25-10 



9> 



STATE GOAL 26: PLAN IMPLEMENTATION 

Systematic planning capabilities shall be integrated into all levels of 
government in Florida with particular emphasis on improving 
intergovernmental coordination and maximizing citizen involvement. 

26.1 Regional Issue/Cluster Title #75: Intergovernmental Coordination 
and Cooperation 

Background Analysis: State, regional and local intergovernmental 
coordination and communication is central to the comprehensive regional 
planning process. The extent to which local, regional and state agency 
plans are comprehensive depends on the availability of information and 
cooperation from each of the sources. 

In the process of preparing the plan and identifying regional issues, 
the Council seeks the cooperation and assistance of local governments and 
state agencies. Intergovernmental coordination and cooperation between 
local governments, and between local governments and the Council ensures 
the development of a comprehensive regional policy plan and local plans 
that address regional conditions, problems and issues. Finally, the 
Executive Office of the Governor reviews the regional comprehensive plan 
and state agency plans for consistency with the state comprehensive plan 
to ensure that these plans implement and accurately reflect state goals 
and policies. 

The Council coordinates federal, state and local government activities, 
ensures a broad-based regional perspective in its activities, and 
enhances the ability and opportunity of local governments to resolve 
issues and problems which transcend individual boundaries. By assisting 
local governments with planning issues beyond local scope, regional 
planning encourages continual cooperation among communities within an 
area to establish environmentally and economically sound plans for future 
needs and growth. Regional planning also encourages cooperation among 
communities that may benefit from coordinating and making available 
technical expertise or social programs. 

Local governments review the comprehensive regional policy plan and 
provide feedback which is also an important aspect of intergovernmental 
coordination and cooperation. The draft of the regional comprehensive 
plan is circulated to all local governments in the region, which have a 
reasonable amount of time for review and presentation of comments. Local 
governments are encouraged to identify any potential conflicts with 
adopted local comprehensive plans, land development regulations, and 
capixal improvement programs and to recommend changes to the regional 
plan that would resolve identified conflicts. Local governments also 
receive notice of all workshops and meetings scheduled to receive public 
comment on the proposed plan. Water management districts with 
jurisdiction in the region also receive a draft of the plan for review 
and comment. Inter-regional coordination is achieved by providing copies 
of the draft plan to adjourning regional planning councils for their 
review and comment. 

III-26-1 



r» 



To develop coordination of and communication between federal, state, 
regional and local governments, the Council also circulates drafts of 
individual policy clusters from the comprehensive regional plan to other 
public agencies. The review and presentation of comments by public 
agencies operating within the region that may be affected by the plan or 
have some information or expertise useful to the development of the plan 
is an important contribution to the planning process. 

State agencies are required to submit to the Office of the Governor a 
functional plan that identifies specific agency programs which support 
and further the goals and policies of the state comprehensive plan. 
State agency liaisons appointed to the Council's planning committee 
provide a valuable link between the state and regional planning agency. 
Cooperation between the Council and the network of state agencies is 
essential to provide access to information pertaining to state policies 
which guide agency program goals and objectives. In preparing background 
analyses, the Council uses data, annual reports and interviews from state 
agencies to build a case for the identification of regional issues and 
trends. The Council also coordinates research with the Department _of 
Community Affairs (DCA) in order to achieve uniformity and consistency in 
land use information and data collection efforts. DCA also makes 
available a data base for local and regional planning purposes. 

The Council reviews state agency functional plans to ensure that they are 

consistent with the goals and policies of the state and regional 

comprehensive plans. Each state agency functional plan identifies 

infrastructure and capital improvement needs associated with the agency ( ' 

programs. Furthermore, each agency functional plan identifies the 

financial resources necessary to implement the provisions of the plan, 

and identifies the specific legislative authority necessary to implement 

the elements of the proposed functional plan. 

The regional planning process is a continuous and ongoing process. The 
Council will prepare an evaluation on the comprehensive regional policy 
plan at least once every three years, assess the successes or failures of 
the plan and prepare amendments, revisions or updates to the plan. 

Agencies: Local governments. North Central Florida Regional Planning 
Council, Florida Department of Community Affairs, Water Management 
District, Executive Office of the Governor and all agencies. 



( 



III-26-2 



IV 
REGIONAL GOALS, POLICIES AND STANDARDS ELEMENT 



INTRODUCTION 

This third major element of the North Central Florida Comprehensive 
Regional Policy Plan develops regional goals, policies and standards 
which should be followed in addressing the regional 

issues/problems/opportunities discussed in the regional issues section of 
the plan. This element includes Appendices A and B which provide 
information regarding the area affected by the hurricane surge and the 
Suwcmnee River conservation areas, respectively. 

Similar to the regional issues section, the following is divided into 26 
major subsections which are headed by a restatement of the state plan 
goals. Following this are statements of regional goals which address' the 
previously identified regional issues, policies which are designed to 
implement the regional goals and, where possible and appropriate, 
performance stajidards which give greater definition to the policies. 
Also included in this section are measure statements which are designed 
for use in subsequent evaluations of the effectiveness of the policies. 
Each regional plan is to be evaluated and, if appropriate, updated every 
three years. 

As discussed in more detail in the Implementation Strategy, the following 
regional goals, policies and standards will be used as the basis for 
commenting on local government comprehensive plans, state agency 
functional plans, developments of regional impact, and other issues 
brought before the Council for review. It should be noted, however, that 
the intent of the State and Regional Planning Act of 1984 is that the 
plan be a plaji for the region and not just a plan for the Council. 
Therefore, implementation of the regional policy plan is the 
responsibility of all agencies, public and private, which are located or 
operate within the region. 

For purposes of this plan ajid consistent with Chapter 186, F.S., and 
Chapter 27E-4, FAC , the following terms are defined as follows: 

"Goal" is defined as the long-term end toward which programs and ac- 
tivities are ultimately directed. 

"Measure" is defined as a statement which is designed to show the 
effectiveness of a regional policy as the latter is implemented over 
time. Measures will be used to assist the Council in assessing the 
successes or failures of this plan in preparing the three-year evaluation 
reports required by Chapter 186.511(1), F.S. 



t 



IV-1 



"Policy" is defined as the ways in which programs and activities are 

conducted to achieve identified goals or a principle on which a measure | > 

or course of action is based. 

"Regional Issue" is defined as a problem, opportunity, or action of 
greater than local concern or scope or that transcends individual local 
government boundaries. Consistent with Chapter 27E-4, FAC, this plan 
utilizes the Policy Clusters enumerated in a publication entitled "Policy 
Clusters", dated September 18, 1985, revised July 1, 1987, prepared by 
the Executive Office of Governor, as a minimum statement of regional 
issues . 

"Significant Regional Resource" is defined: 

(1) A resource or facility whose area, extent or service delivery 
area lies within two or more local government jurisdictions. 

(2) A resource or facility whose uniqueness, function, benefit or 
importance identifies it as being of greater than local concern. 

(3) A resource or facility defined to be of greater than local 
concern or importance by state or federal legislative or administra- 
tive action. 

(4) A resource or facility whose proper and efficient management 
involves the participation or involvement of two or more governmen- 
tal entities. t 

(5) Facilities or resources identified as being of regional or 
state significance in an adopted state agency functional plan or 
state rule, or in this plan or other rule adopted by the Council. 

"Standard" is defined as a statement which includes a measurable value 
which gives effect and adds definition to a regional policy. 

To assist the user of this document, the following provides a list of 
agency acronyms used throughout this and other sections of the plan. 



IV-2 



AGENCY ACRONYMS 



) 



AAA - Area Agency on Aging 

ACE - Army Corps of Engineers 

CIT - Department of Citrus 

COM - Department of Commerce 

CSB - County school boards 

CTS - Coordinated Transportation Services 

DACS - Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services 

DBF - Department of Banking and Finance 

DBR - Department of Business Regulation 

DCA - Department of Community Affairs 

DER - Department of Environmental Regulation 

DCS - Department of General Services 

DLA - Department of Legal Affairs 

DLES - Department of Labor and Employment Security 

DMA - Department of Military Affairs 

DNR - Department of Natural Resources 

DOA - Department of Administration 

DOC - Department *of Corrections 

DOE - Department of Education 

DOI - Department of Interior 

DOR - Department of Revenue 

DOS - Department of State 

DOT - Department of Transportation 

DPR - Department of Professional Regulation 

EOG - Executive Office of the Governor 

EPA - Environmental Protection Authority 

FDLE - Florida Department of Law Enforcement 

FHA - Federal Housing Authority 

FmHA - Farmer's Development and Housing Authority 

GFVFC - Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission 

HHS - Department of Health and Human Services 

HHS - Department of Health and Human Services 

HPC - Health Planning Council 

HRS - Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services 

HSMV - Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles 

HUD - Department of Housing and Urban Development 

IFAS - Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences 

LEG - Legislature 

LGV - Local governments 

LHA - Local Housing Authority 

MTPO - Metropolitan Transportation Planning Organization 

PPC - Parole and Probation Commission 

PSC - Public Service Commission 

RPC - Regional Planning Council 

SCS - Soil Conservation Service 

SEC - Florida Solar Energy Center 

UF - University of Florida 

USFVS - Department of United States Fish and Wildlife Service 

WMD - Water management districts 



IV-3 



> 



STATE GOAL 1 : EDUCATION 

The creation of an educational environment which is intended to provide 
adequate ekille and knowledge for students to develop their full poten- 
tial, embrace the highest ideas and accomplishments, make a positive 
contribution to society, and promote the advancement of knowledge on 
human dignity. 

Note: The goals and policies section of the regional plan is to be 
construed as a whole. Please review Children, Families, The Elderly, 
Health, and Employment for additional applicable regional goals and 
pol icies . 



1.1. Regional Issue/Cluster Title H\: Improving Student Performance 

REGIONAL GOAL 1.1.1. Attain SSAT statewide averages in every county in 
the region (State Plan Policies 1.2, 1.5). _ 

Measure: A change in the difference between county, region and 
state SSAT scores or equivalent measure in grades 6, 8, and 12. 

Policy 1.1.1.1. The social, economic, academic and regional 
characteristics of students who achieve low, average and high SSAT 
scores should be documented to be used as a tool to design appropriate 
education prograjns (DOE). 

Policy 1.1.1.2. Plans should be developed to improve student performance 
(CSB). 



REGIONAL GOAL 1.1.2. Attain statewide average expenditures per FTE 
student in every county (State Plan Policies 1.6, 1.16, 1.18). 

Measure: A change in FTE expenditures and the difference between 
state and county average FTE expenditures. 

Policy 1.1.2.1. The reason for the disparity between average state and 
region FTE funding should be addressed (LEG). 

Policy 1.1.2.2. Disparities between average county, region and state FTE 
funding should be eliminated (LEG). 



REGIONAL GOAL 1.1.3. Attain statewide comparability in teacher's 
salaries in every county in the region (State Plan Policy 1.5). 

Measure: A change in the difference between county, region and 
statewide average teacher's salaries. 

Policy 1.1.3.1. The disparity between average teacher's salaries at 
region and state levels should be eliminated (LEG). 



IV-1-1 



REGIONAL GOAL 1.1.4. Maintain adequate physical academic and athletic 
school facilities in every county in the region (State Plan Policy 
1.15.). 

Measure: A change in student-teacher ratios for secondary, middle, 
and elementary schools. 

Policy 1.1.4.1. Ensure that provisions are made for school facilities in 
conjunction with residential development ( CSB , LGV). 

Policy 1.1.4.2. Improve the quality of libraries in public schools, 
communities, colleges and universities (DOE). 



REGIONAL GOAL 1.1.5. Improve educational opportunities for children in 
grades kindergarten through 12 (State Plan Policies 1.6, 1.16). 

Measure: A qualitative and quantitative change in student 
performance. 

Policy 1.1.5.1. Provide alternative teaching methods so that low- and 
under-achiever s will experience academic success (DOE, CSB). 

Policy 1.1.5.2. Expand early learning experiences to enhance student 
achievement (DOE, CSB). 

Policy 1.1.5.3. Provide access to a comprehensive curriculum for all 
students. (DOE, CSB). 

Policy 1.1.5.4. Increase the use of technology to increase literacy and 
mathematical skills (DOE, CSB). 

Policy 1.1.5.5. Provide adequate instructional materials, equipment and 
facilities to meet the needs of all students (DOE, CSB). 

Policy 1.1.5.6. Develop procedures for identifying students with special 
learning needs (DOE). 

Policy 1.1.5.7. Provide appropriate alternative education opportunities 
(DOE, CSB). 

Policy 1.1.5.8 Provide the optimum amount of learning-time necessary to 
improve student performance (DOE, CSB). 

Policy 1.1.5.9. Ensure standards of excellence for teacher education and 
certification (DOE, CSB). 

Policy 1.1.5.10. Provide a management support system which will ensure 
excellence in the performance of school principals and other educational 
managers (DOE, CSB). 



O 



IV-1 -2 



> 



REGIONAL GOAL 1.1.6. Improve educational opportunities at the post - 
secondary level. (State Plan Policy 1.17). 

Measure: A change in the annual enrollment of north central Florida 
post-secondary institutions. 

Policy 1.1.6.1. Provide admission standards for state universities that 
recognize the rigorous academic preparation necessary to meet the 
challenges of university course work (DOE). 

Policy 1.1.6.2. Ensure that universities provide a core curriculum in 
the liberal arts that applies to all lower-division students (DOE). 

Policy 1.1.6.5. Expand the participation of private partnerships in 
recruiting additional nationally recognized faculty such as eminent 
scholars (DOE). 

Policy 1.1.6.4. Establish and maintain components of national prominence 
in the university system (DOE). 

Policy 1.1.6.5. Ensure that the university system provides reasonable 
geographic access consistent with other policies (DOE). 



REGIONAL GOAL 1.1.7. Improve vocational education opportunities (State 
Plan Policy 1.18). 

Measure: A change in the annual enrollment of north central Florida 
secondary and post-secondary vocational education institutions. 

Policy 1.1.7.1. Provide a uniform and coordinated system of secondary 
and post-secondary vocational education (DOE). 



1.2. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #2: Improve Student Retention and 
Completion and the Attainment of High School Diplomas and Post-Secondary 
Degrees and Certificates 

REGIONAL GOAL 1.2.1. Establish dropout prevention programs in every 
county in the region (State Plan Policies 1.7, 1.9, 1.11, 1.16). 

Measure: A change in the percentage of total dropouts. 

Policy 1.2.1.1 The rate of births to teenagers should be acknowledged as 
a major socioeconomic problem and comprehensive educational efforts to 
should be made to address the problem (DOE, CSB). 

Policy 1.2.1.2. Life management classes should be expanded in 
educational curricula (DOE, CSB). 

Policy 1.2.1.5. Provide appropriate education programs and pathways for 
handicapped students, exceptional students, and students having learning 
disabilities and other special learning needs (DOE, CSB). 



IV-1-5 



Policy 1.2.1.4. Provide education programs to allow for the continued 
education of pregnant students (DOE, CSB). 

Policy 1.2.1.5. Provide day care services for the children of middle and 
high school age students (DOE, HRS). 

SEE ALSO EDUCATION Policy 1.1.1.1. 



REGIONAL GOAL 1.2.2. Assure continuing education programs for pregnant 
school age females in the region (State Plan Policies 1.7, 1.9, 1.11, 
1.16). 

Measure: A change in the percentage of female middle and high 
school dropouts. 

Policy 1.2.2.1. Day care services for the children of middle and high 
school students should be made available (DOE, CSB). 



REGIONAL GOAL 1.2.3. Provide a sufficient number of guidance counselors 
at the elementary, middle and high school levels (State Plan Policies 
1.7, 1.9, 1.11, 1.16). 

Measure: A change in the guidance counselor to student ratio. 

Policy 1.2.5.1. Every effort should be made to acquire a sufficient 
number of guidance counselors in each school (CSB). 



REGIONAL GOAL 1.2.4. Attain the statewide rate of recent high school 
graduate enrollment in post-secondary institutions by the year 2000 
(State Plan Policies 1.7, 1.9, 1.11, 1.16). 

Measure: Change in the percentage of high school graduates who 
enroll in post-secondary institutions within one year after 
graduation . 



REGIONAL GOAL 1.2.5. Establish a continuing education system which will 
allow for the completion of post-secondary degrees for adults in the 
region who work full-time (State Plan Policies 1.7, 1.9, 1.17). 

Measure: A change in the percentage of total adults in the region 
who have post-secondary degrees. 



REGIONAL GOAL 1.2.6. Increase opportunities for continued learning for 
all age groups (State Plan Policies 1.7., 1.9.). 

Measure: A change in enrollment in community education programs. 

Policy 1.2.6.1. Increase articulation and information exchange ajnong all 
levels of public education (DOE, CSB). 

IV-1-4 



) 



) 



1.5. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #3: Educational Programs That 
Respond to the Needs of Society 

REGIONAL GOAL 1.3.1. Provide and maintain a sufficient number of 
community education prograjns that respond to the needs of society (State 
Policies 1.8. 1.10. 1.12, 1.13, 1.16). 

Measure: A change in enrollment in community education programs. 

Policy 1 .3-1 .1 • An evaluation program to measure the effectiveness of 
community education programs should be designed and implemented (CSB). 

Policy 1.3.1.2. Programs should be implemented to increase literacy 
ajnong the region's adult population (CSB). 

Policy 1.3.1.3. Environmental education should be increased in formal 
and community education programs (DOE). 



REGIONAL GOAL 1.3.2. Provide educational programs that respond to the 
needs of society (State Plan Policies 1.8.. 1.10., 1.12.. 1.13., 1.14., 
1.16., 1.17.). 

Measure: A change in the rates of literacy and matheraatic 
competency among students in public education. 

Policy 1.3.2.1. Increase rates of literacy and mathematic competency 
among students in public education (DOE, CSB). 

Policy 1.3.2.2. Community and educational facilities should be used to 
house ^lternative education programs (DACS, DOE). 

Policy 1.3.2.3. Programs should be developed to meet the educational 
needs of elderly persons (DOE). 

Policy 1.3.2.4. Develop linkages between businesses, communities and 
institutions of higher education to solve economic and community problems 
(DOE). 

Policy 1.3.2.5. Strengthen citizen involvement at all levels in public 
education (DOE, CSB). 

Policy 1.3.2.6. Encourage students to obtain post-secondary degrees in 
the State of Florida (DOE, CSB). 

Policy 1-3.2.7. Pursue funds for research to be conducted in the state 
(DOE). 



IV-1_5 



REGIONAL GOAL 1.5.3. Provide vocational education opportunities that %^ 

respond to the needs of society (State Plan Policy 1.18). " 

Measure: Change in the percentage of vocational education graduates 
who find employment within their field of study within one year 
after graduation. 

Policy 1.5.3.1. Vocational education programs should offer a job 
placement service (DOE). 

Policy 1.3.5.2. Ensure that vocational programs utilize up-to-date 
computers and appropriate instruction (DOE, CSB). 

Policy 1.5.5.5. Vocational education programs should prepare students to 
meet the demands of Florida's changing technological and occupational 
needs (DOE, CSB). 

Policy 1.5.5.4. Vocational education programs should be designed to 
address the needs of local business and industry (DOE, CSB). 



IV-1-6 



) 



STATE GOAL 2: CHILDREN 

Florida should provide programs sufficient to protect the health, safety 
and welfare of all its children. 

Note: The goals and policies section of the regional plan is to be 
construed as a whole. Please review Education, Families, Health, and 
Public Safety for additional applicable regional goals and policies. 



2.1, Regional Issue/Cluster Title #4: Prevention of Chronic Health and 
Social Problems and Reduction of Long-Term Disability and Dependency 

REGIONAL GOAL 2.1.1. Reduce the rate of infant mortality by 10.0 percent 
by the year 2000 (State Plan Policies 2.1, 2.5, 2.4, 2.5, 2.7, 2.8, 

2.2e). 

Measure: A change in infant mortality rates. 

Policy 2.1.1.1. Public education campaigns which address the problem of 
low birth weight infants and infant mortality should be implemented 
(HRS). 

Policy 2.1.1.2. The number of indigent women who receive early prenatal 
care through the HRS Improved Pregnancy Outcome (IPO) project should be 
increased ( HRS) . 

Policy 2.1.1.5. Transportation services to pregnant women, infants and 
children in need of health care or medical services should be provided 
(HRS). 

Policy 2.1.1.4. The number of indigent women and infants who receive 
care from the Regional Perinatal Intensive Care Program should be 
increased (HRS) . 

Policy 2.1.1.5. Public awareness of the Regional Perinatal Intensive 
Care Program should be increased (HRS). 

Policy 2.1.1.6. The number of indigent women, infants and children who 
receive nutrition services from the HRS Women, Infants and Children (VIC) 
program should be increased (HRS). 



REGIONAL GOAL 2.1.2. Reduce the number of births to teenagers by 10.0 
percent (State Plan Policies 2.1, 2.5, 2.4, 2.5, 2.7, 2.8, 2.20). 

Measure: A change in the percentage of total births to teens. 

Policy 2.1.2.1. A public education campaign to address the problem of 
births to teenagers should be implemented (HRS). 

Policy 2.1.2.2. At least one school-based health clinic should be 
established in the region to provide both information and services that 
respond to the incidence of teenage pregnancy and other health problems 
(DOE, CSB). 

IV-2-1 



Policy 2.1.2.5. The ACCEPT program should be used as a model program to 
reduce the rate of repeat pregnancies among teenagers (DOE, CSB). 

SEE ALSO EDUCATION Policy 1.2.1.1. 



REGIONAL GOAL 2.1.5. Establish programs to allow for the continued 
education of pregnant students in every county in the region (State Plan 
Policies 2.1, 2.3, 2.4, 2.7, 2.8, 2.20). 

Measure: A change in the percentage of total female middle and high 
school dropouts. 

Policy 2.1.5.1. Make counseling available to pregnant teenagers in the 
schools which makes known the choice of staying in school or dropping out 
(DOE, CSB). 

Policy 2.1.5.2. Make available educational classrooms for pregnant 
teenagers in those counties where established alternative education 
classrooms are not appropriate learning environments for these women 
(DOE, CSB). 

Policy 2.1.5.5. School boards shall examine the rates of births to 
teenagers and consider establishing an educational program such as 
ACCEPT in their county (CSB). 

SEE ALSO EDUCATION Policy 1.2.2.1. 



REGIONAL GOAL 2 . 1 . 4- . Prevent chronic health and social problems and 
reduce long-term disability and dependency (State Plan Policies 2.1., 
2.5., 2.4., 2.6., 2.7., 2.8., 2.10., 2.12., 2.16., 2.20). 

Measure: A change in the number of low birthweight babies per 1,000 
births . 

Policy 2.1.4.1. Children's alcohol, drug abuse and mental health 
prevention programs should be established (HRS). 

Policy 2.1.4.2. Children's alcohol, drug abuse and mental health day 
treatment programs should be established (HRS). 

Policy 2.1.4.5. Provide training in normal child development and family 
relationship skills at all levels of public education (DOE). 

Policy 2.1.4.4. Sponsor seminars and clinics for parents on positive 
ways to handle stress related to child-rearing (HRS). 

Policy 2.1.4.5. The number of mental health and substance abuse 
prevention and education programs for children and families should be 
increased (HRS). 

Policy 2.1.4.6. Develop community support networks for parents and 
children at risk of abuse or substance abuse (HRS). 

IV-2-2 



t 



Policy 2.1.4.7. Intensive prevention programs for families at risk of 
child abuse or substance abuse should be increased (HRS). 

Policy 2.1.4.8. Private sector involvement in prevention programs 
through employee assistance programs should be encouraged (HRS). 

Policy 2.1.4.9. Mental health and substance abuse education and 
prevention programs should be offered in the schools (CSB). 

Policy 2.1.4.10. Emphasize prevention and nonresidential services which 
protect and keep children at home (HRS). 

Policy 2.1.4.11. The percentage of total infants screened for growth and 
development should be increased (HRS). 



2.2. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #5: Reducing the Occurrence of Abuse 
and Neglect 

REGIONAL GOAL 2.2.1. Reduce by 10.0 percent the rate of child abuse in 
the region by the year 1995 (State Plan Policies 2.11, 2.15, 2.19). 

Measure: A change in the percentage of total abuse and neglected 
chi Idr en . 

Policy 2.2.1.1. The number of emergency shelters for runaway, abused and 
neglected children in the region should be increased (HRS). 

Policy 2.2.1.2. Prevention and intensive outpatient services to abused 
and neglected children should be established (HRS). 

Policy 2.2.1.5. Child abuse programs should attend to the needs of 
persons in both family and non-family settings (HRS). 

SEE ALSO CHILDREN Policy 2.2.1.1. 



2.3. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #6: Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental 
Health Services 

REGIONAL GOAL 2.3.1. Provide a full range of children's mental health 
services by the year 2010 (State Plan Policies 2.9, 2.14). 

Measure: A change in funding by mental health service district. 

Policy 2.3.1.1. Outpatient mental health services for children should be 
expanded (HRS). 

Policy 2.3.1.2. A sufficient number of children's day treatment mental 
health programs should be established (HRS). 

Policy 2.3.1.5. A sufficient number of Intensive Crisis Intervention 
Counseling Programs should be established (HRS). 



IV-2-3 



Policy 2.3.1.4. A sufficient number of crisis stabilization and screen- 
ing units should be established (HRS). 

Policy 2.5.1.5. An adequate number of foster homes with appropriate 
support services should be provided (HRS). 

Policy 2.5.1.6. An adequate number of group homes should be provided 
(HRS) . 

Policy 2.5.1.7. An adequate number of residential psychiatric services 
should be established (HRS). 

Policy 2.5.1.8. A residential treatment program for juvenile sex 
offenders should be established (HRS). 

SEE ALSO CHILDREN Policies 2.1.4.5., 2.1.4.9. 



REGIONAL GOAL 2.5.2. Provide the full range of children's alcohol, and 
drug abuse services by the year 2010 (State Plan Policies 2.9). 

Measure: A change in the amount of per capita funding for juvenile 
alcohol and drug abuse programs. 

Policy 2.5.2.1. Children's alcohol and drug abuse education, outreach, 
prevention and intervention programs should be expanded (HRS). 

Policy 2.5.2.2. School-age children should be referred to the 
Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services alcohol and drug abuse 
education, outreach, prevention and intervention programs (HRS, CSB). 

Policy 2.5.2.5. Children's alcohol and drug abuse aftercare programs 
should be expanded (HRS). 

Policy 2.5.2.4. Children's alcohol and drug outpatient counseling 
programs should be expanded (HRS). 

Policy 2.5.2.5. Children's alcohol and drug abuse day treatment 
programs should be expanded (HRS). 

Policy 2.5.2.6. Children's alcohol and drug abuse residential treatment 
programs should be expanded (HRS). 

Policy 2.5.2.7. A children's drug detoxification and alcohol 
sobering-up facility should be established (HRS). 

Policy 2.5.2.8. Children's alcohol and drug abuse case management 
system should be expanded (HRS). 

Policy 2.5.2.9. The children's alcohol and drug abuse case management 
system should be implemented in the schools (HRS, CSB). 

Policy 2.5.2.10. Laws pertaining to the sales of alcoholic beverages 
should be strictly enforced (FDLE). 

IV-2-4 



> 



2.4. Regional Issue/Cluster Title ffl : Developmentally Disabled and 
Physically Handicapped 

REGIONAL GOAL 2.4.1. Expand comprehensive children's training and 
support services for developmentally disabled and physically handicapped 
children and adolescents by the year 2000 (State Plan Policy 2.21). 

Measure: A change in the amount of per capita funding for training 
and support services for developmentally disabled and/or handicapped 
chi Idr en . 

Policy 2.4.1.1. Information on the research and development of 
comprehensive training and support services for developmentally disabled 
and physically handicapped children and adolescents at a county and 
regional level should be provided to county school boards, DOE and HRS 
(HRS). 

Policy 2.4.1.2. Comprehensive training and support services for 
developmentally disabled and physically handicapped children and 
adolescents should be established (HRS). 



REGIONAL GOAL 2.4.2. Increase the number of indigent handicapped 
children who receive Children's Medical Services (State Plan Policy 
2.21 ). 

Measure: A change in the number of indigent handicapped children 
who participate in Children's Medical Services programs. 

Policy 2.4.2.1. Children's Medical Services financial eligibility 
requirements should be updated (HRS). 



2.5. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #8: Maintaining and Strengthening the 
Family Unit 

REGIONAL GOAL 2.5.1. Reduce by 10.0 percent the rate of child abuse in 
the region by the year 1995 (State Plan Policies 2.22). 

Measure: A change in the percentage of total abused and neglected 
chi Idren . 

Policy 2.5.1.1. Outpatient services to abused and neglected children 
should be increased (HRS). 

SEE ALSO CHILDREN Policies 2.2.1.2. 



REGIONAL GOAL 2.5.2. Develop programs which maintain and strengthen the 
family unit (State Plan Policies 2.22., 2.25., 2.26.). 

Measure: Change in per capita funding for Department of Health and 
Rehabilitative Services Children, Youth and Families programs. 



IV-2-5 



^/ 



Policy 2.5.2.1. Ensure that children's and adolescent protection 
programs are supportive of the family (HRS). 

Policy 2.5-2.2. Develop and implement an evaluation program for 
children, youth and family programs (HRS). 

SEE ALSO CHILDREN Policy 2.5.2.2. 



2.6. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #9: Community-based Health, Social 
and Rehabilitative Services 



REGIONAL GOAL 2.6.1. Provide community-based health, social and 
rehabilitative services (State Plan Policies 2.2., 2.15, 2.17., 2.24.) 

Measure: A change in per capita funding for community-based health, 
social, and rehabilitative services. 

Policy 2.6.1.1, Provide an adequate network of community-based mental 
health services so that no children are institutionalized in state 
facilities (HRS). 

Policy 2.6.1.2. Provide a sufficient number of crisis stabilization and 
screening units (HRS). 

Policy 2.6.1.3. Provide a comprehensive interagency case management (^ 

system to ensure the proper placement of children in need of services 

(HRS). 

Policy 2.6.1.4. Ensure the safety of children and the quality of all 
services to children (HRS). 



2.7. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #10: Reducing the Occurrence of 
Juvenile Delinquency 

REGIONAL GOAL 2.7.1. Reduce the occurrence of juvenile delinquency by 
10.0 percent by the year 1995 (State Plan Policy 2.18). 

Measure: A change in the juvenile crime rate. 

Policy 2.7.1.1. Develop a community-oriented juvenile justice system 
which meets the individual needs of referred and committed youth 
offenders (HRS). 

Policy 2.7.1.2. The juvenile justice system should manage juveniles with 
as little restriction as possible while still holding them accountable 
for their actions (HRS). 



C 



IV-2-6 



) 



2.8. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #11: Access to Health Care 

REGIONAL GOAL 2.8.1. Establish comprehensive training, support, and 
rehabilitative services for physically handicapped children (State Plan 
Policy 2.23). 

Measure: A change in per capita funding for training, support, and 
rehabilitative services for physically handicapped children. 

Policy 2.8.1.1. The range of services provided by the Developmental 
Services Program should be expanded (HRS). 

Policy 2.8.1.2. The financial eligibility requirements for the 
Children's Medical Services progrsun should be updated (HRS). 



IV-2-7 



i 



(i 



STATE GOAL 5: FAMILIES 

Florida shall strengthen the family and promote its economic 
independence . 

Note: The goals and policies section of the regional plan is to be 

construed as a whole. Please review Education, Children, Health, The 

Elderly, and The Economy for additional applicable regional goals and 
policies . 



5.1. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #12: Maintaining and Strengthening 
the Family Unit 

REGIONAL GOAL 5.1.1. Reduce by 10.0 percent the rate of child abuse in 
the region by the year 1995 (State Plan Policies 5.2, 5.6, 5.10, 5.11). 

Measure: A change in the percentage of total abused and neglected 
chi Idr en . _ 

Policy 5.1.1.1. Intensive outpatient services to abused and neglected 
children should be increased (HRS). 

Policy 5.1.1.2. Implementation of the Child Abuse and Neglect 
Prevention Program should be increased (HRS). 

Policy 5-1.1.5. Alcohol, drug abuse and mental health services to 
adults should be increased (HRS). 

SEE ALSO CHILDREN Policies 2.2.1.1. 



REGIONAL GOAL 5.1-2. Increase by 10.0 percent the number of child 
support payments paid by non-custodial parents by the year 1995. (State 
Plan Policy 5.8). 

Measure: A change in the percentage of total child support payments 
which are collected by social service agencies or paid voluntarily 
to agencies or families. 

Policy 5.1.2.1. The efficiency with which child support payments are 
collected should be increased (HRS). 

Policy 5.1.2-2. An educational media campaign should be established to 
make known the social impact of neglect to pay child support (HRS). 



REGIONAL GOAL 5-1-5- Provide a sufficient number of family mediation 
centers (State Plan Policy 5.2, 5.6). 

Measure: A change in the number of family mediation centers by 
county. 



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Policy 3.1-3.1. The need for the provision of family mediation centers ,. 
should be documented, tested through pilot programs, and made available ^^ 
based on need (HRS). 



REGIONAL GOAL 3.1.4. Provide a full range of children's mental health 
and substance abuse services for children and families (State Plan 
Policies 3.2, 3.11). 

Measure: A change in per capita funding for children's mental 
health and substance abuse services for children and families. 

Measure: A Change in the percentage of total programs in each 
mental health service district. 

Policy 3.1.4.1. Mental health and substance abuse education and 
prevention programs should be offered by adult community education (HRS, 
DOE). 

Policy 3.1.4.2. Primary intervention programs for children at high- 
risk for developing emotional and behavior problems should be increased 
(HRS). 

Policy 3.1.4.3. Intensive outpatient counseling services for abused and 
neglected children should be increased (HRS). 

Policy 3.1.4.4. Children's alcohol, drug abuse and mental health day 
treatment programs should be established (HRS). 

Policy 3.1.4.5. An adequate number of children's residential alcohol, 
drug abuse and psychiatric services should be established (HRS). 

Policy 3.1.4.6. Intensive Crisis Intervention Counseling Prograjns for 
children should be established (HRS). 

SEE ALSO CHILDREN Policies 2.1.4.5., 2.1.4.9., 2.3.1.1., 2.3.1.4., 
2. 3. 1.5., 2. 3. 1.6., 2. 3. 1.8., 2.3.2.2., 2.3.2.5., 2.3.2.7.. 2.3.2.8., 
2.3.2.9. 



REGIONAL GOAL 3.1.5. Maintain and strengthen the family unit (State Plan 
Policies 3.1., 3.2., 3.5.. 3.10., 3.11.). 

Measure: A change in the number of single-parent families. 

Policy 3.1.5.1. Eliminate state policies which cause family separations 
(HRS) . 

Policy 3.1.5.2. Promote concepts to stabilize the family unit to 

strengthen bonds between parents and children (HRS, DOE). 



Policy 3.1.5.3. Increase parental involvement in kindergarten to grade 
12 education programs (DOE, CSB). 



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Policy 5.1.5.5. Provide financial, mental health and other support for 
victims of family violence (HRS). 



5.2. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #15: Maximum Self-Suf f iciency , 
Self-Support and Personal Independence 

REGIONAL GOAL 5.2.1. Increase job training assistance by 10.0 percent 
for eligible families (State Plan Policy 3.9). 

Measure: Change in the percentage of JTPA participants who find 
employment in their area of training within one year after program 
completion . 

Policy 5.2.1.1. Employment and training services programs should be 
provided in every county (RFC, HRS). 

Policy 5.2.1.2. The Work Incentive Demonstration Program should be 
established in every county with sufficient AFDC caseload to make such 
programs cost effective (HRS). 

Policy 5.2.1.5. The number of JTPA participants in each county should be 
increased (RPC). 

Policy 5.2.1.4. A Job Service Program Office should be established in 
every county in the region (RPC). 

REGIONAL GOAL 5.2.2. Displaced homemaker programs should be made 
available throughout the region by the year 1990 (State Plan Policy 3.7). 

Measure: Change in the number of counties with displaced homemaker 
program . 

Policy 5.2.2.1. The need for displaced homemaker programs in rural 
counties should be assessed and a sufficient number should be provided 
based on need (DOE, HRS). 



REGIONAL GOAL 5-2.5- Promote home care services for the sick and 
disabled. (State Plan Policy 3.3). 

Measure: A change in annual percentage of sick and disabled persons 
provided with home health services. 

Policy 5.2.5.1. Home health services for the sick and disabled should be 
increased ( HRS) . 



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STATE GOAL 4: THE ELDERLY 

Florida shall Improve the quality of life for its elderly citizens by 
promoting improved provision of services, with an emphasis on 
independence and self-sufficiency. 

Note: The goals and policies section of the regional plan is to be 
construed as a whole. Please review Education, Families, Health, and 
Housing for additional applicable regional goals and policies. 



4.1. Regional Issue/Cluster Title f/^A: Reducing the Occurrence of 
Abuse and Neglect 

REGIONAL GOAL 4.1.1. Reduce the occurrence of elderly abuse and neglect 
10.0 percent (State Plan Policy 4.3). 

Measure: A change in the rate of elderly abuse and neglect in the 
region. 

Policy 4.1.1.1. Training for clients and provider agencies should be 
provided to ensure identification and appropriate referral of complaints 
to law enforcement or HRS protective service units (HRS, AAA). 

Policy 4.1.1.2. Public education programs on the identification and 
reporting of elderly abuse should be implemented (HRS, AAA). 

Policy 4.1.1.3. Elderly persons should participate in social service 
referral and outreach programs for the abused (HRS, AAA). 

Policy 4.1.1.4. Strengthen the care-giving capacity of family members 
and other support providers in order to prevent neglect, exploitation and 
abuse of elderly persons (HRS, AAA). 

SEE ALSO HOUSING Policy 5.1.1.4. 



4.2. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #15: Achieving Maximum 
Self-Suf f iciency , Self-Support and Personal Independence 

REGIONAL GOAL 4.2.1. Increase the efficiency of coordinated 
transportation services for the elderly (State Plan Policies 4.1, 4.9, 
4.10,4.11). 

Measure: A change in the percentage of total elderly in need 
provided with transportation services. 

Policy 4.2.1.1. The high cost of liability insurance premiums to elderly 
transportation providers should be reduced (INS, DOT, CTS). 

Policy 4.2.1.2. Transportation services through Title III-B and 
Community Care for the Elderly programs should be expanded (AAA). 



IV-4-1 



Policy 4.2.1.3. A uniform cost accounting system to standardize service 
costs and make possible comparability among designated providers should 
be implemented (CTS). 

Policy 4.2.1.4. A prograjn of development grants or interest-free loans 
should be initiated for rural providers who experience difficulty in 
obtaining the "upfront" funds necessary to launch a new system (DOT, 
CTS). 

Policy 4.2.1.5. Sustained technical assistance should be provided to 
rural transportation providers through a transportation management team 
(CTS, DOT). 



REGIONAL GOAL 4.2.2. Increase the physician-to-person ratio in every 
rural county of the region to 1:2,500 or 1:3,000 by 1996 (State Plan 
Policy 4.1). 

Measure: Change in the physician-to-person ratio by county in the 
region. 

Policy 4.2.2.1. Primary care physicians should be recruited into the 
rural counties of the region (HHS). 

Policy 4.2.2.2. The physician-to-person ratio should be monitored and 
data made available to the Council and other appropriate agencies (RPC) 



REGIONAL GOAL 4.2.3. Achieve maximum self-sufficiency, self-support and 
personal independence among the elderly (State Plan Policies 4.1., 4.9., 
4.11.). 

Measure: A change in the percentage of elderly persons who live 
self-sufficiently. 

Policy 4.2.3.1. Increase the percentage of elderly persons who live 
self-sufficiently, with emphasis on those 75+ years of age (HRS, AAA). 

Policy 4.2.3.2. Increase the involvement of elderly in the day-to-day 
life of the community (COM, AAA). 

Policy 4.2.3.3. Improve employment opportunities for those elderly 
persons who are willing and able to work (COM, AAA, HRS). 

Policy 4.2.3.4. Increase the participation of the elderly in education 
and social service programs serving children (HRS, DOE, AAA, CSB). 

SEE ALSO HOUSING Policy 5.1.1.4. 



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4.5. Regional Issue/Cluster Title M^6•. Community-Based Health, Social, 
and Rehabilitative Services 

REGIONAL GOAL 4.3.1. Increase the number of elderly in need served by 
community-based programs 10.0 percent by the year 1995 (State Plan 
Policies 4.2., 4.4., 4.15.). 

Measure: Annual change in the percentage of total elderly in need 
served by Home Care for the Elderly. 

Policy 4.5.1.1. The Home Care for the Elderly program should be expanded 
(HRS, LEG). 

Policy 4.5.1.2. The Community Care for the Elderly program should be 
expanded (AAA, LEG). 

Policy 4.5.1.5. The Older Americans Act Title III-B, Title III C-1 and 
Title C-2 programs should be expanded (AAA, LEG). 

Policy 4.5.1.4. Ensure the adequacy of health and social services 
through nondupl icative licensure and certification activities in order to 
provide for systematic regulatory oversight (HRS). 



4.4. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #17: Coordination of Access to 
Health Care 

REGIONAL GOAL 4.4.1. Develop a case management system which will provide 
the elderly with comprehensive, coordinated access to health care by the 
year 1996 (State Plan Policies 4.5., 4.6., 4.12.). 

Measure: Implementation of an elderly case management system by the 
Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services. 

Policy 4.4.1.1. Indigent elderly in rural and urban areas should be 
identified (AAA). 

Policy 4.4.1.2. Elderly in need of transportation services who live in 
urban and rural areas should be identified (AAA, CTS). 

Policy 4.4.1.3. Elderly who require specialized transportation services 
should be identified (AAA, CTS). 

Policy 4.4.1.4. Provide services and target resources to those elderly 
persons with the greatest needs (KRS, AAA, CTS). 



REGIONAL GOAL 4.4.2. Increase the efficiency of coordinated 
transportation services for the elderly (State Plan Policies 4.5., 
4.6., 4.12.). 

Measure: A change in the percentage of total elderly in need who 
receive transportation services. 



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Policy 4.4.2.1. Transportation services for the elderly should be 
increased at a reasonable cost to the provider ( CTS ) . 

Policy 4.4.2.2. The prohibitive costs of the transportation providers 
liability insurance should be reduced (INS). 

Policy 4.4.2.5. Volunteers should be recruited to expand transportation 
services to weekends and to cover special medical trips (DOE, CTS). 

SEE ALSO THE ELDERLY Policies 4.2.1.5., 4.2.1.4., 4.2.1.5. 



4.5. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #18: A Comprehensive Health Care 
Service Delivery System 

REGIONAL GOAL 4.5.1. Design and establish a range of comprehensive 
health care services for the elderly by the year 2000 (State Plan 
Policies 4.7, 4.8). 

Measure: The establishment of affordable comprehensive health care 
services for the elderly. 

Policy 4.5.1.1. Comprehensive health care services for the elderly 
should be affordable (AAA, HRS). 

Policy 4.5.1.2. Ensure the rights of elderly patients to the extent 

feasible, to determine the course of their own medical treatment (AAA, W 

HRS) . 



REGIONAL GOAL 4.5.2. Increase geriatric health care education programs 
in college curricula (State Plan Policies 4.7, 4.8). 

Measure: A change in the number of gerontology-related courses in 
the curriculums of institutions of higher education within the 
region. 

Policy 4.5.2.1. Geriatric health care education programs in the medical 
curriculum should be promoted at the University of Florida and community 
colleges (UF, community colleges). 

Policy 4.5.2.2. Fellowship training in geriatrics for physicians should 
be increased at the University of Florida (UF). 

Policy 4.5.2.5. Graduate programs in gerontological nursing should be 
increased at the University of Florida (UF). 



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STATE GOAL 5: HOUSING 

The public ajid private sectors shall increase the af fordability and 
availability of housing for low-income and moderate income persons, 
including citizens in rural areas, while at the same time encouraging 
self-sufficiency of the individual and assuring environmental and 
structural quality and cost-effective operations. 

Note: The goals and policies section of the regional plan is to be 
construed as a whole. Please review Public Safety, Coastal and Marine 
Resources, and Land Use for additional applicable regional goals and 
policies . 



5.1. Regional Issue/Policy Cluster #19: Availability and Af f or dabi lity 
of Housing 

REGIONAL GOAL 5.1.1. Establish a sufficient supply of housing of diverse 
types and densities within designated urban areas to accommodate the full 
range of life stages and economic capabilities of all residents of the 
region (State Plan Policies 5.2 and 5-5). 

Measure: The number of local government comprehensive plans which 
have adequately addressed this issue by 1991. 

Policy 5.1.1.1. An equal opportunity to purchase or rent decent, safe, 
and clean housing free from discriminatory practices based on race, sex, 
religion, age, or familial status shall be provided to all residents of 
the region (DCA, DLA , HRS). 

Policy 5.1.1.2. A variety of housing types and a range of densities 
should be provided within designated urban areas (DCA, LGV). 

Policy 5.1.1.5. Regulations should be adopted or refined for compatible 
inclusion of manufactured housing and mobile homes (DCA, LGV). 

Policy 5.1.1.4. An adequate supply of appropriate and affordable housing 
should be provided within designated urban areas to support the special 
needs of elderly persons, seasonal farmworkers, persons dependent upon 
residential care in group or foster homes and other minority groups (HUD, 
FHA, FmHA, LHA , DCA, RPC, LGV). 

Policy 5.1.1.5. Sheltered homes and similar institutions should be 
allowed to be established within residential neighborhoods (DCA, HRS, 
Kr ^ , jj»j V y . 

Policy 5.1.1.6. Model ordinances shall be developed which enhance the 
quality of mobile homes and manufactured housing by regulating such items 
as lot size, paving of drives, landscaping, and permanent foundations 
(DCA, RPC, LGV). 

Policy 5.1.1.7. Government subsidized housing should not be provided 
outside designated urban development areas (DCA, RPC, LGV). 



IV-5-1 



Policy 5.1.1.8. Land use ordinances and building codes should be adopted 
which enhance the quality of mobile homes and manufactured housing by 
regulating such items as lot size, paving of drives, landscaping, and 
permanent foundations ( DCA , LGV ) . 

Policy 5.1.1.9. Encourage cost-effective land planning techniques 
including cluster development. Planned Unit Development (PUD), zero lot 
line housing and attached housing (LGV, DCA). 



REGIONAL GOAL 5.1.2. Protect both the public and private investment in 
the existing housing stock by preventing premature deterioration and 
demolition of residential units and neighborhoods (State Plan Policies 
5.1 , 5.5). 

Measure: The number of local government comprehensive plans which 
have adequately addressed this issue by 1991. 

Policy 5.1.2.1. The development of housing counseling services shall be 
encouraged to aid families in finding affordable housing, educate persons 
in home maintenance, and assist homeowners in maintaining their homes 
(DCA, HRS, LGV). 

Policy 5.1.2.2. Minimum housing codes should be adopted and enforced 
(DCA, HRS, LGV). 

Policy 5.1.2.3. Each jurisdiction should establish a rehabilitation 
program to preserve its housing stock (DCA, LGV). 

Policy 5.1.2.4. The residential character of existing residential 
neighborhoods located within designated urban areas should be maintained 
and upgraded (DCA, RPC, LGV). 

Policy 5.1.2.5. The creation of additional residential units within 
existing buildings should be carefully regulated (DCA, LGV). 

Policy 5.1.2.6. Special exemptions to building codes should be 
considered for historic properties listed on local, state or national 
registers (LGV, LHA , DOS). 



REGIONAL GOAL 5.1.5. Provide an adequate supply of affordable, safe, and 
sanitary housing for low and moderate income households within the region 
(State Plan Policies 5.5, 5.4). 

Measure: Change in the number of public-subsidized housing units by 
county. 

Policy 5.1.5.1. A fair share of needed low and moderate income housing 
should be provided in each designated urban area (DCA, DLA , RPC, LGV). 

Policy 5.1.5.2. Large scale private developments may be required through 
the DRI process to provide a fair share of its residential units as low 
and moderate income housing (DCA, RPC, LGV). 

IV-5-2 



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Policy 5.1.5.3. Housing developments which include low and/or moderate 
income housing units shall provide an appropriate mixture of unit types, 
based on the number of bedrooms per unit, to provide for the housing 
needs of larger low-and moderate-income families (DCA, RPC, LGV). 

Policy 5.1.3.4. The cost of housing construction should be reduced by 
eliminating unnecessary regulatory practices which add to the cost of 
housing (DCA, LGV). 

Policy 5.1.3.5. Special requirements for small lot developments such as 
buffers at the perimeter of projects and special attention to design 
details shall be encouraged (LGV, DCA). 

Policy 5.1.3.6. Problems such as inadequate parking, lack of open space, 
and lack of privacy associated with small lot subdivisions should be 
addressed by providing common open space, alleys which allow parking at 
the rear of lots, and landscaping, fences and walls (LGV, DCA, RPC). 

Policy 5.1.3.7. State, regional and local plans should develop policies 
to address the problem of affordable housing (EGG, RPC, LGV, FHA , FmHA, 
DCA, LHA). 

Policy 5.1.3.8. Alternative methods of financing low and moderate 
income potential homeowners' down payments should be researched (LGV, 
RPC, DCA, FHA, FmHA, LHA). 

Policy 5.1.3.9. Crime prevention design strategies such as locking 
hardware and site plans should be a part of low income housing (LGV, RPC, 
DCA, LHA, FHA, FmHA). 

Policy 5.1.3.10. Partnerships should be developed between the public and 
private sectors to address the problem of affordable housing (LGV, RPC, 
DCA, LHA, FHA, FmHA). 

Policy 5.1.3.11. Reliable housing data should be developed for the 
region . 

Policy 5.1.3.12. Low income housing should not be precluded from being 
located in residential neighborhoods within urban areas (LGV, DCA, FHA, 
FmHA). 

Policy 5.1.3.13. Public awareness pertaining to the availability of low 
income housing should be increased (LHA, DCA, FHA, FmHA). 

Policy 5 . 1 . 3 . 1 4 . The tax code should be amended to provide a tax 
deductible mortgage savings system for down payment on owner-occupied 
housing (U.S. Congress). 

Policy 5.1.3.15. A percent of rent from low income persons who live in 
federally subsidized housing should be invested in an escrow account as a 
savings mechanism for the down payment on a house (HUD, FHA, FmHA, LHA, 
U.S. Congress). 

SEE ALSO PUBLIC SAFETY Policy 7.2.4.9. 

IV-5-3 



REGIONAL GOAL 5.1.4. Establish increased private sector participation in 
the provision of low and moderate income housing units (State Plan Policy 
5.3). 

Measure: Change in the number of privately-financed low and 
moderate income housing units. 

Policy 5.1.4.1. In large residential developments, a certain 
percentage of housing units should be reserved for low and moderate 
income households (DCA, RPC, LGV ) . 

Policy 5.1.4.2. Private builders should be provided with incentives such 
as real estate tax abatements, deferral or elimination of building 
permit fees, density relaxation, and one-step permitting/review 
processing in order to construct housing units for low and moderate 
income groups (DCA, RPC, LGV). 

SEE ALSO HOUSING Policy 5.1.5.12. 



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STATE GOAL 6: HEALTH 

Florida shall cultivate good health for all its citizens, promote 
individual responsibility for good health, assure access to affordable, 
quality health care and reduce health care costs as a percentage of the 
total financial health care costs as a percentage of the total finajicial 
resources available to the state and its citizens. 

Note: The goals and policies section of the regional plan is to be 
construed as a whole. Please review Education, Children, Families, The 
Elderly, and Hazardous and Nonhazardous Materials and Waste for 
additional applicable regional goals and policies. 



6.1. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #20: Prevention of Chronic Health and 
Social Problems and the Reduction of Long-Term Disability and Dependency 

REGIONAL GOAL 6.1.1. Provide comprehensive public health screening 
services in each county by the year 1990 (State Plan Policies 6.3, 6.9, 
6.10, 6.11, 6.12). 

Measure: A change in the percentage of the region's population 
screened at public health clinics by county 

Policy 6.1.1.1. Public health clinics should screen persons of all ages 
routinely for chronic health conditions for persons of all ages (HRS). 

Policy 6.1.1.2. Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment 
services should be increased (HRS). 

Policy 6.1.1.3- The screening of children in the public schools for 
hearing, vision, growth and development should be increased (HRS). 



REGIONAL GOAL 6.1.2. Provide comprehensive public health education and 
illness prevention services (State Plan Policies 6.3, 6.9, 6.10, 6.11, 
6.12). 

Measure: The number of health prevention education and illness 
prevention programs by public health and school-based clinics by 
county. 

Policy 6.1.2.1. Public health and school-based clinics should routinely 
teach health maintenance, self -monitor ing and behavior modification 
techniques (HRS, DOE). 

Policy 6.1.2.2. Education and media campaigns aimed to promote illness 
prevention behaviors in the public sector should be implemented (HRS). 



IV-6-1 



REGIONAL GOAL 6.1.3. Establish comprehensive training and support 
services for developmental ly disabled and physically handicapped children 
and adolescents by the year 2000 (State Plan Policies 6.3, 6.9, 6.10, 
6.11, 6.12). 

Measure: A change in the amount of state funding for training and 
support services for developmental ly disabled and physically 
handicapped children and adolescents. 

Policy 6.1.3.1. The Children's Medical Services financial eligibility 
requirements should be updated (HRS). 

Policy 6.1.3.2. Information on the research and development of 
comprehensive children's training and support services for 
developmentally disabled and physically handicapped children and 
adolescents at county and regional levels should be provided to 
appropriate agencies (HRS). 

SEE ALSO CHILDREN Policies 2.4.1.2., 2.8.1.1. 



REGIONAL GOAL 6.1.4. Provide children's alcohol and drug abuse 
education, prevention, intervention and treatment services in every 
county (State Plan Policies 6.3, 6.9, 6.10, 6.11, 6.12). 

Measure: A change in the amount of state program funding for 
children in need of alcohol and drug abuse services. 

Policy 6.1.4.1. Program funding for children's alcohol and drug abuse 
education, prevention and intervention programs shall be increased (HRS, 
DOE). 

Policy 6.1.4.2. The number of children's alcohol and drug abuse 
education, prevention and intervention programs shall be increased 
(HRS). 

Policy 6.1.4.3. Children in the schools should be aware of the 
Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services alcohol and drug abuse 
education, prevention, intervention and treatment programs (DOE, CSB). 

SEE ALSO CHILDREN Policies 2.3.2.4., 2.3.2.5. 



REGIONAL GOAL 6.1.5- Provide children's mental health education, 
prevention, intervention and treatment services in every county (State 
Plan Policies 6.3, 6.9, 6.10, 6.11. 6.12). 

Measure: A change in the amount of state program funding for 
children's mental health education, prevention, intervention and 
treatment services. 

Policy 6.1.5.1. Program funding for children's mental health education, 
prevention and intervention services shall be increased (HRS). 



IV-6-2 



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Policy 6.1.5.2. The number of children's mental health education, 
prevention and intervention programs should be increased (HRS). 

Policy 6.1.5.5. Children in the schools should be aware of the 
Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services mental health education, 
prevention, intervention and treatment programs (DOE, CSB). 

Policy 6.1.5.4. Children's mental health outpatient services should be 
expanded (HRS). 

Policy 6.1.5.5. A sufficient number of children's intensive crisis 
intervention counseling programs should be established (HRS). 

Policy 6.1.5.6. A sufficient number of children's crisis stabilization 
and screening units should be established (HRS). 

Policy 6.1.5.7. Design and implement a system which involves parents in 
children's mental health education, prevention and intervention services 
(HRS, DOE). 

SEE ALSO CHILDREN Policy 2.5.1.2. 



REGIONAL GOAL 6.1.6. Prevent chronic health and social problems and 
long-term disability and dependency in the adult population (State Plan 
Policies 6.5, 6.11, 6.12). 

Measure: Change in the average annual number of cases per month 
receiving direct assistance from Aid to Families with Dependent 
Children, Old Age Assistance, Aid to the Blind, and Aid to the 
Disabled, by county. 

Policy 6.1.6.1. Provide on-campus exercise facilities and stress 
reduction classes at universities and colleges (DOE, DOS). 

Policy 6.1.6.2. Exercise facilities should be provided at the work place 
and employees should be given incentives to utilize them (COR, HRS). 

Policy 6.1.6.5. Provide incentives to discourage smoking and encourage 
personal weight maintenance (COR, HRS). 

Policy 6.1.6.4. Employers and public health clinics should have programs 
which identify persons who have or are at risk for chronic diseases (EOG, 
HRS). 

Policy 6.1.6.5. Make available behavior reinforcement clinics to assist 
individuals with holistic health schedules (HRS, EOG). 

Policy 6.1.6.6. Public health and private clinics should be available to 
screen for degenerative diseases (HRS). 



IV-6-5 



Policy 6.1.6.7. Discourage practices leading to "lifestyle illness" such ^ 
as high cholesterol levels, heart disease and smoking-related cancers 
through media campaigns and insurance incentives and disincentives (HRS, 
DOS). 

Policy 6.1.6.8. Implement comprehensive occupational health, safety and 
prevention programs to reduce occupational accidents (COR, HRS). 

Policy 6.1.6.9. Implement health education through the media, adult 
education and employment programs to teach individuals self -monitor ing 
for the prevention of health disorders (HRS, DOS). 

Policy 6.1.6.10. Provide primary health clinics for the elderly to 
receive comprehensive case management and immediate referral to acute 
care institutions when necessary (HRS). 

Policy 6.1.6.11. Ensure that all health care related policies and 
programs emphasize wellness, prevention of illness and injury, and 
rehabilitative care (COR, HRS). 

SEE ALSO EDUCATION Regional Goal 1.2.3., CHILDREN Regional Goal 2.1.1. 

6.2. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #21: Reducing the Occurrence of Abuse 
and Neglect 

REGIONAL GOAL 6.2.1. Reduce the occurrence of elderly abuse and neglect l^ 
(State Plan Policy 6.11). 

Measure: A change in the percentage of total abused and neglected 

elder ly . 

Policy 6.2.1.1. Clients and provider agencies should be provided with 
training to ensure identification and appropriate referral of complaints 
to law enforcement or HRS protective service units (AAA). 

Policy 6.2.1.2. Elderly participation in social service referral and 
outreach programs for the abused should be initiated (HRS, AAA). 

Policy 6.2.1.5. Initiate programs to reduce the incidence and severity 
of elderly abuse and neglect (HRS, DOS). 

SEE ALSO THE ELDERLY Policy 4.1.1.1. 



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6.5. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #22: Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental 
Health Services 

REGIONAL GOAL 6.3.1. The amount of federal, state and local funds 
allocated to community mental health centers should be increased by the 
year 1995 (State Plan Policies 6.10, 6.11). 

Measure: A change in the amount of funds allocated to community 
mental health centers. 

Policy 6.3.1.1. Funds allocated to community mental health centers 
should be increased (HRS). 

Policy 6,3.1.2. Newly appropriated equity dollars should continue to be 
allocated to each underfunded service district (HRS). 



REGIONAL GOAL 6.3.2. Increase case management services to alcohol and 
drug abusers, and chronically mentally ill clients (State Plan Policies 
6.10, 6.11). 

Measure: A change in state program funding for case management 
services to alcohol and drug abusers, and chronically mentally ill 
cl ients . 

Policy 6.3.2.1. Case management staff to serve substance abusing clients 
should be increased in the region (HRS). 

Policy 6.3.2.2. Case management staff to serve chronically mentally ill 
clients should be increased in the region (HRS). 



REGIONAL GOAL 6.3.3. Increase the number of treatment staff to provide 
adequate alcohol and drug abuse, and mental health services (State Plan 
Policies 6.10, 6.11). 

Measure: A change in the number of alcohol, drug abuse and mental 
health treatment staff in the region. 

Policy 6.3.3.1. Alcohol, drug abuse and mental health treatment staff 
should be increased in the region (HRS). 



REGIONAL GOAL 6.3.4. Increase alcohol, drug abuse and mental health 
services in the region by the year 1995 (State Plan Policies 6.10, 6.11). 

Measure: A change in state program funding for alcohol, drug abuse, 
and mental health services. 

Policy 6.3.4.1. Alcohol and drug abuse, and mental health outpatient 
counseling services should be increased (HRS). 

Policy 6.3.4.2. Alcohol and drug abuse, and mental health day treatment 
services should be increased (HRS). 

IV-6-5 



Policy 6.3.4.3. Crisis intervention services should be increased (HRS), 

Policy 6.3.4.4. Drug detoxification services should be increased (HRS), 

Policy 6.3.4.5. Alcohol and drug residential treatment services should 
be increased (HRS). 

Policy 6.3.4.6. Provide for intensive and noncoercive substance abuse 
identification and treatment programs by state government and private 
employers to their employees (DOS, HRS). 

Policy 6.3.4.7. Provide information of criminal penalties for driving 
while under the influence of alcohol (COR, DOE). 



REGIONAL GOAL 6.3-5. Increase and improve services to chronically 
mentally ill clients (State Plan Policies 6.10, 6.11). 

Measure: A change in state program funding for mental health 
services for individuals with chronic mental health problems. 

Policy 6.3.5-1. An Extended Care Group Home to serve chronically 
mentally ill clients should be provided (HRS). 

Policy 6.3.5.2. Community support for chronically mentally ill clients 
should be developed (HRS). 



REGIONAL GOAL 6.3-6. Develop a mental health prevention/outreach program 
for elderly in need of mental health services (State Plan Policies 6.10, 

6.11). 

Measure: A change in the ratio of gerontology specialists and 
geriatrics to elderly population in the region. 

Policy 6.3.6.1. The number of gerontology specialists should be 
increased (AAA, HRS). 



REGIONAL GOAL 6.3.7. Increase availability of transportation to clients 
of community mental health centers (State Plan Policies 6.10, 6.11). 

Measure: A change in the rate of utilization and number of 
transportation contracts. 

Policy 6.3-7-1- Technical assistance should be provided to improve the 
use of existing transportation contracts and to negotiate additional 
contracts (CTS, DOT). 



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6.4. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #25: Developmental ly Disabled and 
Physically Handicapped 

REGIONAL GOAL 6.4.1. Expand comprehensive training and support services 
for developmental ly disabled and physically handicapped children and 
adolescents by the year 2000 (State Plan Policies 6.9, 6.11). 

Measure: A change in the amount of program funding for 
developmental ly disabled and physically handicapped children and 
adolescents who receive training and support services. 

Policy 6.4.1.1. Expand existing vocational rehabilitation programs to 
provide restorative services to moderately handicapped individuals and 
develop other rehabilitative programs (HRS). 

SEE ALSO CHILDREN Policy 2.4.1.2. 



REGIONAL GOAL 6.4.2. Increase the number of needy and eligible 
handicapped children who receive Children's Medical Services (State Plan 
Policy 6.9). 

Measure: Change in the percentage of eligible handicapped children 
who receive services from Children's Medical Services. 

Policy 6.4.2.1. The Children's Medical Services financial eligibility 
requirements should be updated (HRS). 



6.5. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #24: Maintaining and Strengthening 
the Family Unit 

REGIONAL GOAL 6.5.1. Provide indigent families with nutritional meals 
(State Plan Policy 6.9). 

Measure: A change in the percentage of total eligible individuals 
and families who receive food stamps. 

Policy 6.5.1.1. Increase the number of indigent women, infants and 
children who receive VIC nutrition services (HRS). 

Policy 6.5.1.2. Access to food stajnps to the eligible population should 
be increased (HRS). 

Policy 6.5.1.3. Access to AFDC benefits to the eligible population 
should be increased (HRS). 

Policy 6.5.1.4. Provide all families unable to provide essential 
nutritional meals to children with means to do so by providing a range of 
services, including volunteer and charitable assistance through the 
private sector, assistance from the state and assistance in finding 
employment (HRS). 



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6.6. Regional Issue/Cluster Title /l'25: Self -Sufficiency , Self -Support , 
and Personal Independence 

REGIONAL GOAL 6.6.1. Increase the af f or dabi 1 i ty of prescribed drugs and 
other pharmaceuticals to persons in need of economic assistance (State 
Plan Policy 6.11), 

Measure: A change in the percentage of total Medicaid eligibles who 
receive prescribed drugs and pharmaceuticals at reduced rates. 

Policy 6.6.1.1. Medicaid outreach efforts into rural areas should be 
increased ( HRS ) . 



6.7. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #26: Community-Based Health, Social 
and Rehabilitative Services 

REGIONAL GOAL 6.7.1. Increase community-based health, social and 
rehabilitative services (State Plan Policies 6.4, 6.5, 6.6, 6.11). 

Measure: A change in state program funding for community-based 
health, social, and rehabilitative services. 

Policy 6.7.1.1. Community Support Centers for chronically mentally ill 
geriatric clients should be established (HRS). 

Policy 6.7.1.2. The number of shelters for victims of spouse abuse 
should be increased (HRS). 

Policy 6.7.1.5. Develop small regional facilities as a part of the range 
of community-based services available to clients (HRS). 

Policy 6.7.1.4. Make medical and health support services available to 
ensure the good health of the elderly in noninstitutional settings (HRS). 



REGIONAL GOAL 6.7.2. Increase the population of elderly served by 
community-based programs 10.0 percent by the year 1995 (State Plan 
Policies 6.4, 6.5, 6.6, 6.11). 

Measure: A change in the amount of program funding and the 
percentage of total seniors served by Home Care for the Elderly and 
Community Care for the Elderly programs. 

Policy 6.7.2.1. Geriatric Residential and Treatment System programs 
should be expanded (HRS). 

Policy 6.7.2.2. Consultation and Education/Outreach Services to the 
elderly should be established (HRS, AAA). 

Policy 6.7.2.5. Mental health services should be provided to residents 
of nursing homes (HRS). 

SEE ALSO THE ELDERLY Policy 4.5.1.1. 

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6.8. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #27: Reducing the Occurrence of 
Juvenile Delinquency 

REGIONAL GOAL 6.8.1. Reduce the occurrence of juvenile delinquency 10.0 
percent by the year 1995 (State Plan Policy 6.11). 

Measure: A change in the juvenile delinquency rates. 

Policy 6.8.1.1. Drug and alcohol abuse and mental health education and 
prevention programs should be increased in the schools (DOE, CSB). 

Policy 6.8.1.2. Community education should include parent training 
courses which address all phases of child development (DOE). 

Policy 6.8.1.3. Community education parent training courses should be 
evaluated by conducting five year follow-ups on the progress of families 
of participants (DOE). 

Policy 6.8.1.4. Parents should be provided with peer support groups 
(CSB). 

Policy 6.8.1.5. Provide information concerning criminal penalties for 
dealing in illegal drugs (FDLE, HRS, DOC, EOG, CSB). 



6.9. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #28: Access to Health Services 

REGIONAL GOAL 6.9-1. Establish an adequate primary care physician to 
population ratio in each county (State Plan Policies 6.2, 6.9, 6.11). 

Measure: A change in the number of physicians per 1,000 residents, 
by county. 

Policy 6.9.1.1. Financial support to the National Health Service Corps 
should be increased (HHS). 

Policy 6.9.1.2. Technical assistance for physician recruitment efforts 
should be provided to counties which are designated Health Shortage 
Manpower Areas (HPC). 

SEE ALSO THE ELDERLY Policy 4.2.2.1. 



REGIONAL GOAL 6.9.2. Establish an adequate dentist to population ratio 
(Staxe Plan Policies 6.2, 6.9, 6.11). 

Measure: A change in the number of dentists per 1,000 residents, by 
county . 

Policy 6.9.2.1. Dentists should be recruited into the rural counties of 
the region (HHS). 

Policy 6.9.2.2. Federal support to the National Health Service Corps 
should be increased (HHS). 

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Policy 6.9.2.5. Technical assistance should be provided to counties 
which are designated Dental Health Manpower Shortage Areas for the 
recruitment of dentists (HPC). 

REGIONAL GOAL 6.9.5. Reduce the number of medically underserved areas 
(MUAs) by the year 1995 (State Plan Policies 6.2, 6.9, 6.11). 

Measure: A change in the number of medically underserved counties 

Policy 6.9.5.1. Conditions which are criteria for the designation of 
area as a medically underserved area should be monitored (RPC, HPC). 

Policy 6.9.5.2. Technical assistance should be provided to MUA counties 
to obtain funds and establish Rural Health Initiative Clinics (HPC). 

Policy 6.9.5.5. Federal support of Rural Health Initiative clinics in 
medically underserved areas should be continued (HHS). 



REGIONAL GOAL 6.9.4. Increase the medically indigent populations 
accessibility of primary health care for low and moderate income persons 
(State Plan Policies 6.2, 6.9, 6.11). 

Measure: A change in the percentage of total medically indigent 
persons who receive primary health care services in each county. 

Policy 6.9.4.1. State primary care funding should be used to improve 
access to primary health services for the medically indigent (KRS). 

Policy 6.9.4.2. Efforts to expand primary care services to the medically 
indigent population should be increased (HHS). 

Policy 6.9.4.5. Medicaid reimbursement levels to physicians should be 
increased ( HRS) . 

Policy 6.9.4.4. Medicaid outreach programs targeted for the medically 
indigent population should be established (HRS). 

Policy 6.9.4.5. Primary care physicians should be encouraged to develop 
sliding fee scales for medically indigent persons (HRS). 

Policy 6.9.4.6. Primary care physicians should be encouraged to serve 
Medicaid patients as a percentage of their total clientele (HRS). 



6.10. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #29: Comprehensive Health Care 
Service Delivery System. 

REGIONAL GOAL 6.10.1. Increase comprehensive health care services for 
medically indigent persons (State Plan Policies 6.1, 6.9, 6.11). 

Measure: A change in the annual Comprehensive Health Care Service 
Index points, by county. 

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Policy 6.10.1.1. Access to health care services for medical indigents 
should be increased (HRS). 

Policy 6.10.1.2. Health care services to the medically indigent 
population should be increased (HRS). 

Policy 6.10.1.3. Medicaid physicians' reimbursement levels should be 
increased ( HRS ) . 

Policy 6.10.1.4. Medicaid outreach programs to the medically indigent 
population should be established (HRS). 

Policy 6.10.1.5. Primary care physicians should be encouraged to develop 
sliding fee scales for medically indigent persons (HRS). 

Policy 6.10.1.6. Primary care physicians should be encouraged to serve 
Medicaid patients as a percentage of their clientele (HRS). 

Policy 6.10.1.7. Medicaid reimbursement to physicians should be executed 
in a timely fashion with a minimum amount of paperwork (HRS). 

Policy 6.10.1.8. Technical assistance should be provided to medically 
underserved counties that need to apply for Rural Health Initiative 
grants (HPC). 

REGIONAL GOAL 6.10.2. Reduce the rate of infant mortality 10.0 percent 
by the year 2000 (State Plan Policies 6.1, 6.9, 6.11). 

Measure: Annual change in the infant mortality rate. 

Policy 6.10.2.1. The number of indigent women and infants who receive 
care from the Regional Perinatal Intensive Care Program should be 
increased (HRS). 

Policy 6.10,2.2. Increase the number of indigent women, infants and 
children who receive WIC nutrition services (HRS). 

SEE ALSO CHILDREN Policies 2.1.1.1., 2.1.1.2., 2.1.1.3. 



REGIONAL GOAL 6.10.3. Reduce the rate of low birth weight infants 10.0 
percent by the year 2000 (State Plan Policies (6.1, 6.9, 6.11) 

Measure: A change in the percentage of total low birth weight 
b ab i e s . 

REGIONAL GOAL 6.10.4. Increase the number of children screened for 
growth and life threatening conditions (State Plan Policies 6.1, 6.9, 
6.11). 

Measure: A change in the percentage of total children who receive 
school health screenings. 



IV-6-1 1 



Policy 6.10.4.1. The number of infants who receive health screening ^^ 

should be Increased (HRS). 

Policy 6.10.4.2. The number of indigent children v/ho benefit from Early 
and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment should be increased 
(HRS). 

Policy 6.10.4.5. The number of students who benefit from health 
screenings in the public schools should be increased (DOE, CSB). 

Policy 6.10.4.4. The number of children who receive immunizations should 
be increased (HRS). 

REGIONAL GOAL 6.10.5. Provide a comprehensive health care service 
delivery system (State Plan 6.11, 6.14, 6.25). 

Measure: A change in the annual Comprehensive Health Care Service 
Index points, by county. 

Policy 6.10.5.1. Provide for the establishment by the state and private 
sectors of uniform organ procurement procedures consistent with sound 
medical and ethical practice (HRS, HSMV ) . 

Policy 6.10.5.2. Expand efforts to identify and treat chronic, 

debilitating diseases which occur with particular frequency in the 

elderly (HRS). » f 

Policy 6.10.5.3. Provide intensive nutrition and diet education programs 
to the elderly (HRS). 

Policy 6.10.5.4. Provide incentives for private sector insurance 
coverage for extraordinary health care needs, especially long-term care 
(HRS). 

Policy 6.10.5.5. Establish a tax system that provides incentives for 
health and exercise activities (LEG). 

SEE ALSO CHILDREN Regional Goals 2.1.1., 2.1.2. 

6.11. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #50: Environmental Health Care 
Protection 

Measure: A change in the percentage of total pounds of properly 
managed and disposed hazardous waste. 

REGIONAL GOAL 6.11.1. Improve environmental health care protection 
(State Plan Policies 6.11, 6.19). 

Measure: Number of local government comprehensive plans that 
adequately address this issue. 



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Policy 6.11.1.1. Provide for stringent regulations and enforcement to 
prevent exposure of humans to environmental toxins, carcinogens, and 
radiation ( DER , HRS , DLES , DNR ) . 

Policy 6.11.1.2. Expand and improve current efforts to protect public 
health through clean air and water requirements (DCA, DER, HRS, DNR). 

SEE ALSO HAZARDOUS AND NONHAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND WASTE 



6.12. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #51: Health Education, Training and 
Research 

REGIONAL GOAL 6.12.1. Increase the population of elderly served by 
community-based health care prograjns 10.0 percent by the year 1995 (State 
Plan Policy 6.11, 6.23) . 

Measure: A change in the amount of program funding and an increase 
in the total percentage of seniors served by that program. 

SEE ALSO THE ELDERLY Policies 4.5.1.1., 4.5.1.2., 4.5.1.3. 



REGIONAL GOAL 6.12.2. Increase research designed to advance the 
prevention and treatment of diseases among the elderly (State Plan 
Policies 6.11, 6.22, 6.23). 

Measure: A change in the amount of the funding for research, 
prevention and treatment of diseases among the elderly. 

Policy 6.12.2.1. Funding should be obtained to expand the research, 
prevention and treatment of diseases among the elderly (HRS, DOE). 

Policy 6.12.2.2. Research, prevention and treatment programs for 
diseases among the elderly should be increased (DOE, HRS). 

Policy 6.12.2.5. The research of age-related health problems should be 
increased (DOE, HRS). 

Policy 6.12.2.4. Promote organizations and other arrangements which 
emphasize wellness, preventive and rehabilitative care, and encourage 
appropriate utilization of health care services to reduce illness and 
extend life (HRS, DOS). 



REGIONAL GOAL 6.12.3. Increase medical and nursing school curricula 
designed to educate gerontology specialists (State Plan Policies 6.11, 
6.22, 6.23). 

Measure: A change in the number of nursing students who graduate 
from the gerontology nursing program. 

Policy 6.12.3.1. Gerontology education programs for doctors and nurses 
should be expanded (UF, DOE). 

IV-6-13 



Policy 6.12.3.2. Gerontology programs for students, nurses and medical 
practitioners should be expanded (UF). 

Policy 6.12.5.3. Physicians for gerontology fellowship training should be 
recruited ( UF) . 

Policy 6.12.3.4. Information pertaining to geriatric diseases should be 
made available to the public (UF). 

Policy 6.12.3.5. Nursing graduate students for the gerontology nursing 
program should be recruited ( UF , DOE). 



6.13. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #32: Health Care Cost Containment 

REGIONAL GOAL 6.13-1. Increase the number of medical clients served by 
and types of medical services offered at reduced prices (State Plan 
Policies 6.16, 6.17). 

Measure: A change in the percentage of total medical indigents who 
receive medical services and prescriptions. 

Policy 6.13.1.1. The research and establishment of alternative systems 
of health care delivery which emphasize preventive health care and cost 
reduction should be encouraged (EOG, DLES ) . 

Policy 6.13.1.2. Competition in the health care market should be 
encouraged (EOG, HRS, DLES). 

Policy 6.13.1.3. Consumer knowledge of health care costs should be 
promoted (DOA, HRS). 

Policy 6.13.1.4. Comprehensive preventive maternal, prenatal and 
perinatal health care to the indigent population should be increased 
(LEG, HRS). 

Policy 6.13.1.5. Early preventive screening for diseases among children 
should be increased (HRS, CSB). 



REGIONAL GOAL 6.13.2. Health care cost containment procedures should be 
implemented (State Plan Policies 6.13, 6.15, 6.17, 6.18, 6.20, 6.24.). 

Measure: A change in the number of payment systems for public and 
private sector health care services in which costs are negotiated 
before services are delivered. 

Policy 6.13.2.1. Develop payment systems for public and private sector 
health care services in which costs are negotiated before services are 
delivered (DOA, HRS). 



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Policy 6.13.2.2. Resources should be targeted for preventive and 
rehabilitative programs and care at the earliest stages possible for 
population groups most at risk of needing care that would be more costly 
if delayed (COR, HRS). 

Policy 6.13.2.3- Assure that there is a reasonable relationship between 
costs to health providers of equipment, supplies, and services and the 
charges made to consumers (EOG, DLES). 

Policy 6.13.2.4. Avoid the unregulated shifting of costs for treatment 

of indigent patients to other patient groups and service categories (EOG, 

HRS). 

Policy 6.13.2.5. Encourage private sector participation in decisions 

affecting health care costs (EOG, DLES, COR, HRS). 

Policy 6.13.2.6. Development should be promoted of business health care 
coalitions that enable employers to take an active role in controlling 
health care costs (EOG, DLES). 



6.14. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #33: Maximizing the Use of Existing 
Public Facilities 

REGIONAL GOAL 6.14.1. Utilize vacant institutional facilities for 
proposed or existing state programs (State Plan Policy 6.7). 

Measure: Change in the annual number of vacant state institutional 
f aci 1 ities . 

Policy 6.14.1.1. Vacant institutional facilities should be converted 
into useful facilities for the operation of needed public programs (HRS, 
COR, DNR). 

Policy 6.14.1.2. Hospitals should be encouraged to make empty hospital 
beds available as step-down beds with no alteration of license status 
(HRS). 



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STATE GOAL 7: PUBLIC SAFETY 

Florida shall protect the public by preventing, discouraging, ajid 
punishing criminal behavior, lowering the highway death rate, and 
protecting lives and property from natural and man-made disasters. 

Note: The goals and policies section of the regional plan is to be 
construed as a whole. Please review Coastal and Marine Resources, Land 
Use, and the Economy for additional applicable regional goals and 
policies . 



7.1. Regional Issue/Policy Cluster #54: Crime Prevention 

REGIONAL GOAL 7.1.1. Establish a coordinated multi-factor crime 
prevention program to reduce crime (State Plan Policies 7.7, 7.8, 7.9, 
7.10, 7.11, 7.15. 7.15, 7.16, 7.19, 7.20). 

Measure: Change in adult and juvenile crime rates. 

Measure: Change in number of sworn officers per 1,000 population. 

Policy 7.1.1.1. A coordinated crime prevention strategy should be 
developed involving physical hardware security codes, site plan design 
and zoning regulations, site plan review by appropriate law enforcement 
officials, police patrol, citizen involvement, and adequate jail 
facilities (COR, LGV, FDLE). 

Policy 7.1.1.2. Minimum building security hardware codes should be 
established and included in local government building codes (LGV, FDLE). 

Policy 7.1.1.5. Development regulations should take into account crime 
prevention design strategies and include these in site planning 
development regulations (LGV, FDLE). 

Policy 7 . 1 . 1 . 4- . Developments of Regional Impact should include crime 
prevention design strategies such as locking hardware and site plan 
design (RPC, LGV, FDLE). 

Policy 7.1.1.5. Neighborhood crime watch organizations should be 
increased throughout the region (LGV, FDLE). 

Policy 7.1.1.6. The number of law enforcement personnel should be 
increased (COR, LGV, FDLE). 

Policy 7.1.1.7. Communication and coordination among law enforcement 
agencies should be improved (COR, RPC, LGV, FDLE). 

Policy 7.1.1.8. A comprehensive reporting system for criminal 
activities should be developed (COR, RPC, LGV, FDLE). 

SEE ALSO PUBLIC SAFETY Policies 7.2.1.1., 7.2.1.4., 7.2.1.5., 7.2.1.12., 
7.5.2.2. 



IV-7-1 



REGIONAL GOAL 7.1.2. Illegal drugs and drug-related crimes should 
receive the highest priority by state and local law enforcement agencies. 

Measure: Change in adult and juvenile drug and drug-related crime 
rates . 

Policy 7.1.2.1. Drug surveillance and confiscation programs should be 
expanded (COR, DOE, LGV , FDLE). 

Policy 7.1.2.2. A regional drug enforcement team which can saturate 
high-crime, drug-prone areas and engage in drug interdiction and reverse 
sting operations should be developed (COR, DOE, LGV, FDLE). 

Policy 7.1.2.3. Information concerning the effects of drug abuse on 
crime rates should be provided to the public (COR, DOE, LGV, FDLE). 

Policy 7.1.2.4. Law enforcement officers should be provided with special 
eduction and training in illegal drug enforcement techniques (COR, DOE, 
LGV, FDLE). 



7.2. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #35: Safe and Secure Citizenry 

REGIONAL GOAL 7.2.1. Improve highway safety and the driver's licensing 
system (State Plan Policies 7.14, 7.21, 7.22, 7.23) 

Measure: Change in the annual number of traffic accidents, as well 
as persons injured and persons killed due to automobile accidents. 

Policy 7.2.1.1. Enforce and increase compliance with safe driving speeds 
as well as other highway laws such as use of turn signals and safety 
devices (DCA, LGV, HSMV , FDLE, DOT,). 

Policy 7.2.1.2. Methods should be researched and established to allow 
more efficient traffic citation (FDLE, HSMV). 

Policy 7.2.1.3. Annual motor vehicle equipment safety checks which 
include emission control checks should be established by state 
legislative action (EPA, HSMV, FDLE, DOT). 

Policy 7.2.1.4. Educational media campaigns should be increased which 
address the problem of drinking and driving (DCA, DOE, HRS, LGV, HSMV, 
FDLE) . 

Policy 7.2.1.5. Community groups should be formed to address the problem 
of drinking and driving (DCA, DOE, HRS, LGV, HSMV, FDLE). 

Policy 7.2.1.6. Educational media campaigns should be developed to 
encourage drivers and passengers to wear seat belts (DOE, LGV, HSMV, 
FDLE, CSB). 

Policy 7.2.1.7. Employers should be provided with an incentive system to 
dedicate tine in the workplace to driver safety education (DCA, HRS). 



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Policy 7.2.1.8. Increase the participation of school districts in the 
Driver Education Licensing Assistance Program (CSB). 

Policy 7.2.1.9. Improve communication between the Department of Highway 
Safety and Motor Vehicles and school districts (HSMV.CSB). 

Policy 7.2.1.10. Incentives should be created that increase enrollment 
in Florida Driver Education Program (HSMV, CSB). 

Policy 7.2.1.11. Community education courses in driving safety should be 
provided to high-risk accident groups (DOE, HSMV, CSB). 

Policy 7.2.1.12. Stringent enforcement of laws against drunken or 
drugged driving should be increased (LGV, HSMV, FDLE). 



REGIONAL GOAL 7.2.2. Provide maximum protection and safety to the public 
from fires . 

Measure: Change in the assessed valuation of residential structures 
located farther than 5 miles from a fire station, commercial and 
industrial structures located farther than 3 miles from a fire 
station, and institutional structures located farther than 1 mile 
from a fire station. 

Policy 7.2.2.1. Urban development and residential development at density 
levels of two units or more per acre should not occur in locations 
farther than five road miles from a fire station or beyond 1,000 feet 
from a fire hydrant (DCA, RPC, LGV), 

Policy 7.2.2.2. Close cooperation between private industry and local 
public fire departments in the disclosure of hazardous and flammable 
materials shall be encouraged (LGV). 

Policy 7.2.2.5. The upgrading of fire departments to suppress 
industrial fires and chemical fires used within their jurisdiction shall 
be encouraged (DCA, LGV). 

Policy 7.2.2.4. Existing formal interagency agreements between 
emergency service providers should be identified and maintained (DCA, 
RPC, LGV). 

Policy 7.2.2.5. The replacement of informal agreements with formal 
mutual support agreements and other emergency service agreements shall be 
encouraged (DCA, RPC, LGV). 

Policy 7.2.2.6. The establishment of a regional or state emergency dial- 
up service for combating chemical fires shall be encouraged (DCA, RPC, 
LGV). 

Policy 7.2.2.7. Fire departments should increase their involvement in 
the Natural Interagency Incident Management System (NIIMS), particularly 
relating to rural fire control (DCA, RPC, LGV). 



IV-7-5 



Policy 7.2.2.8. Street names and building addresses shall be clearly 
visible from the public right-of-way (DOT, RFC, LGV ) . 

REGIONAL GOAL 7.2.3. Provide maximum protection and safety to the 
public in the event of a hurricane (State Plan Policies 7.24, 7.25). 

Measure: Change in the number of shelter spaces per 1,000 persons 
at risk. 

Policy 7.2.3.1. Local governments should prepare hurricane evacuation 
plans for coastal and county residents ( DCA , RPC, LGV). 

Policy 7.2.3.2. Hurricane evacuation plans should be made known to 
coastal residents (DCA, LGV). 

Policy 7.2.3.3. Local governments should cooperate with local agencies 
to make known hurricane inland shelter plans to inland residents (LGV, 
CSB). 

Policy 7.2.3.4. Interjurisdictional planning for emergency evacuation 
procedures and interregional communication during emergencies between 
government agencies should occur (DCA, RPC, LGV, CSB). 



REGIONAL GOAL 7.2.4. Prevent/reduce damage within the coastal basin 
caused by hurricanes and other tropical disturbances (State Plan 
Policies 7.24, 7.25). 

Measure: Change in the assessed valuation of structures at risk. 

Measure: Change in the number of urban land use parcels located 
within hurricane evacuation areas. 

Policy 7.2.4.1. Residential development and resident populations 
seaward of Category III hurricane surge line, as developed and defined by 
the Council report entitled. North Central Florida Regional Hurricane 
Evacuation Study , shall be limited to locations and numbers which can be 
safely evacuated during hurricane hazard periods (DCA, RPC, VMD, LGV). 

Policy 7.2.4.2. Construction of water-related structures such as docks, 
bridges, and causeways shall be designed to minimize back pressure upon 
estuaries, coastal marsh, and coastal freshwater wetlands (DCA, DER , 
WMD, RPC, LGV). 

Policy 7.2.4.3. The designation of hurricane hazard areas on subdivision 
plats for all subdivisions seaward of Category III hurricane surge line 
as delineated by the Council in the report entitled North Central Florida 
Regional Hurricane Evacuation Study shall be required (DCA, RPC, LGV). 

Policy 7.2.4.4. The designation of areas seaward of the Coastal 
Construction Control Line or the Category III hurricane surge line as 
delineated by the Council in the report entitled North Central Florida 
Regional Hurricane Evacuation Study shall be required on all building 
permits (DCA, RPC, LGV). 

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Policy 7.2.4.5. Building codes shall define battering load classes and 
their load intensities in order that buildings and structures within 
coastal high hazard areas can better withstand impacts due to debris 
battering, category Three hurricane water loads, Category Three hurricane 
soil pressures under flooding conditions, overturning and flotation 
caused by Category Three hurricanes, and Category Three hurricane winds 
(DCA, LGV). 

Policy 7.2.4.6. Require all new structures within coastal high hazard 
areas to be constructed on pilings so that the floor is a minimum of one 
foot above the elevations of a Category Three hurricane surge and wave 
height (DCA, RPC, LGV). 

Policy 7.2.4.7. No portion of a new building or structure below the 
Category Three surge and wave height within coastal high hazard areas 
shall be used for permanent human occupancy (DCA, RPC, LGV). 

Policy 7.2.4.8. No portion of a new building or structure within 
coastal high hazard areas constructed below the Category Three surge and 
wave height shall be used for the storage of hazardous material or other 
items which might constitute a safety hazard when contacted by flood 
waters (DCA, RPC, LGV). 

Policy 7.2.4.9. Coastal jurisdictions shall address special provisions 
regarding the placement of mobile homes, the construction of mobile home 
parks, and the expansion, reconstruction, or improvement of existing 
mobile home parks within coastal high hazard areas for anchorage, 
foundations and foundation reinforcement, the location of the lowest 
habitable floor, and the provision of a hurricane shelter facility wixhin 
parks for residents (DCA, LGV). 

Policy 7.2.4.10. A registry of special needs populations requiring 
evacuation assistance during hurricanes should be maintained (LGV). 

SEE ALSO COASTAL AND MARINE RESOURCES Policies 9.1.1.7., 9.2.2.2., LAND 
USE Policy 16.2.2.1 . 



REGIONAL GOAL 7.2.5. Improve and increase services to witnesses and 
victims of crime in the region by 1988 (State Plan Policy 7.14). 

Measure: Change in the percentage of total witnesses and victims of 
crime served through the year 2010. 

Policy 7.2.5.1. Local governments, appropriate public agencies and non- 
profit organizations should apply for grants to provide community based 
services to witnesses and victims of crime (HRS, LGV, PPC, DLA ) . 

Policy 7.2.5.2. Law enforcement agencies should provide services to 
witnesses and victims of crime (HRS, LGV, PPC, DLA). 

Policy 7.2.5.3. State attorney offices should provide services to 
witnesses and victims of crime (OAG, HRS, LGV, PPC, DLA). 



IV-7-5 



Policy 7.2.5.4. The number of persons served by the services to 
witnesses and victims of crime should be increased (HRS, LGV, PPC, DLA ) 

Policy 7.2.5.5. The public should be educated about the rights and 
services available to witnesses and victims of crime (HRS, LGV, PPC, 
DLA) . 

Policy 7.2.5.6. Law schools should be encouraged to include courses on 
victimology and the rights of witnesses of crime in educational 
curricula (HRS, LGV, PPC, DLA, CSB). 

Policy 7.2.5.7. Laws should be established requiring offenders to make 
restitution to the victims of their crimes (HRS, LGV, PPC, DLA). 



7.3. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #36: Offender Rehabilitation- 
Recidivism 

REGIONAL GOAL 7.3.1. Reduce recidivism by ensuring adequate jail 
facilities and personnel (State Plan Policies 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5, 
7.6. 7.17, 7.18). 

Measure: Change in the number of jail cells per 1,000 population. 

Policy 7.3.1.1. The state shall provide an adequate number of prison 
cells to house all state inmates to relieve overcrowded or unsafe 
conditions of state prison facilities located in north central Florida 
(COR, HRS, LGV, PPC, DLA). 

Policy 7.3.1.2. Local governments shall provide an adequate number of 
prison cells to house all local jail inmates to relieve overcrowded or 
unsafe conditions (HRS, LGV, PPC, DLA). 

Policy 7.3.1.3. Local jails and state prisons shall meet minimum 
building code requirements (COR, HRS, LGV, PPC, DLA). 

Policy 7.3.1.4. The corrections system should be as financially cost- 
effective as possible through the development of prison industries, other 
inmate work programs, and through the use of contractual agreements with 
public and private vendors (COR, HRS, LGV, PPC, DLA). 



REGIONAL GOAL 7.3.2. Reduce recidivism by increasing educational and 
rehabilitation programs within prison facilities designed to increase the 
job marketability of offenders (State Plan Policies 7.1, 7.2, 7.5, 7.4, 
7.5, 7.6, 7. 17. 7. 18) 

Measure: Change in recidivism rates. 

Policy 7.3.2.1. The number of educational and vocational training 
programs for inmates should be increased (COR, HRS, LGV. PPC, DLES ) . 

Policy 7.3.2.2. The employment rate of ex-offenders should be increased 
(COR, HRS, LGV, PPC, DLES). 

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Policy 7.3-2.3. Inmates should have access to substance abuse and 
mental health services (COR, HRS, LGV , PPC). 

Policy 7.3.2.4. The corrections system should be as financially cost- 
effective as possible through the development of prison industries, other 
inmate work programs, and through the use of contractual agreements with 
public and private vendors (COR, HRS, LGV, PPC, DLES). 



REGIONAL GOAL 7.3.3. Increase coordination between jail and prison 
release programs and community programs and services (State Plan 
Policies 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5, 7.6, 7.17, 7.18). 

Measure: Change in the number of parolees and probationers per 
1 , 000 population . 

Policy 7.3.3.1. The number of offenders released to community 
rehabilitation programs by the courts and by the prison system shall be 
limited by the design capacity and the space available within community 
rehabilitation programs (COR, HRS, LGV, PPC). 

Policy 7.3.3.2. The number and capacity of community-based 
rehabilitation programs to treat additional ex-offenders and those 
offenders who are eligible for pretrial release should be increased 
(COR, HRS. LGV, PPC). 

Policy 7.3.3.3. Effective alternatives to incarceration for offenders 
with substance abuse or mental health problems should be evaluated (COR, 
HRS, LGV, PPC). 

Policy 7.3.3.4. Effective alternatives to incarceration for offenders 
with substance abuse or mental health problems should be provided (COR, 
HRS, LGV, PPC). 

Policy 7.3.3.5. The use of dispute resolution centers for civil disputes 
and minor criminal manners should be increased (COR, HRS, LGV, PPC). 



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STATE GOAL 8: WATER RESOURCES 

Florida shall assure the availability of an adequate supply of water for 
all competing uses deemed reasonable ajid beneficial and shall maintain 
the functions of natural systems and the overall present level of surface 
and ground water quality. Florida shall improve and restore the quality 
of waters not presently meeting water quality standards. 

Note: The goals and policies section of the regional plan is to be 
construed as a whole. Please review Coastal and Marine Resources, 
Natural Systems and Recreational Lands, Hazardous and Nonhazardous 
Materials and Waste, Land Use, Public Facilities, Intergovernmental 
Coordination, and Agriculture for additional applicable regional goals 
and policies. 



8.1. Regional Issue/Cluster Title ^57: Protection of the Water Supply 

REGIONAL GOAL 8.1.1. Ensure that potable water supply quality and 
quantity within the region is known and that the needs and impacts of 
local government comprehensive plans and proposed development upon the 
existing potable water supply can be accurately predicted (State Plan 
Policies 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.5, 8.11). 

Measure: Annual change in the number of groundwater and 
surfacewater monitoring stations. 

Measure: The development of a groundwater and surfacewater impact 
analysis model which forecasts impacts by land use type and 
intensity of use. 

Policy 8.1.1.1. The functions and underground water flows of the aquifer 
system, including all areas of high recharge, as well as recharge and 
filtration rates, should be identified and modeled (WMD). 

Policy 8.1.1.2. The boundaries of all high percolation recharge areas 
within north central Florida shall be more specifically identified (DCA, 
DER, RPC, WMD). 

Policy 8.1.1.5. The minimal seasonal flows and levels for 
regionally significant surface watercourses, and water bodies, including 
lakes, rivers, streams, wetlands, springs, and spring runs for the 
protection of natural resources, especially, marine, estuarine, and 
aquatic ecosystems shall be determined (DCA, DER, RPC, WMD). 

Policy 8. 1.1. A. The minimum water quality necessary for existing natural 
systems to properly function should be identified ( DNR , DER, GFWFC , WMD). 

Policy 8.1.1.5. The ambient water quality of all regionally significant 

groundwater and surfacewater bodies including rivers and streams, lakes, 

springs, spring runs, sinks, and wetlands should be 
determined (DER, WMD). 



IV-8-1 



Policy 8.1.1.6. An adequate number of ambient water quality monitoring 
stations should be established to monitor the ambient water quality of 
all regionally significant groundwater and surfacewater bodies including 
rivers and streams, lakes, springs, spring runs, sinks, and wetlands 
(DCA, DER. RFC, VMD ) . 

Policy 8.1.1.7. The location of all existing and potential water 
wellfields for human consumption and economic activities should be 
identified and mapped (VMD). 

Policy 8.1.1.8. State agencies should improve record keeping of 
irrigation practices on agricultural lands ( DNR , VMD). 

SEE ALSO COASTAL AND MARINE RESOURCES Policy 9.1.1.1.. HAZARDOUS AND 
NONHAZARDOUS MATERIAL AND VASTE Policy 13.1.6.3. 



REGIONAL GOAL 8.1.2. Ensure the highest priority is given in the local 
government planning process to preserving and protecting the quality and 
quantity of the region's water supply (State Flan Policies 8.1, 8.5). 

Measure: Annual change in the number of local government 
comprehensive plans which adequately address this regional goal. 

Policy 8.1.2.1. Vatershed management programs that seek to protect the 
natural flow and quality of surfacewater systems should be incorporated 
into land use planning and regulatory programs (DNR, DER, VMD, LGV). 

Policy 8.1.2.2. Local and regional comprehensive plans should use 
groundwater basin resource inventories prepared by state and regional 
water management districts that identify high percolation recharge areas, 
stream to sink watersheds and other geographic areas which need special 
water and land use management practices to protect the quantity and 
quality of the groundwater supply (DER, VMD, LGV). 

SEE ALSO WATER RESOURCES, 8.1.7.7., 8.1.9-6., 8.1.9.8., 8.1.11.9-, 
HAZARDOUS AND NONHAZARDOUS MATERIAL AND VASTE Policies 13.2.1.1., 
13.2.5-9-, LAND USE Policies 16.2.1-6-, 16.2.1.12.. 16.2.4.1., 16.2.4.3. 



REGIONAL GOAL 8.1.3- Provide an adequate supply of high quality water 
for all existing natural systems and natural resources (State Flan 
Policies 8.2, 8.3, 8.5, 8.11). 

Measure: Annual change in the flow of rivers and streams. 

Measure: Annual change in water quality indices at surfacewater 
monitoring stations. 

Policy 8.1.3.1. Adequate supplies of surface and groundwater shall be 
reserved to support essential nonwi thdrawal demands, including 
navigation, recreation and the protection of existing ecosystems and 
native species (DCA, DNR, DER, RFC, VMD, LGV). 



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Policy 8.1.3.2. Point and non-point sources of pollution discharging 
into the Gulf, coastal rivers, coastal marsh, estuaries, and coastal 
freshwater wetlands shall not significantly alter or degrade the 
ambient condition of the receiving water body (DCA, DNR , DER . RPC, WMD, 
LGV) . 

Policy 8.1.5.3. The ajnbient water, detrital, and nutrient quality within 
rivers, coastal marsh, estuaries, and coastal freshwater wetlands shall 
not be significantly degraded (DCA, DNR, DER, RPC, WMD, LGV). 

Policy 8.1.3.4. The seasonal flows within rivers as well as the 
hydroperiod of coastal wetlands and areas of direct sheet flow 
connection to the Gulf should not be significantly altered so as to 
adversely impact the coastal marsh and estuaries (DCA, DNR, DER, RPC, 
WMD, LGV). 

SEE ALSO WATER RESOURCES Policies 8.1.1.4., 8.1.7.6., NATURAL SYSTEMS 
AND RECREATIONAL LANDS Policy 10.1.2.1. 



REGIONAL GOAL 8.1.4. Preserve and protect the water quality and quantity 
of the Floridan, secondary, and water table aquifers (State Plan Policies 
8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.5, 8.11). 

Measure: Annual change in the water table level of the Floridan 
Aquifer . 

Measure: Annual change in the water quality of the Floridan 
ri q u 1 X e r . 

Policy 8.1.4.1. The highest groundwater level practicable, consistent 
with sound ecological and public safety considerations, should be 
maintained. However, silviculture activities may be permitted subject 
to Best Management Practices (DCA, DER, RPC, WMD, LGV). 

Policy 8.1.4.2. Urban development should not rely on the raining of the 
Floridan aquifer for water supplies (DCA, DER, RPC, WMD, LGV). 

Policy 8.1.4.3. The use of water wells which create permanent cones of 
depression shall be limited to those wells which will not significantly 
affect surfacewaters or natural systems (DER, RPC, WMD, LGV). 

Policy 8.1.4.4. All existing and potential water well fields for human 
consumption and economic activities should be protected from 
con oami nation ^x^^n, i^nn, uiijt\ , nrv^, wMi^i, jjvjv^. 

Policy 8.1.4.5. Treatment of stormwater consistent with state agency and 
water management district regulations shall be required for all 
development (DER, WMD, LGV). 

Policy 8.1.4.6. Water table levels in coastal areas should be maintained 
at levels which inhibit saltwater intrusion to freshwater coastal 
aquifers (DCA, DNR, DER, RPC, WMD, LGV). 



IV-8-3 



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Policy 8.1.4.7. On-site retention of stormwater generated by development 
shall be required consistent with state agency and water management 
district regulations ( DCA , DNR , DER , RFC. VMD , LGV ) . 

Policy 8.1.4.8. Parking lot runoff shall be treated to remove dirt, oils, 
and other pollutants consistent with state agency and water management 
district regulations (DER, DOT, VMD, LGV). 

SEE ALSO WATER RESOURCES Policy 8.1.4.3., 8.1.7.1., HAZARDOUS AND 
NONHAZARDOUS MATERIAL AND WASTE Policies 13.1.6.1., 13.1.6.2., 
13.2.5.1., 13.2.5.3., 13-2.5.4., 13.2.5.9., LAND USE Policies 16.2.1.6., 
16.2.4.1 . ,16.2.4.6. , 16.2.4.7. 



REGIONAL GOAL 8.1.5. Preserve and protect the quantity and quality of 
the coastal basin water supply (State Plan Policies 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.5). 

Measure: Annual change in water quality indices at coastal basin 
surfacewater monitoring stations. 

Policy 8.1.5.1. The water quality of coastal marsh, estuaries, and 
coastal freshwater wetlands shall be monitored (DER, VMD). 

Policy 8.1.5.2. The designation of regionally significant coastal rivers 
as Works of the District shall be prioritized (DCA, DER, RPC, VMD). 

SEE ALSO WATER RESOURCES Policies 8. 1.3. 3. ,8.1.3.4., 8.1.4.6., ^ 

8.1.4.7., 8.1.4.8., 8.1.8.2., 8.3.2.13., COASTAL AND MARINE RESOURCES 
Policies 9.1.1.7., 9.1.1.13., 9.1.1.17., 9.5.1.1., HAZARDOUS AND 
NONHAZARDOUS MATERIAL AND WASTE Policies 13.1.5.1., 13.1.5.4., 13.2.5-3., 
13.2.5-4., 13. 2. 6. 4-, 13.2.6.6., 13. 2-6-7-, LAND USE Policies 16-2.1.11., 
16.2.2.2. , 16.2.2.6. 



REGIONAL GOAL 8.1.6. Preserve and protect the quantity and quality of 
surfacewater runoff within freshwater stream-to-sink watersheds (State 
Plan Policies 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.5, 8.11). 

Measure: Annual change in the number of local government 
comprehensive plans which adequately address this regional goal. 

Policy 8-1.6.1. All waters entering sinks or drainage wells with direct 
connection to or with a high probability of direct connection to the 
Floridan aquifer shall receive the highest level of stormwater treatment 
consistent with state agency and water management district regulations 
(DER, VMD. LGV). 

Stajidard: Potable quality. 

Policy 8.1.6.2. Assistance shall be provided for the development of 
appropriate local planning, development design standards, and special 
construction practices as may be necessary to ensure both the short and 
long-term mitigation of impacts created by activities occurring in 
stream-to-sink watersheds (DNR, DER, RPC, VMD, LGV). 

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Policy 8.1.6.3. Where protection cannot be assured otherwise, sinks with 
direct connection to or with a high probability of direct connection to 
the Floridan Aquifer shall be acquired by the public (DNR, RPC, VMD.LGV). 

SEE ALSO LAND USE Policy 16.2.1.11. 



REGIONAL GOAL 8.1.7. Preserve and protect the quality and quantity of 
waters found within surface water bodies and springs in the region (State 
Plan Policies 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.5, 8.11). 

Measure: Annual change in water quality indices for surfacewater 
bodies and springs. 

Policy 8.1.7.1. The Outstanding Florida Waters designation shall be 
maintained for all such designated water bodies within the region and 
additional such designations shall be encouraged where appropriate (DNR, 
DER, RPC, WMD, LGV ) . 

Policy 8.1.7.2. All regionally significant rivers and streams shall be 
designated as Works of the District ( DCA , DER, RPC, WMD). 

Policy 8.1.7.3. Point and non-point sources of pollution discharging 
into water bodies designated as Outstanding Florida Water shall not 
significantly alter or degrade the ambient condition of the receiving 
water body (DCA, DNR, DER, WMD, RPC, LGV). 

Policy 8.1.7.4. The water quality in lakes and rivers identified as in 
need of restoration shall be restored to acceptable levels (DCA, DNR, DER, 
RPC, WMD, LGV). 

Policy 8.1.7.5. The protection of the water quality of smaller streams 
which pass through urbanized and urbanizing areas shall be provided 
for (DCA, DNR, DER, RPC, WMD, LGV). 

Policy 8.1.7.6. The interbasin transfers of water which will impair or 
deplete water resources of the region shall be avoided (DCA, DER, RPC, 
WMD). 

Policy 8.1.7.7. With the exception of non-habitable water-dependent 
structures, the construction of permanent structures shall be no lower 
than one foot above the identified 100-year floodplain elevation within 
all identified regionally significant rivers and streams. 

Policy 8.1.7.6. Point and non-point sources of pollution discharging 
into any regionally significant river or stream shall not significantly 
alter or degrade the ambient condition of the receiving water body 
(DCA, DNR, DER, WMD, RPC, LGV). 

Policy 8.1.7.9. Design requirements that are directed to the control of 
surface waters from private property adjacent to smaller streams shall be 
addressed (DNR, DER, WMD, LGV). 



IV-8-5 



Policy 8.1.7.10. The most sensitive regionally significant surfacewater 
bodies, springs, and spring runs should be acquired by the public (DCA, 
DNR, VMD, LGV). 

SEE ALSO WATER RESOURCES Policies 8.1.8.2., HAZARDOUS AND NONHAZARDOUS 
MATERIAL AND WASTE Policies 13.2.5.1., 13.2.5.2., 13.2.6.2., 13. 2. 6. 3-, 
LAND USE Policy 16.2.1.11. 



REGIONAL GOAL 8.1.8. Protect the water quantity, water quality, and 
hydroperiod in wetlands areas (State Plan Policies 8.1, 8.2, 8.5, 8.5, 
8.11). 

Measure: Annual change in the number of local government 
comprehensive plans and water management districts which adequately 
address this regional goal. 

Policy 8.1.8.1. State agencies shall coordinate their efforts with 
regional agencies to identify, classify, and map the region's wetlands 
for use in DRI reviews and local government comprehensive plans (DCA, 
DNR, DER, GFVFC, RPC, WMD . LGV). 

Policy 8.1.8.2. The importance of small, isolated, and intermittent 
wetlands should be evaluated, recognized, and measures taken to mitigate 
cumulative adverse impacts. However, agriculture and si Ivicultural uses 
may be permitted subject to Best Management Practices (DCA, DNR, DER, 
GFWFC, DACS, RPC, VMD, LGV). 

Policy 8.1.8.3. Any discharge or release of inadequately treated 
wastewater into upland wetlands shall not exceed the calculated 
receiving capacity of the system and shall not significantly degrade 
surface water or groundwater below allowable standards (DCA, DNR, DER, 
RPC, WMD, LGV). 

SEE ALSO COASTAL AND MARINE RESOURCES Policy 9.1.1-17., NATURAL SYSTEMS 
AND RECREATIONAL LANDS Policy 10.1.2.1., 10.1.2.2., HAZARDOUS AND 
NONHAZARDOUS MATERIAL AND WASTE Policy 13.2.6.3., LAND USE Policies 
16.2.1 .11., 16.2.5.1 . 



REGIONAL GOAL 8.1.9. Ensure an adequate supply of potable quality water 
for human consumption and economic activities (State Plan Policies 8.1, 
8.2, 8.3, 8.5, 8.11). 

Measure: Annual change in water quality indices of public water 
supply systems. 

Measure: Annual change in the unused capacity of public water 
supply systems. 

Policy 8.1.9.1. Provide an adequate quantity of water to meet the water 
consumption needs of designated urban development areas without adversely 
affecting water supplies for natural systems or economic-based water uses 
(DCA, DNR, DER, RPC, WMD, LGV). 

IV-8-6 



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Policy 8.1.9.2. Provide the highest possible quality of water within 
designated urban development areas ( DCA , DNR, DER , RFC, VMD , LGV). 

Policy 8.1.9.3. The water supply should not be mined in order to provide 
adequate water supplies for human consumption (DCA, DNR, DER,RPC, VMD, 
LGV) . 

Policy 8.1.9.4. All government buildings, utilities, and operations 
should employ water-saving devices and water reuse and reclamation 
opportunities to the greatest extent possible (All Agencies). 

Policy 8.1.9.5. The use of wastewater for irrigation should 
be encouraged (DER, LGV). 

Policy 8.1.9.6. Building codes shall require the installation of water 
saving devices in new construction and renovation (DCA, LGV). 

Policy 8.1.9.7. Water conservation measures, including water reclamation 
and reuse, shall be encouraged in all development planning, review and 
regulatory programs (DCA, RPC, LGV), 

Policy 8.1.9.8. Local government plans and implementation regulations 
shall develop incentives for the use of water saving technologies (DCA, 
DNR, DER, RPC, VMD, LGV). 

Policy 8.1.9.9. Incentives such as reduced connection fees and service 
charges through water and wastewater utilities for customers who use 
water saving devices and systems shall be established (LGV). 

Policy 8.1.9.10. Incentives for the use of water saving technologies 
shall be developed (DCA, RPC, LGV). 

SEE ALSO HAZARDOUS AND NONHAZARDOUS MATERIAL AND WASTE Policies 
13.2.1.1., 13.2.5.1., GOVERNMENTAL EFFICIENCY Policy 21.1.1.5. 



REGIONAL GOAL 8.1.10. Ensure the development of water contingency plans 
for water shortages (State Plan Policy 8.11). 

Measure: Annual change in the number of local government 
comprehensive plans and water management districts which adequately 
address this regional goal. 

Policy 8.1.10.1. Contingency plans for water shortages that are 
consistent with water management district water shortage plans shall be 
developed (DCA, RPC, LGV). 



IV-8-7 



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8.2. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #38: Protection of Water Resources 

REGIONAL GOAL 8,2.1. Protect the water quantity, water quality, 
and hydroperiod in wetlands areas (State Plan Policies 8.9, 8.10, 
8.12,8.13). 

Measure: Annual change in the number of local government 
comprehensive plans and water management districts which adequately 
address this regional goal. 

Policy 8.2.1.1. A sufficient number of water quality and quantity 
monitoring stations shall be located in regionally significant 
wetlands , rivers , and other surfacewater bodies for purposes of monitoring 
ambient water quality and quantity ( DER , RPC, VMD ) . 

SEE ALSO WATER RESOURCES Policies 8.1.8.1., 8.1.8.2., 8.1.8.3., COASTAL 
AND MARINE RESOURCES Policy 9.1.1.17., NATURAL SYSTEMS AND RECREATIONAL 
LANDS Policies 10.1.2.1., 10.1.2.2., HAZARDOUS AND NONHAZARDOUS MATERIAL 
AND WASTE Policy 13.2.6.3., LAND USE Policies 16.2.5.1. 



REGIONAL GOAL 8.2.2. Protect and use natural systems in lieu of 
structural alternatives and restore modified systems (State Plan Policies 
8.9, 8.10, 8.12, 8.13). 

Measure: Annual change in the number of dams, levees, dikes, and 

other similar structures used to modify natural systems. (*" 

Policy 8.2.2.1. Watershed management programs shall be developed and 
implemented which include strategies for land acquisition and regulation 
of lands needed for water management, water supply, as well as the 
conservation and protection of water resources ( DNR , DER, WMD , LGV ) . 



8.3. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #39: Protection of Natural Systems 

REGIONAL GOAL 8.3.1. Protect the function, area, and quality of coastal 
basin and submerged lands natural systems (State Plan Policies 8.9, 
8.10,8.12, 8.13). 

Measure: Annual change in the number of local government 
comprehensive plans which adequately address this regional goal. 

Policy 8.3.1-1. The number of permanent coastal basin water quality and 

provides adequate ambient water quality and quantity data for the coastal 
marsh, estuaries, coastal freshwater wetlands, springs, spring runs, and 
all regionally significant rivers and streams ( DCA , DNR, DER, RPC, WMD). 

Policy 8.3.1.2. The selection of locations for the establishment as well 

as the continuous monitoring of water quality and quantity monitoring 

stations shall be coordinated (DER, RPC, WMD). A 



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SEE ALSO PUBLIC SAFETY Policy 7.2.4.2., WATER RESOURCES Policies 
8.1.3.3.. 8.1.3.4., 8.1.4.6., 8.1.4.7., 8.1.4.8., 8.1.5.1., 8.1.5.2., 
8.1.8.2., COASTAL AND MARINE RESOURCES Policies 9.1.1.1., 9.1.1.3., 
9.1.1.6., 9.1.1.7., 9.1.1.8., 9.1.1.9., 9.1.1.11., 9.1.1.12., 9.1.1.13. 
9.1.1.14., 9.1.1.15., 9.1.1.17., 9.1.1.18., 9.1.1.19., 9.2.1.1., 
9.2.1.2.. 9.2.1.3., 9.2.1.4., 9.2.1.5., 9.2.2.2., 9.2.2.3., 9.2.2.4., 
9.3.1.1., HAZARDOUS AND NONHAZARDOUS MATERIAL AND WASTE Policies 
13.1.5.1., 13.1.5.4., 13.2.6.3., 13.2.6.4., 13.2.6.5., 13.2.6.7., LAND 
USE Policies 16.2.2.1., 16.2.2.6. PUBLIC FACILITY Policy 18.2.1.8. 



REGIONAL GOAL 8.3.2. Protect the functioning and quality of the Suwannee 
River system, defined as the 100-year floodplain of the Suwannee River 
and its major tributaries (the Alapaha, Withlacoochee , Santa Fe and 
Ichetucknee rivers). 

Measure: Annual change in the Average Overall Water Quality of the 
Suwannee River System. 

Measure: Annual change in the flow of the Suwannee River System. 

Measure: Annual change in water quality indices of Suwannee River 
System surfacewater monitoring stations. 

Measure: Annual change in the number of new urban parcels within 
the Suwannee River System. 

Measure: Annual change in the number of sections where the average 
parcel size is less than ten acres within Conservation segments of 
the Suwannee River System. 

Measure: Annual change in the number of sections where the average 
parcel size is less than five acres within Recreation segments of 
the Suwannee River System. 

Policy 8.3.2.1. The Council shall implement its assigned 
responsibilities under the Suwannee River Resource Management Plan and 
the recommendations of the Suwannee River Task Force and Executive Order 
90-14 to the greatest extent possible (RFC). 

Policy 8.3.2.2. The Suwannee River system shall be treated as a special 
planning area in local government comprehensive plans (DCA, RFC, LGV ) . 

Policy 8.3.2.3. Urban development shall be directed away from the 
Suwannee -Sanxa Fe river system. Urban development which does occur 
within the system shall be limited to designated urban development areas 
(DCA, RFC, LGV). 

Policy 8.3.2.4. New high intensity and high density agricultural 
operations, including but not limited to, livestock feed lot 
operations , dairy operations, and buildings housing livestock shall not be 
located within the Suwannee River system ( DER , WMD , LGV). 



IV-8-9 



Policy 8.3.2.5. Existing urban land uses outside of designated urban ^ 

development areas and high intensity/density agricultural uses which do 
not conform to the Regional Policy Plan and the applicable local 
comprehensive plan shall be considered nonconforming uses and measures 
enacted to discontinue the use or otherwise bring it into compliance as 
provided by law, except in the case of water-dependent activities which 
meet all applicable codes and regulations or in cases of undue hardship 
(DCA, RPC, LGV). 

Policy 8.5.2.6. Segments I, II, and V of the Suwannee River as defined 
by the Council, the Alapaha, Withlacoochee , and Ichetucknee rivers as 
well as that portion of the Santa Fe River which traverses the Santa Fe 
lakes and Santa Fe Swamp shall be conservation areas as defined by the 
Council report entitled Coastal Hazard Mitigation and Resource Protection 
in the North Central Florida Region (DCA, DNR , DER , RPC, VMD, LGV). 

Policy 8.3.2.7. Land use types and development activities within 
conservation areas shall enhance and maintain water conservation, 
wildlife conservation, and habitat conservation values (DCA, DHR , , 
DER,GFWFC, RPC, VMD, LGV). 

Policy 8.5.2.8. Segments III and IV of the Suwannee River as defined by 

the Council as well as the Santa Fe River west of Santa Fe Swamp shall be 

recreation areas as defined by the Council report entitled Coastal Hazard 

Mitigation and Resource Protection in the North Central Florida Region 

(DCA, DNR, DER, RPC, VMD, LGV). 

i 

Policy 8.3.2.9. Land uses and development activities within recreation 
areas shall enhance and maintain resource-based recreation values (DCA, 
DNR, RPC, VMD, LGV). 

Policy 8.3.2.10. Land uses and use intensities within recreation areas 
shall not occur at urban density levels and shall not detract from the 
natural scenic value of the river system (DCA, RPC, LGV). 

Policy 8.3.2.11. Land uses and development activities occurring within 
conservation and recreation areas shall be in conformance with the 
natural physical limitations of the land and soil and shall not depend 
on significant site modifications such as, but not limited to, the 
placement of fill in wetlands or low-lying areas, clearing of greater 
than 15 percent of the site's vegetative cover, dredging of canals, 
construction of bulkheads, and placement of fill on the lands to 
accommodate site improvements. Agricultural and forestry operations 
shall be conducted in accordance with established best management 
practices (DER, VMD. DCA, LGV. RPC. DACS). 



IV-8-10 



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Policy 8.5.2.12. The construction of permanent habitable structures 
located within the 100-year floodplain of the Suwannee River system shall 
be at least one foot above the 100-year flood elevation measured from the 
lowest floor. Exceptions may be granted for non-habitable water 
dependent structures. The construction of structures lower than the 
100-year flood elevation in accordance with this policy shall be in such 
a manner as to prevent increase in flood height or obstruction of flow, 
anchored to prevent flood waters from washing the structure away or 
transportable out of the 100-year floodplain, and otherwise in accordance 
with any applicable rules or regulations (LGV, RPC, VMD , DCA, DER ) . 

Policy 8.5.2.15. An undisturbed natural vegetated buffer shall be 
established and maintained adjacent to the regionally significant rivers 
and streams within the Suwannee River system. (DCA, DNR , DER, GFVFC , 
DACS, RPC, VMD, LGV). 

Standard: See Table 1. 



IV-8-1 1 



Table 1 

Setback Standards for the Suwannee River System 

The following standards are summarized from Chapter 40B-4 . 5030( 4 ) , Flor ida 
Administrative Code. These standards are used by the Suwannee River 
Water Management District to determine minimum streamside setbacks 
adjacent to the Suwannee River system. 

(a) Clearing of land shall be limited [except as provided in (b) and (c) 
below] to that necessary to remove diseased vegetation, construct 
structures, associated water supply, wastewater disposal, and private 
driveway access facilities, and no construction shall occur in the front 
75 feet of an area immediately adjacent to the generally recognized 
stream bank. 

(b) Clearing of vegetation within the front 75 feet shall be limited to 
that necessary to gain access or remove diseased vegetation. 

(c) Harvest or regeneration of timber or agricultural crops shall not be 
limited provided the erosion of disturbed soils can be controlled through 
the use of appropriate best management practices, the seasonal scheduling 
of such activities will avoid work during times of high-flood hazard, and 
the 75 feet immediately adjacent to and including the normally recognized 
bank of a water is left in its natural state as a buffer strip. 

(d) As to those lands subdivided prior to January 1, 1985, the Suwannee 
River Water Management District may, in cases of extreme hardship, issue 
individual works of the district development permits with exceptions to 
the conditions listed in (a) through (c). 

(e) The 75-foot setback shall be considered a minimum depth for an 
undisturbed buffer. The limitations on disturbance and clearance within 
the buffer as set out in subparagraphs a through d above shall apply and 
any runoff through the buffer shall be maintained as unchannel ized flow. 
The actual depth of the setback and buffer for any land use other than 
single-family residential development, agriculture, or forestry shall be 
calculated in accordance with the criteria of Chapter 40B-4 . 3030( 4 ) { e ) , 
Florida Administrative Code. 



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Policy 8.3.2.14. The retention of streamside buffers greater than those 
established herein shall be encouraged by all regulatory agencies ( DER , 
WMD, LGV). 

Policy 8.5.2.15. All agencies responsible for monitoring the water 
quality of the Suwannee River system should coordinate work efforts and 
maximize the effectiveness and efficiency of monitoring to ensure the 
quality and effectiveness of water quality monitoring programs (DER, 
VMD, DNR, USFVS, GFWFC , USGS). 

Policy 8.5.2.16. The acquisition of environmentally sensitive lands for 
the purposes of preserving, conserving, or restoring natural systems 
shall prioritize the most sensitive areas in direct proximity or 
connection to the Suwannee River and its tributaries with priority given 
to Segment V of the Suwannee River (DNR, VMD, LGV). 

Policy 8.5.2.17. Acquisition programs at the state, regional, and local 
level should be coordinated to the maximum extent possible including 
joint acquisitions and should be periodically evaluated for 
accomplishments and effectiveness (DNR, WMD, LGV). 

Policy 8.5.2.18. Less-than-f ee land acquisition techniques, including 
but not limited to the purchase of conservation or scenic easements, 
acceptance of dedications, and open space retention requirements shall 
be used as a alternatives to fee simple purchase of lands to protect the 
natural functioning of the environmentally sensitive areas of the river 
system (DNR, VMD, LGV). 

Policy 8.5.2.19. Methods shall be established and maintained for 
coordinating with state and federal agencies making regulatory and state 
land decisions which affect the area's recreational and conservation 
opportunities (All Agencies). 

Policy 8.5.2.20. Point and nonpoint sources of pollution and development 
activities within the Suwannee River system shall not degrade the ambient 
quality, or quantity, of waters within the system, including rivers, 
streams, springs and spring runs, and wetlands ( DCA , LGV, DER, DNR, RFC, 
VMD , GFVF ) . 

Policy 8.5.2.21. Land management practices within the Suwannee River 
Basin shall not have an adverse impact on the water resources of the 
Suwannee River system through stormwater runoff, erosion and siltation, 
or other nonpoint sources of contamination and pollution to the river 
system (DER, VMD, LGV, DAGS, DCA, LGV, SCS). 

Policy 8.5.2.22. The water quality of smaller streams which flow into 
the Suwannee River system shall be protected (DCA, DER, DNR, RFC, VMD, 
LGV). 

Policy 8.5.2.25. The designation of Outstanding Florida Vaters within 

the Suwannee River system shall be maintained or increased over those 

designated in 1990 through the year 2010 (DCA, DNR, DER, GFVFC , RFC, VMD, 
LGV). 



IV-8-13 



Policy 8.3.2.24. All regionally significant rivers and streams within 
the Suwannee River system shall be designated as Works of the District 
(DCA, DER, RPC. VMD ) . 

Policy 8.5.2.25. The siting and construction of solid waste landfills, 
hazardous waste treatment, storage, transfer, and collection sites as 
well as facilities storing or utilizing significant amounts of 
radioactive materials shall be prohibited within the Suwannee River 
system (DCA, DNR, DER, RPC, VMD, LGV ) . 

Policy 8.3.2.26. The number, configuration, frequency of sampling, and 
list of parameters sampled at water quality monitoring stations within 
the Suwannee River system should be periodically evaluated as to its 
collective effectiveness at monitoring ambient water quality and related 
conditions, including interagency coordination of sampling networks and 
events (DER, VMD, GFVFC , DNR). 

Policy 8.3.2.27. Future wastewater treatment plants, including package 
treatment plants, shall be located outside the 100-year floodplain of the 
Suwannee River system and shall not have any discharge to surface waters 
within the system. Existing wastewater treatment plants shall improve 
the level of treatment and the quality of the effluent discharged above 
1990 levels (DER, EPA, VMD, LGV). 

Policy 8.3.2.28. Onsite sewage disposal systems and private wells shall 
be prohibited within the 10-year floodplain of the Suwannee River system 
unless alternative onsite sewage disposal systems and well design and 
construction standards are found which are acceptable to the Florida 
Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, the Suwannee River 
Vater Management District, and the Suwannee River Coordinating Committee 
(HRT, VMD). 

Policy 8.3.2.29. State agencies shall coordinate their efforts with 
regional agencies to determine which smaller streams flowing into the 
Suwannee River system shall have water quality monitoring stations (DER, 
GFVFC, RPC, VMD). 

Policy 8.3.2.30. The interbasin transfer of waters from the 
Suwannee-Santa Fe river system, including groundwaters that provide base 
flow to the river system, shall be prohibited except when there is an 
overriding public interest as provided for by state law (DER, VMD). 

Policy 8.3.2.31. Commercial signs and advertisements shall be 
prohibited within the river. Only signs containing water-dependent 
information may be allowed within view of the rivers of the Suwannee 
system (DCA, RPC, LGV). 

Policy 8.3.2.32. Non-structural controls shall be the management 
approach for the floodplain areas of the Suwannee River system (All 
Agencies ) . 

Policy 8.3.2.33. The creation of additional channels shall be avoided 
except for a clearly demonstrated overriding public interest (ACE, DCA, 
DNR, DER, RPC, VMD, LGV). 

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Policy 8.3.2.54. Mining, mineral extraction, and the extraction of 

fossil fuels shall be prohibited within the Suwannee River system ( DNR , 
VMD, LGV, RPC). 

Policy 8.5.2.55. The creation of additional channels and the creation of 
larger channels on the Suwannee River system shall be avoided except for 
a clearly demonstrated overriding public interest. Maintenance dredging 
of existing channels shall be allowed (ACE, DCA, DNR, DER , RPC, VMD, 
LGV). 

Policy 8.5.2.56. Water conservation, habitat, plant, and wildlife 
conservation shall receive priority over resource-based recreation 
activities on lands acquired through Save Our Rivers funds (DNR, RPC, 
VMD , ) . 

Policy 8.5.2.57. Recreation activities and facilities within the 
Suwannee River system shall not significantly degrade the quality and 
quantity of waters found within the river, its tributaries, springs, or 
spring runs (DCA, DNR, GFVFC , RPC, VMD). 

Policy 8.5.2.58. Recreational use of the Suwannee River system shall not 
threaten the survival of native Florida ecosystems, habitats, plants, 
and wildlife, particularly critical species (DCA, DNR, GFVFC, RPC, VMD). 

Policy 8.5.2.59. Recreational use of the river systems shall not 
substantially increase river bank erosion (DCA, DNR, GFVFC, RPC, VMD). 

Policy 8.5.2.40. A historical /cultural living museum/ vi 1 lage depicting 
life within the region during apart of the region's history should be 
established in connection with increased recreational usage of the 
Suwannee-Santa Fe river system (RPC, LGV, DCA, DOS, DNR, EGG, DOI ) . 

Policy 8.5.2.41. A native plant and animal zoo/wild animal park should 

be established in the region in conjunction with increased recreational 

usage of the Suwannee-Santa Fe river system (RPC, LGV, DCA, DNR, EOG, 
DOI) . 

Policy 8.5.2.42. The establishment of an archeological/paleontological 
display/museum based upon artifacts discovered in the region shall be 
encouraged (RPC, LGV, DCA, DOS, DNR, EOG, DOI). 

Policy 8.5.2.45. Increased resource-based recreation and tourist use of 
the Suwannee River system, the coastal basin and coastal waters, as well 
as other selected regionally significant natural areas shall be 
encouraged as part of an region-wide, coordinated plan to increase 
tourist and resource-based recreation activities and facilities within 
the region (RPC, LGV, DCA, DOS, DNR, COM, GFVFC, EOG, DOI). 

Policy 8.5.2.44. Development of a major outdoor water recreation center 
on the Suwannee River offering group excursions for canoeing, rafting, 
parasailing, camping, and hiking should be encouraged (RPC, LGV, 
DNR.DOI). 



IV-8-15 



Policy 8.5.2.45. Construction of new ramps and docks and the 
rehabilitation of existing structures along rivers in the region should 
be encouraged (RPC, LGV, WID, DER , DNR , DOI ) . 



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STATE GOAL 9: COASTAL AND MARINE RESOURCES 

Florida shall ensure that development and marine resource use ajid beach 
access improvements in coastal areas do not endajiger public safety or 
important natural resources. Florida shall, through acquisition and 
access improvements, make available to the states' population additional 
beaches and marine environment, consistent with sound environmental 
planning. 

Note: The goals and policies section of the regional plan is to be 
construed as a whole. Please review Public Safety, Water Resources, 
Natural Systems and Recreational Lands, Hazardous and Nonhazardous 
Materials and Waste, Land Use, and Public Facilities for additional 
applicable regional goals and policies. 



9.1. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #40: Protection of Coastal Resources 

REGIONAL GOAL 9.1.1. Protect the function, area, and quality of coastal 
basin resources (State Plan Policies 9-1, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 9.10). 

Measure: Annual change in the number of urban land use parcels 
located within the coastal rivers water basin. 

Policy 9.1.1.1. The Coastal Construction Control Line, the coastal 
marsh, estuaries. Big Bend Seagrass Beds, oyster beds, sandbars, other 
important aquatic features, coastal freshwater wetlands and land areas 
with direct sheet flow connection to the coastal marsh, and the 100 year 
floodway of the coastal river system shall be identified and mapped ( DCA , 
DNR, DER, RPC, WMD , LGV). 

Policy 9.1.1.2. The collection of data and maps of the coastal basin to 
be utilized by state and local agencies should be coordinated and data 
disseminated to local governments for use in local comprehensive plans as 
quickly as possible (DCA, DNR, DER, GFWF , RPC, WMD, LGV). 

Policy 9.1. 1.?- Non-structural water management controls shall be the 
preferred management approach for protecting the coastal marsh (DCA, DNR, 
DER, RPC, WMD, LGV). 

Policy 9.1.1.4. Development within the coastal basin shall not 
significantly degrade the quality of waters found within the Gulf, 
coastal marsh, estuaries, coastal freshwater wetlands, or coastal rivers 
(DCA, DNR, DER, RPC. WMD, LGV). 

Policy 9.1.1.5. The construction of permanent structures which are 
designed for human occupancy seaward of the Coastal Construction Control 
Line shall be avoided (DCA, RPC, LGV), 

Policy 9.1.1.6. The loss of coastal marsh and estuaries located outside 
of designated urban development areas shall be avoided (DCA, DNR, DER, 
RPC, WMD, LGV). 



IV-9-1 



Policy 9-1.1.7. With the exception of temporary activities and uses, ^ 

and for the maintenance of existing roads and navigation channels, 
excavation in or filling of coastal marsh, estuaries or coastal 
freshwater wetlands outside of designated urban development areas shall 
be avoided (DCA, DNR , DER , RPC. WMD , LGV ) . 

Policy 9.1.1.8. With the exception of temporary activities and uses, 
and for the maintenance of existing roads and navigation channels, land 
clearing, grading, or removal of native natural vegetation from the 
coastal marsh outside of designated urban development areas shall be 
avoided (DCA, DNR, DER, RPC, VMD, LGV). 

Policy 9-1.1.9. Unpaved roads constructed in the coastal marsh, 
estuaries, or coastal freshwater wetlands, such as for si Ivicultural 
uses, should be constructed in accordance with Best Management Practices 
( BMP ' s ) as well as all applicable state and/or water management district 
surfacewater management regulations. Paved roadways should be elevated 
on pilings. If pilings are impractical, a system of animal barriers and 
below-road wildlife travel corridors as well as devices to ensure the 
free-flow of waters should be constructed (DCA, DOT, DNR, DER, GFVF , RPC, 
WMD, LGV). 

Policy 9.1.1.10. The development of new marinas shall be based upon a 
demonstrated need for small boat recreation facilities (DCA, DOT, DNR, 
RPC, LGV). 



Policy 9.1.1.11. Marina siting plans shall be required before the 
issuance of any permits for the expansion of existing marinas or the 
creation of new marinas (DCA, DNR, DER, RPC, VMD, LGV). 

Policy 9.1.1.12. New docking facilities shall be directed to locations 
having adequate existing water depths at mean low tide without dredging 
to accommodate the proposed boat use (DCA, DNR, DER, RPC, VMD, LGV), 

Policy 9-1.1.15. High-rise construction shall be avoided along the coast 
except in designated urban development areas (DCA, RPC, DER). 

Policy 9.1.1.14. The coastal marsh of Dixie and Taylor counties should 
be designated an Outstanding Florida Vater (DCA, DNR, DER, RPC, VMD, 
LGV). 

Policy 9.1.1.15. The most sensitive regionally significant coastal 
marsh, estuaries and coastal freshwater wetlands should be acquired by 
the public for purposes of preservation (DCA, DNR, VMD). 

Policy 9-1-1-16. Encourage support for the public acquisition of the 

most sensitive regionally significant coastal marsh, estuaries and 

coastal freshwater wetlands for purposes of preservation (DCA, DNR, RPC, 
VMD, LGV). 

Policy 9.1-1.17- The discharge or release of inadequately treated 
wastewater or hazardous materials into the coastal marsh, estuaries and 
coastal freshwater wetlands shall be avoided (DCA, DNR, DER. RPC, VMD, 
LGV). 

IV-9-2 



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Policy 9.1.1.18. The survival of plant and animal species native to the 
coastal marsh shall be ensured ( DCA , DNR , DER , GFVF , RFC, VMD ) 

Policy 9.1.1.19. Exotic plant and animal species shall be controlled 
within the coastal marsh (DNR, GFVF). 

Policy 9.1.1.20. Resource planning and management committees, aquatic 
preserve management, cooperative local planning efforts, and other 
methods for managing areas of special interest such as estuaries and 
barrier islands shall be employed to assure the continued integrity of 
the resource (All Agencies). 

SEE ALSO WATER RESOURCES Policies 8.1.3.2., 8.1.3.3., 8. 1.4. 7., 
8.1.5.1., 8.3.1.1., 8.3.1.2., 8.1.4.20., 8.1.5.20., 8.1.8.2., 8.1.10.4., 
8.3.2.13., COASTAL AND MARINE RESOURCES Policies 9.1.1.14., 9.2.1.11., 
9.2.2.2., 9.3.2.3., 9.2.1.16. 9.3.2.16,, 9.3.2.18., NATURAL SYSTEMS AND 
RECREATIONAL LANDS Policies 10.1.9.4., HAZARDOUS AND NONHAZARDOUS 
MATERIALS AND WASTE Policies 13.1.5.1., 13.1.5.6., 13.1.6.2., 13.2.5.3., 
13.2.5.4., 13.2.5.9., 13.2.6.3., 13.2.6.4., 13.2.6.7., LAND USE Policies 
16.2.1.11., 16.2.4.3., 16.2.2.3., 16.2.2.4., 16.2.2.6., 16.2.2.7., 
16.2.1 .5. , 16.2.6.3. 



9.2. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #41: Protection of Marine Resources 

REGIONAL GOAL 9.2.1. Protect the function, area, and quality of marine 
resources and submerged lands (State Plan Policies 9.7, 9-8). 

Measure: Annual change in the ambient water, detrital and nutrient 
quality within coastal rivers, coastal marsh, estuaries, and coastal 
freshwater wetlands. 

Policy 9.2.1.1. The long-term productivity of the marine fisheries 
habitat, Florida Middle Ground, Big Bend Seagrass Beds, oyster beds, sand 
bars, and other aquatic resources shall be protected and restored (DCA, 
DNR, DER. GFWF, RPC, VMD, LGV ) . 

Policy 9.2.1.2. Significant widening or deepening of existing channels 
shall be avoided except for a clearly demonstrated overriding public 
interest. Maintenance dredging of existing channels shall be allowed 
(ACE, DCA, DNR, DER, RPC, VMD, LGV). 

Policy 9.2.1.3. The creation of additional channels shall be avoided 
except for a clearly demonstrated overriding public interest (ACE, DCA, 
DNR, DER, RPC, VMD, LGV). 

Policy 9.2.1.4. Future channels and modifications to existing channels 
shall have sides which conform to the natural slope equilibrium (ACE, 
DCA, DNR, DER, RPC, VMD, LGV). 

Policy 9.2.1.5. Dredging spoils shall be deposited in appropriate 
upland areas (DCA, DNR, DER, RPC, VMD, LGV). 



IV-9-3 



SEE ALSO PUBLIC SAFETY Policy 7.2.4.2., COASTAL AND MARINE RESOURCES 
Policies 9.1.1.1., 9. 1.1. 11-, 9-1.1.12., 9.1.1-14., 9.2.1.4., 9.2.2.1 
9.2.2.3. , 9.2.2.4. 



REGIONAL GOAL 9.2.2. Avoid the exploration and development of mineral 
resources which threaten marine, aquatic, and estuarine resources (State 
Plan Policy 9.8). 

Measure: Annual change in the number of square miles of Gulf 
coastal waters within state jurisdiction in which oil drilling is 
prohibited or deferred. 

Policy 9.2.2.1. The seagrass beds, Florida Middle Ground, and the 
Congressional ly mandated buffer area extending 30 miles off the Gulf 
Coast from Naples to Appalachicola, including the Gainesville Map Area, 
should be permanently removed from the list of areas available for oil, 
gas, and mineral leasing (DOI). 

Policy 9.2.2.2. The exploration and development of mineral and 
petroleum resources in the Gulf of Mexico which threaten Gulf coastal 
marine and estuarine resources shall be avoided (ACE, DOI, DER ) . 

Policy 9.2.2.3. Onshore and offshore exploration, development, and 
production of petroleum, gas, and mineral resources of the Gulf of Mexico 
shall be conducted in a manner that is ecologically sound and that 
produces minimal environmental impacts (DOI, DCA, DNR , DER, RPC, VMD, 
LGV) . 

Policy 9.2.2.4. Outer Continental Shelf development shall occur only in 
areas of least environmental sensitivity (DOI). 



9.3. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #42: Public Safety and Access in 
Coastal Areas 

REGIONAL GOAL 9.3.1. Prevent /reduce damage within the coastal basin 
caused by hurricanes and other tropical disturbances (State Plan Policies 
9.2, 9.3). 

Measure: Annual change in the assessed valuation of structures 
located seaward of the category III hurricane surge line. 

Policy 9.3.1.1. Structures or alterations in landscape or topography 
wixhin coastal high hazard areas shall not impede the outflow of seawater 
back to the Gulf (DCA, DER, RPC, WMD, LGV). 

SEE ALSO PUBLIC SAFETY Policies 7.2.4.2., 7.2.4.3., 7.2.4.4., 7.2.4-5., 
7.2.4.6., 7.2.4.7., 7.2.4.8., 7.2.4.9., WATER RESOURCES Policies 
8.1.3.3., 8.1.3.4., COASTAL AND MARINE RESOURCES Policies 9.1.1-7., 
9.2.2.2., LAND USE Policy 16.2.2.1., 16.2.2.3-, PUBLIC FACILITIES 
Policies 18.2.1.10. 



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REGIONAL GOAL 9-3.2. Provide necessary and appropriate public access to 
the marine environment without degrading the natural systems or adversely 
affecting marine life (State Plan Policy 9.2). 

Measure: Annual change in the number of public access points to the 
coastline and coastal rivers located within Dixie and Taylor 
counties . 

SEE ALSO COASTAL AND MARINE RESOURCES Policies 9.1.1.20., 9.1.1.21., 
9.2.5.1 . 



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STATE GOAL 10: NATURAL SYSTEMS AND RECREATIONAL LANDS 

Florida shall protect and acquire unique natural habitats and ecological 
systems such as wetlands, tropical hardwood hammocks, palm hammocks, and 
virgin longleaf pine forests, and restore degraded natural systems to a 
functional condition. 

Note: The goals and policies section of the regional plan is to be 
construed as a whole. Please review Water Resources, Coastal and Marine 
Resources, Hazardous and Nonhazardous Materials and Waste, Land Use, 
Public Facilities, Transportation, Intergovernmental Coordination, The 
Economy, Employment, Agriculture, and Tourism for additional applicable 
regional goals and policies. 



10.1. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #45: Protection of Natural Systems 

REGIONAL GOAL 10.1.1. Preserve and protect the quality and quantity of 
waters found within surface water bodies and springs in the region (State 
Plan Policies 10.1, 10.7, 10.9). 

Measure: Annual change in the Average Overall Water Quality of 
surface water bodies and springs. 

Policy 10.1.1.1. Provide for the protection of the water quality of 
smaller streams which pass through urbanized and urbanizing areas (DCA, 
DNR, DER, RPC, WMD, LGV ) . 

Policy 10.1.1.2. The diversion or damming of natural river systems, 
channelization of those rivers and estuaries which have not been 
channelized, and the creation of larger channels in those rivers and 
estuaries which have already been dredged shall be avoided except when 
for a clearly demonstrated overriding public interest (ACE, DCA, DNR, 
DER, RPC, WMD, LGV). 

SEE ALSO WATER RESOURCES Policies 8.1.7.1., 8.1.7.2., 8.1.7.5., 8.1.7.4., 
8.1.7.6., 8.1.7.7., 8.1.7.8., 8.1.7.8., 8.5.2.15., 8.5.6.15., NATURAL 
SYSTEMS AND RECREATIONAL LANDS Policy 10.5.5.2., HAZARDOUS AND 
NONHAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND WASTE Policies 15.2.5.1., 15-2.6.2., 15.2.6.5. 



REGIONAL GOAL 10.1.2. Protect the quantity, water quality, and 
hydroperiod in wetlands areas (State Plan Policies 10.1, 10.7, 10.9). 

Measure: Annual change in the number of acres of wetlands. 

Policy 10.1.2.1. There shall be no significant loss of wetlands by 
wetland type within the region (DCA, DNR, DER, GFWFC , DACS, RPC, WMD, 
LGV) . 

Policy 10.1.2.2. The most sensitive regionally significant wetlands 
should be acquired by the public for purposes of preservation (DCA, DNR, 
GFWFC, RPC, WMD). 



IV-10-1 



SEE ALSO WATER RESOURCES Policies 8.1.8.2., 8.1.8.3.. COASTAL AND MARINE 
RESOURCES Policy 9.1.1.17., HAZARDOUS AND NONHAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND 
WASTE Policy 15.2.6.5., LAND USE Policies 16.2.5.1. 



REGIONAL GOAL 10.1.3- Protect and use natural systems in lieu of 
structural alternatives and restore modified systems (State Plan 
Policies 10.1, 10.7, 10.8, 10.9). 

Measure: Annual change in the number of dams, levees, dikes, and 
other similar structures used to modify natural systems. 

Policy 10.1.3.1. Degraded or modified natural systems should be 
restored and preserved following restoration ( DCA , DNR , DER , GFVFC , RPC, 
WMD, LGV). 

Policy 10.1.3.2. Land development review procedures shall provide for 
the protection and restoration of ecological functions of wetland 
systems to ensure their long-term environmental, economic, and 
recreational value (DCA. DNR. DER, GFWFC , RPC, WND , LGV). 

SEE ALSO WATER RESOURCES Policy 8.2.2.1. 



REGIONAL GOAL 10.1.4. Preserve and protect representative samples of 
all native biota to north central Florida for future generations (State 
Plan Policies 10.1, 10.7, 10.8, 10.9). 

Measure: Change in the number of local government comprehensive 
plans which adequately address this goal. 

Policy 10.1.4.1. Habitat islands should be studied and identified 
( GFWFC ) . 

Policy 10.1.4.2. Exotic vegetation within identified habitat islands 
shall be controlled (DNR, GFWFC). 

Policy 10.1.4.3. The appropriate mix and quantity of plant types for 
designated habitat islands shall be preserved or restored (DNR, GFWFC). 

SEE ALSO LAND USE Policies 16.2.6.1., 16.2.6.2., 16.2.6.3-, 16.2.6.4., 
16.2.6.5., 16.2.6.6., 16. 2. 6. 7-, 16.2.6.8., 16.2.6.9- 



REGIONAL GOAL 10.1.5- Ensure long-term economic stability by ensuring 
development of the coastal fishing industry without producing 
significant adverse impacts to existing coastal and marine species and 
ecosystems (State Plan Policy 10.1). 

Measure: Change in the annual amount of fish and shellfish 
landings in Dixie and Taylor counties. 



r 



( 



IV-10-2 



) 



; 



; 



Policy 10.1.5.1. The annual maximum sustainable yield of commercially 
valuable coastal and marine resources which provides adequate resources 
to support the existing marine and coastal species and ecosystems should 
be determined ( DER , DNR , DACS, DCA , IFAS). 

Policy 10.1.5.2. Coastal and marine fishing should be limited to annual 
maximum sustainable yields (DNR, DACS, GFWFC , USFWS ) . 

Policy 10.1.5.3. The establishment of a regional caviar industry based 
upon a sturgeon hatchery/fishery within the Suwannee River System shall 
be encouraged and a feasibility study of utilizing economic development 
funds studied (USFWS, DNR, DACS, DCA, COM, GFWFC, RFC, LGV ) . 

SEE ALSO WATER RESOURCES Policy 8.3.1.1., LAND USE Policy 16.2.2.2. 



10.2. Regional Issue/Cluster Title ^^44 : Protection of Endangered 
Species 

REGIONAL GOAL 10.2.1. Insure the survival of critical species native to 
north central Florida for future generations (State Plan Policies 10.3, 
10.4). 

Measure: Annual change in the number of acres of critical habitat 
preserved and protected for critical species through the year 2010. 

Policy 10.2.1.1. The survival of plant and animal species, particularly 
critical species, native to the region shall be ensured (DCA, DNR, DER, 
GFWFC, RPC, WMD). 

Policy 10.2.1.2. Additional research shall be performed to determine 
the extent of critical elements such as required habitats, territory 
size, food sources, and minimum sustainable population thresholds 
necessary for the survival of critical species (DNR, GFWFC, Florida 
Natural Areas Inventory). 

Policy 10.2.1.3. Deer population levels as well as population levels of 
all food sources for which critical species are dependent shall be 
preserved at sufficient levels necessary for the survival of critical 
species (DNR, GFWFC, Florida Natural Areas Inventory). 

Policy 10.2.1.4. The public shall identify, protect, and if necessary 
acquire lands such as bird rookeries, spawning grounds, and known marine 
mammal birthing areas for the long-term survival of critical species 
(DCA, DNR, GFWFC, RPC, WMD). 

Policy 10.2.1.5. The public, particularly private landowners, should be 
educated as to the habitat requirements of critical native species (DNR, 
GFWFC, Florida Natural Areas Inventory). 

SEE ALSO COASTAL AND MARINE RESOURCES Policy 9.2.1.3., NATURAL SYSTEMS 
AND RECREATIONAL LANDS Policy 10.1.1.8, 10.2.2.1. 



IV-10-3 



REGIONAL GOAL 10.2.2. Eliminate manatee injury and death from 
collisions with waterborne vessels (State Plan Policies 10.3, 10.4). 

Measure: Annual number of manatee injuries and deaths that occur 
in north central Florida. 

Policy 10.2.2.1. The number of docks, boat ramps, marinas, and 
expansion of existing marinas where boat traffic will bring boats into 
known manatee areas shall be limited so as not to threaten the manatee 
(ACE, DCA, DNR, DER , RPC, WMD , LGV ) . 

Policy 10.2.2.2. The creation of additional channels and the creation 
of larger channels along known manatee areas shall be allowed only for a 
clearly demonstrated overriding public interest. 

Policy 10.2.2.5. Docks at multi-slip facilities shall be clustered so 
as to minimize disruption of the shoreline. 

Policy 10.2.2.4. Boat ramp construction and expansion shall be limited 
at sites of high manatee concentration as determined by the Department 
of Natural Resources and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, and 
shall be limited to locations near popular boating destinations with 
quick access to deep open water channels. 

Policy 10.2.2.5. Boat ramps providing access to areas known to be used 

by manatees shall have education displays to alert boaters to the 

possible presence of manatees and to the boating regulations in the 
areas . 

SEE ALSO WATER RESOURCES Policy 8.3.1.2. 



REGIONAL GOAL 10.2.3. Ensure the survival of native biota through 
encouraging the linking of major terrestrial and aquatic habitats to 
allow for the movement of biota between habitat islands (State Plan 
Policies 10.3, 10.4). 

Measure: Annual change in the number of public land holdings which 
are linked together through wildlife corridors. 

Policy 10.2.3.1. A model habitat corridor linking two habitat islands 
should be established and evaluated for its effectiveness prior to 
further designations of habitat corridors (DCA, DNR, GFWFC ) . 

Policy 10.2.5.2. Should the model habitat corridor be found to be an 
effective wildlife management technique, then additional habitat 
corridors should be identified and acquired (DCA, DNR, GFWFC) 

Policy 10.2.5.5. Paved road crossings and bridges over identified 
habitat corridors shall be designed to permit the free movement of 
wildlife underneath the structure and not interrupt the continuity of 
the habitat corridor (DOT. DNR, DER. GFWFC. DACS. RPC. WMD. LGV). 



IV-10-4 



Policy 10.2.3.4. Any activity or proposed activity affecting identified 
habitat corridors shall be permitted only upon assurances that impacts 
to habitat conservation values identified for that particular habitat 
corridor are mitigated ( DCA , DNR , DER , ACE, RPC, LGV ) . 



10.3. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #45: Land Management and Use 

REGIONAL GOAL 10.3.1. Ensure that land use decisions minimize adverse 
environmental impacts upon the region's significant natural areas and 
natural resources (State Plan Policies 10.2, 10.5, 10.6 10.10). 

Measure: Annual change in the number of local government 
comprehensive plans which adequately address this goal. 

Policy 10.3.1.1. Public lands should be acquired, retained, managed, and 
inventoried to provide recreation, conservation and related public 
benefits (DACS, DER, GFVFC, DNR). 

Policy 10.3.1.2. The acquisition and maintenance of ecologically intact 
systems shall be emphasized in all land and water planning, management, 
and regulation (DACS, DCA, DER, GFVFC, DNR). 

Policy 10.3.1.3. The most sensitive regionally significant natural 
areas should be acquired by the public (DCA, DNR, GFVFC, VMD ) . 

Policy 10.3.1.4. Recreation and tourist activities within conservation 
areas shall enhance and maintain water conservation, wildlife 
conservation, and habitat conservation values (RPC, LGV, DNR, DER, 
GFVFC, VMD, USFVS, DOI ) . 

SEE ALSO NATURAL SYSTEMS AND RECREATIONAL LANDS Policy 10.4.4.4., LAND 
USE Policies 16.1.1.1., 16.1.1.3., 16.1.1.8., 16.1.1.9., 16.1.1.10., 
16.1.1.11., 16.1.1.12., 16. 1.1. 13., 16.1.1.14., 16.2.1.1., 16.2.1.2., 
16.2.2.1., AGRICULTURE Policy 23.1.5.3. 



REGIONAL GOAL 10.3.2. Ensure land use decisions which protect the 
function, area, and quality of coastal basin and submerged lands natural 
systems (including its flora, wildlife, and habitat), prevent saltwater 
intrusion to the Floridan aquifer, and minimize the value of property 
susceptible to, and the potential loss of lives from, hurricane hazards 
(State Plan Policies 10.2, 10.6, 10.10). 

Measure: Annual change in the number of urban land use parcels 
within regionally significant natural areas. 

Policy 10.3.2.1. Local government shall be encouraged to support the 
public acquisition of the most sensitive regionally significant coastal 
marsh, estuaries and coastal freshwater wetlands for purposes of 
preservation (LGV). 



IV-10-5 



SEE ALSO PUBLIC SAFETY Policy 7.2.4.2., WATER RESOURCES Policies 
8.1.3.3.. 8.1.3.4.. 8.1.4.6., 8.1.4.7., 8.1.4.8.. 8.1.5.1., 8.1.5.2., 
8.1.8.2., 8.3.1.2.. COASTAL AND MARINE RESOURCES Policy 9.1.1.1.. 
9.1.1.3.. 9.1.1.5., 9.1.1.6.. 9.1.1.7., 9.1.1.8., 9.1.1.9.. 9.1.1-11.. 
9.1.1.12., 9.1.1.13., 9.1.1.14., 9.1.1.15., 9.1.1.17., NATURAL SYSTEMS 
AND RECREATIONAL LANDS Policy 10.1.4.1., HAZARDOUS AND NONHAZARDOUS 
MATERIALS AND WASTE Policies 13.1.5.3., 13.2.5.4., 13.2.6.4., 13.2.6.5., 
13.2.6.6., 13-2.6.7., LAND USE Policies 16.2.1.5., 16.2.1.11., 16.2.2.1. 
16.2.2.2., 16.2.2.3., 16.2.2.5. 16.2.2.6., 16.2.2.7., 16.2.6.3., PUBLIC 
FACILITIES Policy 18-2.1.8. 



REGIONAL GOAL 10.3.3. Ensure land use decisions which preserve and 
protect the quality and quantity of waters found within surface water 
bodies and springs in the region (State Plan Policies 10.2, 10.5, 10.6, 
10.10). 

Measure: Annual change in the number of local government 
comprehensive plans which adequately address this goal. 

Policy 10.3.3.1. Local government plans shall provide for the 
protection of the water quality of smaller streams which pass through 
urbanized and urbanizing areas (DCA, DNR, DER , RFC, VMD , LGV). 

Policy 10.3.3.2. Local government plans shall address design 
requirements that are directed to the control of surface waters from 
private property adjacent to smaller streams by the year 1991 (DCA, DNR, 
DER, RPC, VMD, LGV). 

Policy 10.3.3.3. Methods for the dedication and protection of scenic 
easements along the rivers, springs, spring runs, and scenic roads shall 
be established (DNR, DER, VMD, LGV). 

SEE ALSO WATER RESOURCES Policies 8.1.7.6., 8.1.7.8., 8.1.8.2., 
8.3.2.13., LAND USE Policy 16.2.1.11. 



10.4. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #46: Parks and Recreation 

REGIONAL GOAL 10.4.1. Provide a sufficient number and acres of 
activity-based parks, recreation facilities, and activities to meet the 
needs of the residents of north central Florida (State Plan Policies 
10.11, 10.13). 

Measure: Annual change in the ratio of population to acres of 
activity-based park and recreation facilities. 

Policy 10.4.1.1. The provision of adequate recreational opportunities 
shall be required in urban areas, including the development of 
activity-based parks (DCA, DNR, GFVFC , RPC. VMD. LGV). 

Policy 10.4.1.2. Potentially needed recreation areas that are vulnerable 
to immediate non-recreational development shall be acquired by the public 
(DCA, DNR, GFVFC, RPC, VMD, LGV). 

IV-10-6 



Policy 10.2.3.4. Any activity or proposed activity affecting identified 
habitat corridors shall be permitted only upon assurances that impacts 
to habitat conservation values identified for that particular habitat 
corridor are mitigated (DCA, DNR , DER , ACE, RPC, LGV ) . 



10.5. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #45: Land Management and Use 

REGIONAL GOAL 10.5.1. Ensure that land use decisions minimize adverse 
environmental impacts upon the region's significant natural areas and 
natural resources (State Plan Policies 10.2, 10.5, 10.6 10.10). 

Measure: Annual change in the number of local government 
comprehensive plans which adequately address this goal. 

Policy 10.5.1.1. Public lands should be acquired, retained, managed, and 
inventoried to provide recreation, conservation and related public 
benefits (DACS, DER, GFWFC , DNR). 

Policy 10.5.1.2. The acquisition and maintenance of ecologically intact 
systems shall be emphasized in all land and water planning, management, 
and regulation (DACS, DCA, DER, GFWFC, DNR). 

Policy 10.5.1.5. The most sensitive regionally significant natural 
areas should be acquired by the public (DCA, DNR, GFWFC, WMD ) . 

Policy 10.5.1.4. Recreation and tourist activities within conservation 
areas shall enhance and maintain water conservation, wildlife 
conservation, and habitat conservation values (RPC, LGV, DNR, DER, 
GFWFC, WMD, USFWS, DOI). 

SEE ALSO NATURAL SYSTEMS AND RECREATIONAL LANDS Policy 10.4.4.4., LAND 
USE Policies 16.1.1.1., 16.1.1.5.. 16.1.1.8., 16.1.1.9., 16.1.1.10., 
16.1.1.11., 16.1.1.12., 16.1.1.15., 16.1.1.14., 16.2.1.1., 16.2.1.2., 
16.2.2.1., AGRICULTURE Policy 25.1.5.5. 



REGIONAL GOAL 10.5.2. Ensure land use decisions which protect the 
function, area, and quality of coastal basin and submerged lands natural 
systems (including its flora, wildlife, and habitat), prevent saltwater 
intrusion to the Floridan aquifer, and minimize the value of property 
susceptible to, and the potential loss of lives from, hurricane hazards 
(State Plan Policies 10.2, 10.6, 10.10). 

Measure: Annual change in the number of urban land use parcels 
within regionally significant natural areas. 

Policy 10.5.2.1. Local government shall be encouraged to support the 
public acquisition of the most sensitive regionally significant coastal 
marsh, estuaries and coastal freshwater wetlands for purposes of 
preservation (LGV). 



IV-10-5 



SEE ALSO PUBLIC SAFETY Policy 7.2.4.2., WATER RESOURCES Policies 
8.1.5.3., 8.1.5.4., 8.1.4.6., 8.1.4.7., 8.1.4.8., 8.1.5.1-, 8.1.5.2., 
8.1.8.2., 8.5.1.2., COASTAL AND MARINE RESOURCES Policy 9.1.1.1., 
9.1.1.5.. 9.1.1.5., 9.1.1.6., 9.1.1.7., 9.1.1.8., 9.1.1.9-, 9.1.1.11., 
9.1.1.12., 9.1.1.15., 9.1.1.14., 9.1.1.15., 9.1.1.17., NATURAL SYSTEMS 
AND RECREATIONAL LANDS Policy 10.1.4.1., HAZARDOUS AND NONHAZARDOUS 
MATERIALS AND WASTE Policies 15.1.5.5., 15.2.5.4., 15.2.6.4., 15.2.6.5., 
15.2.6.6., 15.2.6.7., LAND USE Policies 16.2.1.5., 16.2.1.11., 16.2.2.1 
16.2.2.2., 16.2.2.3., 16.2.2.5, 16.2.2.6., 16.2.2.7., 16.2.6.5., PUBLIC 
FACILITIES Policy 18.2.1.8. 



REGIONAL GOAL 10.3-3. Ensure land use decisions which preserve and 
protect the quality and quantity of waters found within surface water 
bodies and springs in the region (State Plan Policies 10.2, 10.5, 10.6, 
10.10). 

Measure: Annual change in the number of local government 
comprehensive plans which adequately address this goal. 

Policy 10.5.5.1. Local government plans shall provide for the 
protection of the water quality of smaller streams which pass through 
urbanized and urbanizing areas ( DCA , DNR , DER , RFC, WMD , LGV). 

Policy 10.3-3-2. Local government plans shall address design 
requirements that are directed to the control of surface waters from 
private property adjacent to smaller streams by the year 1991 (DCA, DNR, 
DER, RPC, WMD, LGV), 

Policy 10.5.5.5. Methods for the dedication and protection of scenic 
easements along the rivers, springs, spring runs, and scenic roads shall 
be established (DNR, DER, VMD , LGV). 

SEE ALSO WATER RESOURCES Policies 8.1.7.6., 8.1.7.8., 8.1.8.2., 
8.5.2.15., LAND USE Policy 16.2.1.11. 



10.4. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #46: Parks and Recreation 

REGIONAL GOAL 10.4.1. Provide a sufficient number and acres of 
activity-based parks, recreation facilities, and activities to meet the 
needs of the residents of north central Florida (State Plan Policies 
10.11, 10.15). 

Measure: Annual change in the ratio of population to acres of 
activity-based park and recreation facilities. 

Policy 10.4.1.1. The provision of adequate recreational opportunities 
shall be required in urban areas, including the development of 
activity-based parks (DCA. DNR. GFVFC , RPC, WMD. LGV). 

Policy 10.4.1.2. Potentially needed recreation areas that are vulnerable 
to immediate non-recreational development shall be acquired by the public 
(DCA, DNR. GFWFC, RPC. WMD, LGV). 

IV-10-6 



€ 



) 



Policy 10.4.1.3. School districts and park/recreation departments shall 
develop programs for joint acquisition and development of sites where 
appropriate ( DCA , RPC, LGV , CSB). 

Policy 10.4.1.4. The private sector should be considered as providing 
recreation facilities in local government comprehensive plans when such 
facilities complement those called for by such plans (DCA, RPC, LGV). 

Policy 10.4.1.5. Large-scale residential developments should provide 
recreational sites and open space necessary to accommodate the residents 
of such developments (DCA, RPC, LGV). 

Policy 10.4.1.6. The use of public and private financial and other 
resources for the development of recreational opportunities at the state 
and local levels shall be encouraged (DCA, DNR , GFVFC , RPC, VMD , LGV). 

SEE ALSO PUBLIC FACILITIES Policies 18.2.1.2., 18.2.1.9., 18.2.1.4. 



REGIONAL GOAL 10.4.2. The protection of the function, size, and quality 
of coastal basin and submerged lands natural systems shall take priority 
over recreational activities and facilities (State Plan Policy 10.12). 

Measure: Annual change in the ambient water, detrital and nutrient 
quality within coastal rivers, coastal marsh, estuaries, and 
coastal freshwater wetlands. 

Policy 10.4.2.1. The protection and restoration of the long-term 
productivity of marine fisheries habitat. Big Bend Seagrass Beds, 
oysterbeds, sand bars, and other aquatic resources shall take precedence 
over recreational fishing and other recreational activities and 
facilities (DCA, DNR, DER , GFVFC, RPC, VMD, LGV). 

Policy 10.4.2.2. Recreational activities and facilities development 
which threatens to significantly degrade the quality or the productivity 
of the coastal marsh, estuaries, and coastal freshwater wetlands or 
which adversely affects the commercial and sport fishing industry shall 
be avoided (ACE, DCA, DNR, DER, RPC, VMD, LGV). 

SEE ALSO PUBLIC SAFETY Policy 7.2.4.2., COASTAL AND MARINE RESOURCES 
Policies 9.1.1.14., 9.1.1.15., 9.1.1.18., 9.2.1.2., 9.2.1.4. 



REGIONAL GOAL 10.4.5. The quality and quantity of waters found within 
surface water bodies and springs in the region used for recreational 
purposes shall be preserved and protected (State Plan Policies 10.11, 
10.12, 10.15). 

Measure: Annual change in the Average Overall Vater Quality of 
surface water bodies and springs. 



IV-10-7 



r 



Policy 10.4.3.1. Recreational activities occurring within or 
discharging into water bodies designated Outstanding Florida Waters shall 
not significantly alter or degrade the ambient condition of the water 
body (DCA, DNR , DER , RPC. WMD , LGV ) . 

SEE ALSO WATER RESOURCES Policy 8.1.7.1., NATURAL SYSTEMS AND 
RECREATIONAL LANDS Policy 10.1.1.2. 



REGIONAL GOAL 10.4.4. A proper balance between the number, acreage, and 
intensity of use of resource-based parks, recreation facilities, and the 
recreational use of natural resources with the preservation of native 
Florida ecosystems, habitats, plants, and wildlife (State Plan Policies 
10.11, 10.12, 10.13). 

Measure: Annual change in the number of state and federal parks, 
preserves, forests and similar public lands with wildlife and 
habitat management plans. 

Policy 10.4.4.1. The conservation and preservation of native Florida 
ecosystems, habitats, plants, and wildlife, particularly threatened 
species, shall take priority over recreational use in conservation areas 
(DCA, DNR, GFVFC, RPC, VMD , LGV). 

Policy 10.4.4.2. Recreational activities and facilities shall not 

threaten the preservation and protection of representative samples of 

all habitat types native to north central Florida for future generations z*^ 

(DCA, DNR, GFWFC, RPC, VMD, LGV). ^ 

Policy 10.4.4.3. Hunting and fishing shall not threaten the survival of 
representative samples of animal species native to north central Florida, 
particularly critical species (GFWFC). 

Policy 10.4.4.4. The multiple use of privately-owned forest lands for 
timber production, hunting, recreation, wildlife habitat, watershed 
protection, erosion control, and maintenance of the water supply shall 
be maintained (DACS, DCA, DNR, DER, DMA, GFVFC, RPC, VMD). 

Policy 10.4.4.5. The take of hunters and fishermen by animal species 
and weight shall be carefully monitored (GFVFC). 

Policy 10.4.4.6. Recreational uses and intensity of use appropriate to 

and compatible with the preservation of the region's ecosystems, plants, 

wildlife, and water quality shall be identified (DCA, DNR, GFVFC, RPC, 
VMD ) . 

Policy 10.4.4.7. Recreational activities and facilities shall not 
infringe upon the proper functioning of habitat islands or habitat 
corridors (DCA, DNR, GFVFC, RPC, VMD). 



IV-10-8 



Policy 10.4.4.8. Compatible resource-based recreation activities, 
facilities such as primitive campsites and primitive hiking trails, and 
intensity of use which will not substantially impair the proper 
functioning of habitat corridors and habitat islands shall be identified 
(DCA, DNR, GFVFC, RPC, VMD ) . 

Policy 10.4.4.9. The most sensitive regionally significant flora and 
fauna habitat areas, including identified habitat islands, should be 
acquired by the public (DCA, DNR, GFWFC , RPC, VMD). 

Policy 10.4.4.10. Resource-based recreation activities and facilities 
shall avoid habitat islands (DCA, DNR, RPC, VMD, LGV). 

Policy 10.4.4.11. The study, designation, and implementation of canoe 
trails in the region shall be increased (DCA, DNR, RPC, VMD, LGV). 

Policy 10.4.4.12. The intensity of use for resource-base recreation 
activities such as canoe trails, hiking trails shall be compatible with 
the preservation of native Florida ecosystems, habitats, plants, and 
wildlife (DCA, DNR, DER , GFVFC, DACS, RPC, VMD, LGV). 

SEE ALSO LAND USE Policy 16.2.1.11. 



REGIONAL GOAL 10.4.5. Establish and maintain the Florida Trail through 
north central Florida (State Plan Policies 10.11, 10.12, 10.13). 

Measure: Annual change in the number of miles of Florida Trail. 

Policy 10.4.5.1. The Florida Trail should run continuously without 
breaks throughout the region ( USDA , DCA, DNR, GFVFC, VMD, Florida Trail 
Association ) . 

Policy 10.4.5.2. The Florida Trail should be routed through existing 
public lands to the greatest extent feasible (USDA, DCA, DNR, GFVFC, 
VMD, Florida Trail Association). 

Policy 10.4.5.3. Private property owners should be encouraged to 
voluntarily enter into easements or other agreements to allow the 
Florida Trail to traverse private property (Florida Trail Association). 

Policy 10.4.5.4. The intensity of use of the Florida Trail should be 
compatible with the preservation of native Florida ecosystems, 
habitats, plants, and wildlife (DCA, DNR, GFVFC, Florida Trail 
Association ) . 

Policy 10.4.5.5. The certification of the Florida Trail as part of the 
National Scenic Trail and State Recreational Trails System should be 
encouraged (DNR). 



IV-10-9 



STATE GOAL 1 1 : AIR QUALITY 

Florida shall comply with all national air quality standards by 1987, and 
by 1992 meet standards which are more stringent than 1985 state 
standards. 

Note: The goals and policies section of the regional plan is to be 
construed as a whole. Please review Energy, Mining, Land Use, and 
Transportation for additional applicable regional goals and policies. 

11.1. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #4^7: Improving Air Quality 

REGIONAL GOAL 11.1.1. Utilize all available conservation techniques and 
alternative energy sources to insure that north central Florida continues 
to meet and exceed all applicable federal and state air quality standards 
(State Plan Policies 11.1, 11.2, 11.3, 11.4, 11.5). 

Measure: Change in total particulate matter concentrations. 

Policy 11.1.1.1. The monitoring of regional air quality shall be 
continued (EPA, DER ) . 

Policy 11.1.1.2. A computer model of the impacts of various sources of 
pollutants, including new polluters, upon regional air quality shall be 
developed (DCA. EPA, DER, RPC, LGV, PSC). 

SEE ALSO PUBLIC SAFETY POLICY 7.2.1.3-, ENERGY Policies 12.2.3.4., 
12.2.3.5., 12.2.3-6., 12.2.5.5- 



REGIONAL GOAL: 11.1.2. Minimize line sources of air pollution by 
providing a transportation system, consisting of both public and private 
transportation systems, for the efficient movement of goods and 
passengers and provides for the convenient and efficient transfer between 
transportation modes (State Plan Policies 11.2). 

Measure: Change in the number of regional road network segments 
operating below the Level of Service standard. 

Policy 11.1.2.1. The sale of lead-based gasoline should be prohibited 
(EPA). 

SEE ALSO TRANSPORTATION Policies 20.1.1.1., 20.1.1.2., 20.1.1.3., 
20.1.1.4., 20.1.1.7., 20.1.1.8., 20.1.3-1., 20.1.3.2., 20.1.4.1., 
20.1.4.2., 20.1.4.4. 



REGIONAL GOAL 11.1.3. Minimize air pollution emissions from area sources 
of pollution (State Plan Policies 11.1, 11.2, 11.3, 1 1 . 4- , 11.5). 

Measure: Change in total particulate matter concentrations. 



IV-1 1 -1 



Policy 11.1.3-1. Discourage the use of controlled burnings for site 
preparation in development construction activities within designated 
urban areas (DCA, EPA, RPC, LGV, DER ) . 

Policy 11.1.3.2. Continue to allow controlled burnings for agricultural 
silviculture, and mine preparation activities (DCA, EPA, RPC, LGV, DER). 

Policy 11.1.3.3. Take efforts to reduce other forms of pollution before 
taking measures to limit controlled burnings for forestry, agriculture, 
and phosphate mining if and when such controls should become necessary 
(DCA, EPA, RPC, LGV, DER). 

Policy 11.1.3.4. The use of Best Management Practices and other soil 
conservation techniques which minimize wind-borne soil erosion should be 
required (DCA, EPA, RPC, LGV, DER, DACS, VMD ) . 



REGIONAL GOAL 11.1.4. Minimize pollution emissions from point sources of 
air pollution (State Plan Policies 11.1, 11.2, 11.3, 11.4, 1 1 . 5 ) ._ 

Measure: Change in total particulate matter concentrations. 

Policy 11.1.4.1. Prevent dioxin emissions from regional mass burning and 
refuse derived fuel burning facilities through the use of scrubbers or 
other pollution control devices (DCA, RPC, LGV). 

Policy 11.1.4.2. Continue to meet state and federal point source 
emission standards (DCA, EPA, RPC, LGV, DER). 

Policy 11.1.4.3. Air pollution emissions from wood burning stoves shall 
be minimized through the use of catalytic converters or other pollution 
control devices (DCA, RPC, LGV, DER). 

Policy 11.1.4.4. Power plant fuel conversion shall not result in higher 
levels of air pollution (DCA, EPA. RPC, LGV, DER). 

Policy 11.1.4.5. The siting of major point source generators of air 
emissions shall take into consideration wind patterns to minimize outfall 
on designated urban areas and regionally significant natural areas (DCA, 
RPC, LGV, DER). 



( 



IV-1 1-2 



J 



STATE GOAL 12: ENERGY 

Florida shall reduce its energy requirements through enhanced 
conservation and efficiency measures in all end-use sectors, while at the 
same time promoting an increased use of renewable energy resources. 

Note: The goals and policies section of the regional plan is to be 

construed as a whole. Please review Agriculture, Air Quality, Land Use, 

and Transportation for additional applicable regional goals and 
policies. 

12.1. Regional Issue/Policy Cluster Title #48: Energy Resources 

REGIONAL GOAL 12.1.1. Encourage and promote the use of natural and 
renewable energy resources consistent with sound energy management 
principles (State Plan Policies 12.1, 12.2, 12.6, 12.7, 12.8, 12.9). 

Measure: Change in statewide annual per capita energy consumption 
by type of fuel . 

Policy 12.1.1.1. The application of the principle of sustained yield in 
the management of the region's renewable resources shall be encouraged 
(DCA, EPA, GFVF, RPC, LGV , DNR, VMD , SCS , DOI , ACE. USFVS). 

Policy 12.1.1.2. The use of renewable resources as a regional energy 
resource, combined with appropriate pollution control and public safety 
regulations, shall be encouraged (DCA, DACS). 

Policy 12.1.1.3. The use of agricultural and forestry waste products as 
an energy source shall be encouraged (DCA, DACS, EOG, SEC). 

Policy 12.1.1.4. Encourage an increase in the percentage of total 
kilowatt-hours derived from renewable energy resources (DCA, EPA, RPC, 
LGV, DNR, PSC). 

Policy 12.1.1.5. Public utility companies shall promote the uploading of 
electricity generated by small scale electrical energy producers to the 
power grid (DCA, PSC). 

SEE ALSO AGRICULTURE Policy 25.1.1.3. 



REGIONAL GOAL 12.1.2. Promote the development and application of solar 
energy technologies and passive solar design techniques (State Plan 
Policies 12.6, 12.7, 12.5,12.9, 12.10). 

Measure: Change in statewide annual per capita energy consumption 
by type of fuel. 

Policy 12.1.2.1. Research of solar driven water heating and air 
conditioning and other energy dependent systems should be supported (EOG, 
SEC, DCA, EPA, PSC, EOG, SEC). 



IV-12-1 



Policy 12.1.2.2. Public education and awareness of solar energy 
alternatives shall be increased (EOG, SEC. DCA , RPC, LGV , PSC, DOE. CSB) 

Policy 12.1.2.5. The use of solar energy systems shall be encouraged 
(EOG, SEC, DCA, RPC, LGV). 

Policy 12.1.2.4. The percentage of total kilowatt-hours derived from 
solar energy shall be increased (DCA, RPC, LGV, PSC). 

Policy 12.1.2.5. State, local, and federal incentives shall be 
established to promote the use of solar energy (DCA. RPC, LGV, PSC). 



REGIONAL GOAL 12.1.3- Encourage the capture and use of energy from waste 
products and recycling to reduce dependence upon non-renewable energy 
resources (State Plan Policies 12.1, 12.2, 12.6, 12.8, 12.9). 

Measure: Change in statewide annual per capita energy consumption 
by type of fuel. __ 

Policy 12.1.3.1. The capture and reuse of methane gas generated as a 
byproduct of the wastewater treatment process shall be encouraged (EOG, 
SEC, DCA, DER, EOG, SEC, RPC, LGV). 

Policy 12.1.3.2. The capture and use of methane gas generated as a 
byproduct of the decomposition process in nonhazardous solid waste 
disposal facilities shall be encouraged (DCA, DER, EOG, SEC, RPC, LGV). 

SEE ALSO HAZARDOUS AND NONHAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND WASTE Policies 
13.2.2.4., 13.2.2.5., 13.2.2.6., 13.2.2.7., 13.2.2.8., 13.2.2.9. 
13.2.2.10., 13.2.2.11., 13.2.2.12. 



REGIONAL GOAL 12.1.4. Encourage the use of temperature differentials as 
an energy resource (State Plan Policies 12.1, 12.2, 12.6, 12.8, 12.9). 

Measure: Change in statewide annual per capita energy consumption 
by type of fuel . 

Policy 12.1.4.1. The use of heat pumps for building heating and cooling 
shall be encouraged (DCA, RPC, DOS). 



REGIONAL GOAL 12.1.5. Develop and maintain effective energy preparedness 

plans for use in energy crises (State Fian Policies 12.6, 12. IS, 12.5). 

Measure: Change in the number of up-to-date local government energy 
preparedness plans. 

Policy 12.1.5.1. Generators of electric and gas energy shall continue to 
maintain reserves of fossil fuel to be used in an energy crisis (DCA, 
PSC, EOG, SEC). 



IV-12-2 



Policy 12.1.5.2. Generators of electric and gas energy shall make energy 
preparedness plans known to the public which include how citizens will be 
expected to help ( DCA , PSC, EOG, SEC). 

Policy 12.1.5.3. The region's interests in state and national 
development of rationing and allocation policies shall be represented 
(DCA, PSC, EOG, SEC, RPC). 



12.2. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #49: Efficient Use of Energy 

REGIONAL GOAL 12.2.1. Minimize per capita gasoline consumption by 
providing a transportation system, consisting of both public and private 
transportation systems, for the efficient movement of goods and 
passengers and provides for the convenient and efficient transfer between 
transportation modes (State Plan Policies 12.1, 12.3, 12.4, 12.6). 

Measure: Change in the number of regional road network segments 
operating below the Level of Service standard. __ 

SEE ALSO TRANSPORTATION Policies 20.1.1.1., 20.1.1.2., 20.1.1.3., 
20.1.1.4., 20.1.1.7., 20.1.1.18., 20.1.3-1., 20.1.3.2., 20.1.4.1., 
20.1 .4.3. , 20.1 .4.4. 



REGIONAL GOAL 12.2.2. Utilize all available conservation techniques and 
alternative energy sources in existing and future developments to insure 
that North Central Florida minimizes reliance on non-renewable energy 
resources (State Plan Policies 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 12.4, 12.5, 12.6, 12.7, 
12.8, 12.9, 12.10). 

Measure: Change in statewide annual per capita energy consumption 
by type of fuel. 

Policy 12.2.2.1. Maintain the Florida Energy Efficiency Code for 
Construction (DCA, RPC, LGV). 

Policy 12.2.2.2. Energy efficient design practices shall be encouraged 
in new development by either using density bonuses or other incentives 
which encourage the use of energy conservation devices such as solar 
water and space heaters and heat pumps, and building design techniques 
such as energy efficient landscaping, passive solar designs, and solar 
orientation of buildings and subdivisions (DCA, RPC, LGV). 

Policy 12.2.2.3. Developments undergoing DHI review shall be awarded 
density bonuses and other incentives to implement energy conservation 
designs such as the use of solar water and space heaters, heat pumps, 
energy efficient landscaping, passive solar designs, and solar 
orientation of buildings and subdivisions (DCA, RPC, LGV). 

Policy 12.2.2.4. The use of landscape design and the utilization of 
passive and active solar energy design as energy conservation techniques 
shall be encouraged in all future development (DCA, RPC, LGV). 



IV-12-3 



Policy 12.2.2.5. The use of solar water heaters in residential 
construction shal] be encouraged ( DCA , RPC, EOG, SEC, LGV). 

Policy 12.2.2.6. The establishment of residential energy audit and 
conservation services within the region shall be encouraged (DCA, RPC, 
LGV, PSC). 

Policy 12.2.2.7. Electrical consumption statistics shall be improved to 
provide county-level data (DCA, RPC, PSC). 

Policy 12.2.2.8. Regulations requiring the posting of energy efficiency 
ratings on all household appliances offered for sale within the region 
shall be encouraged (DCA, PSC). 



REGIONAL GOAL 12.2.5. Increase public education and awareness of energy 
related issues, trends, opportunities and information (State Plan 
Policies 12.2, 12.8, 12.7, 12.9, 12.10). 

Measure: Change in statewide annual per capita energy consumption 
by type of fuel . 

Policy 12.2.5.1. A fair, factual and comprehensive overview of 
energy-related issues and trends shall be provided to the public (DCA, 
PSC, CSB). 

Policy 12.2.5.2. Media programs to educate the public on energy 
conservation, alternative energy sources and resource conservation shall 
be made available (DCA, PSC, EOG, SEC, CSB). 

Policy 12.2.5.5. Technical information to aid public and private energy 
related decisions and investments shall be increased (DCA PSC, RPC, LGV, 
CSB). 

Policy 12.2.5.4. Demonstrations of innovative energy conservation 
techniques and alternative energy technology projects shall be increased 
(DCA, PSC, RPC, LGV, CSB). 

Policy 12.2.5.5. Identification, evaluation, and utilization of capital 
and energy conserving technologies shall be emphasized (DCA, RPC, LGV). 



REGIONAL GOAL 12.2.4. Increase the role of electric utility companies in 
reducing per capita energy consumption (State Plan Policies 12.1, 12.2, 

•OCT • '^ C -^.^ M>^^,f^,n\ 

Measure: Change in statewide annual per capita energy consumption 
by type of fuel. 

Policy 12.2.4.1. Encourage electric utilities to develop alternative 
energy sources such as solar energy (PSC). 



IV-12-4 



Policy 12.2.4.2. Expenditures shall be reduced for peak load generation 
capacity by encouraging the development of methods for reducing peak load 
demand (PSC). 

Policy 12.2.4.5. Rate structures should give increased emphasis to the 
marginal costs of consumption as well as energy conservation measures 
implemented by consumers (PSC). 

Policy 12.2.4.4. All utilities shall be encouraged to continue 
educational programs in energy conservation (PSC). 

Policy 12.2.4.5. The conversion of all electrical power transformers to 
amorphous metal alloy transformers shall be encouraged (PSC). 

Policy 12.2.4.6. Information shall be provided to commercial and 
residential energy users to assist them in employing life cycle cost 
analysis or similar techniques when evaluating equipment and appliance 
purchases (PSC). 

Policy 12.2.4.7. Encourage the purchase of energy-efficient appliances 
by informing consumers about energy efficiency ratings and encouraging 
appliance dealers to stock and promote energy-efficient products (PSC). 

Policy 12.2.4.8. The Weather ization Assistance Program administered by 
the Department of Community Affairs to assist in the weather ization of 
homes owned by low-income families should be maintained (DCA). 



IV-12-5 



n 



STATE GOAL 13: HAZARDOUS AND NONHAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND WASTE 

All solid waste, including hazardous waste, wastewater, and all hazardous 
materials, shall be properly managed, and the use of landfills shall be 
eventually eliminated. 

Note: The goals and policies section of the regional plan is to be 
construed as a whole. Please review Water Resources, Land Use, and 
Public Facilities for additional applicable regional goals and policies. 



15.1. Regional Issue/Cluster Title: #50: Reduce Hazardous Waste and 
Materials 

REGIONAL GOAL 13.1.1. Properly manage all hazardous waste within the 
region (State Plan Policies 13.2, 13.3, 13.4, 13.6, 13.10, 13.11). 

Measure: Change in number of local governments with hazardous waste 
management programs. 

Policy 13.1.1.1. A comprehensive waste management program shall be 
maintained ( DCA , DER , EPA, RPC, LGV, DNR , WMD ) . 

Policy 13.1.1.2. State and local governments shall be encouraged to 
adopt hazardous materials management regulations which address the use, 
storage, and transportation of hazardous materials (DCA, DER, EPA, RPC, 
LGV, DNR, WMD). 

Policy 13.1.1.3. Landfills shall monitor incoming refuse to prevent 
hazardous waste from being improperly disposed (DCA, DER, RPC, LGV). 

Policy 1 3 . 1 . 1 . 4- . The feasibility of establishing a hazardous 
materials/waste emergency containment team which can respond to and 
properly contain any accidental hazardous materials/waste spill within 
the region shall be evaluated by the Council (DCA, DER, EPA, RPC, LGV). 

Policy 13.1.1.5. Public awareness of hazardous waste classification, 
generation, and handling techniques shall be increased (DCA, DER, EPA, 
LGV). 

Policy 13.1.1.6, Hazardous waste and materials should be disposed of 
within the regional planning district in which the waste is generated or 
the materials are used. 



REGIONAL GOAL 13.1.2. Reduce the amount of improperly disposed domestic 
hazardous waste (State Plan Policy 13.10). 

Measure: Change in number of local governments with hazardous waste 
management programs. 



IV-13-1 



Policy 13.1.2.1. North central Florida residents shall be made aware 

through public education and information programs of the proper and 

improper methods for disposal of low volumes of hazardous waste ( DCA , 
DER, EPA. LGV). 

Policy 15.1.2.2. All north central Florida residents shall have the 
opportunity, to the extent possible, to conveniently and properly dispose 
of their hazardous wastes (DCA, DER, EPA, RPC, LGV). 

Policy 13.1.2.5. An annual amnesty days program or permanent sites shall 
be established for the convenient and prompt collection of domestic 
hazardous wastes (DCA, RPC, LGV). 



REGIONAL GOAL 15.1.5. Ensure the safe transportation of hazardous 
materials and wastes through the region (State Plan Policies 15.2, 13.4, 
13.6, 13.11). 

Measure: The number of hazardous waste spills involving hazardous 
waste haulers per year. 

Policy 15.1.5.1. Hazardous waste haulers shall be encouraged to minimize 
accident risk during travel on the highways (DCA, DOT, EPA). 

Policy 15.1.5.2. Hazardous material haulage vehicles and gasoline 
tankers shall be highly maintained and safety certified (DCA, DOT, EPA). 

Policy 15.1.5.5. The awareness of transporters of hazardous materials 
and waste of the potential dangers of hauling materials through 
population centers and valuable environmental resources shall be 
increased (DCA, DOT, DER, EPA, RPC, LGV, DNR, VMD ) . 



REGIONAL GOAL 15.1.4. Ensure that all generators of hazardous waste 
within the region have the opportunity for safe disposal of their waste 
(State Plan Policy 13.2). 

Measure: The number of collection/transfer sites in the region 
developed for households, small businesses, and other low volume 
generators per year. 

Policy 13.1.4.1. A network of hazardous waste collection/transfer 
facilities with convenient access by households, small businesses, and 
other SQG's shall be established (DCA. EPA. RPC, LGV). 

Policy 15.1.4.2. Where feasible, hazardous waste treatment facilities 
shall be established within the region to treat all hazardous wastes 
generated within the region (DCA. DER, EPA, RPC, LGV). 

REGIONAL GOAL 15-1.5. Protect the soils, surf acewater s , and groundwaters 
from pollution from hazardous wastes (State Plan Policies 15.3, 13-5, 
13.6, 13.11). 



IV-13-2 



Measure: The annual number of on-site Small Quantity Generators of 
hazardous wastes inspections. 

Measure: The number of pounds of toxic chemicals released into the 
environment each year as reported under Section 313 of the Emergency 
Planning and Community Right to Know Act of 1986. 

Policy 13.1.5.1. Any solid waste landfill, hazardous waste treatment, 
storage, transfer, and collection site, as well as facilities storing or 
utilizing significant amounts of radioactive materials located within 
high percolation rate recharge areas, stream-to-sink watersheds, the 
Suwannee-Santa Fe river system, wetlands, regionally significant natural 
areas, coastal high hazard areas, the coastal marsh, estuaries, and 
coastal freshwater wetlands shall be permitted only upon assurances that 
the potential for significant adverse impacts to the environment are 
minimized (DCA, DER , RPC, LGV). 

Policy 13.1.5.2. An inventory of abandoned disposal sites in the region 
shall be conducted with the cooperation of local governments (DCA, DER, 
RPC, LGV, VMD). 

Policy 13.1.5.3. All hazardous waste dump sites within the region shall 
be identified, monitored, and scheduled for clean up (DCA, DER, EPA, RPC, 
LGV) . 

Policy 13.1.5.4. The use of pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers 
shall not cause significant environmental damage. 



REGIONAL GOAL 13.1.6. Prevent groundwater and surfacewater contamination 
from underground storage tanks (State plan Policies 13.2, 13.3, 13.4, 
13.5, 13.6, 13.11). 

Measure: The number of local governments requiring leakage 
detection devices, liners, and annual pressure leak checks for all 
underground storage tanks. 

Policy 13.1.6.1. State and local regulations which require leakage 
detection devices, liners, and annual pressure leak checks for all 
underground storage tanks shall be developed (DCA, DER, LGV). 

Policy 13.1.6.2. All leaking or abandoned underground storage tanks 
shall either be removed, filled with an appropriate inert substance, or 
repaired (DCA, DER, LGV). 

Policy 13.1.6.3. All underground storage tanks shall be identified and 
listed in a computerized data base (DCA, DER, RPC, VMD). 

Policy 13.1.6.4. Underground storage tanks shall not be located near 
private and public water supplies. 



IV-13-3 



REGIONAL GOAL 13.1.7. Use technologies which reduce the generation of 
hazardous waste (State Plan Policies 13.2, 13.6). 

Measure: Change in the annual amount of waste recycled. 

Measure: Annual change in the number of small and large quantity 
generators of hazardous waste. 

Policy 13.1.7.1. Large and small quantity generators shall be required 
to reduce waste by on-site treatment, waste recycling, change in 
production methods, and substitution of raw materials ( DCA , DER , EPA, 
RPC, LGV). 



13-2. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #51: Wastewater and Solid Waste 
Treatment and Disposal 

REGIONAL GOAL 13.2.1. Ensure that nonhazardous solid waste is properly 
managed (State Plan Policy 13.9). 

Measure: Change in the number of landfills constructed in 
accordance with State landfill construction regulations. 

Policy 13.2.1.1. Solid waste landfills, hazardous waste treatment, 
storage, transfer, and collection sites, and facilities storing or 
utilizing significant amounts of radioactive materials shall not be 
located near a private or public water supply (DCA, DER, HRS, RPC, WMD, 
LGV). 

Policy 13.2.1.2. All future landfills shall, at a minimum, be 
constructed in accordance with State landfill construction regulations 
(DCA, DER). 



REGIONAL GOAL 13.2.2. Reduce the region's dependence on landfills as a 
means of disposing of nonhazardous solid waste (State Plan Policies 13.1, 
13.7, 13.8). 

Measure: Change in the annual amount of per capita nonhazardous 
solid waste disposed in solid waste landfills. 

Policy 13.2.2.1. A regional solid waste management plan shall be 
prepared which addresses all possible alternatives and solutions to the 
proper management of solid wastes (DCA, DER, RPC, WMD). 

Policy 13.2.2.2. Public awareness and public education programs should 
be implemented to inform the region's residents of the need and methods 
of recycling household refuse (DCA, DER, EPA, LGV). 

Policy 13.2.2.3. Reduction, reuse, recycling, and composting shall be 
encouraged prior to energy recovery from wastes and landfills (DCA, DER, 
RPC, WMD, LGV). 



IV-13-4 



Policy 13.2.2.4. A minimum deposit should be required on all beverage 
containers (LEG). 

Policy 13.2.2.5. Source separation of nonhazardous solid waste shall be 
encouraged as a method of recycling non-renewable natural resources to 
reduce reliance upon solid waste landfills (DCA, DER , RFC, LGV ) . 

Policy 13.2.2.6. The feasibility of establishing recycling centers to 
recycle solid waste shall be investigated (DCA, DER, RFC, LGV). 

Policy 13.2.2.7. Recycling programs shall be established by a 
partnership of local governments, waste collectors, and waste utilization 
enterprises (DCA, DER, RFC, LGV). 

Policy 13.2.2.8. The development of new methods of resource recovery 
shall be encouraged (DCA, DER, RFC, LGV). 

Policy 13.2.2.9. The construction of waste to energy refuse derived 
fuel burning facilities shall be considered as a method of reducing 
reliance upon non-renewable energy resources (DCA, DER, RFC, LGV). 

Policy 13.2.2.10. The use of non- disposable and other methods to 
minimize waste generation rates shall be encouraged (DCA, DER, RFC, LGV). 



REGIONAL GOAL 13.2.3. Ensure that any future waste to energy mass 
burning facilities minimize potential threats the environment as well as 
public health risks (State Flan Policies 13.1, 13.7, 13-8). 

Measure: Change in the number of waste to energy mass burning 
facilities located within the region. 

Policy 13.2.3.1. Waste to energy mass burning and refuse derived fuel 
burning facilities shall be avoided within high percolation rate recharge 
areas, stream-to-sink watersheds, the Suwannee River Corridor, wetlands, 
regionally significant natural areas, coastal marsh, estuaries, or 
coastal freshwater wetlands (DCA, RFC, LGV). 

Policy 13.2.3.2. Waste to energy mass burning facilities shall avoid 
locations within or in close proximity to designated urban development 
areas or prime agricultural lands (DCA, RFC, LGV). 

Policy 13.2.3.3. All waste to energy mass burning facilities shall be 
constructed and operated so as to minimize dioxin emissions (DER, EPA, 
DCA , RFC ) . 



REGIONAL GOAL 13.2.4. Encourage the development and implementation of 
recycling programs to reduce the amount of materials disposed of in 
nonhazardous solid waste landfills (State Flan Policies 13.1, 13.7,). 

Measure: Change in the annual amount of recyclable material 
recovered in the region. 



IV-13-5 



Policy 13-2.4.1. Local government comprehensive plans and implementation 

regulations shall require source separation of nonhazar dous solid waste 

including but not limited to newspaper, aluminum, steel, and clear glass 

by all generators commercial and domestic nonhazardous solid waste (DCA, 
RPC LGV). 

Policy 15.2.4.2. Development of new methods of resource recovery which 
appear to have substantial benefits should be encouraged (DCA, LGV). 

SEE ALSO HAZARDOUS AND NONHAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND WASTE Policies 
13.2.2.5., 13.2.2.8., 13.2.2.9- 



REGIONAL GOAL 13.2.5. Encourage the development and implementation of 
alternative methods of wastewater treatment and disposal that are 
environmentally sound (State Plan Policy 13.9). 

Measure: Change in the number of local government comprehensive 
plans which have adequately addressed this goal. 

Policy 13.2,5-1. Secondary wastewater treatment shall be the minimum 
treatment level required of all wastewaters generated in designated urban 
development areas (DCA, DER , RPC, LGV). 

Policy 13.2.5.2. Tertiary and advanced wastewater treatment shall be 
encouraged in environmentally sensitive areas (DCA, DNR, DER, VMD, RPC, 
LGV). 

Policy 13.2.5.3. Package wastewater treatment plants shall be limited 
for use by urban development located within designated urban development 
areas. Package wastewater treatment plants may be used outside of 
designated urban development areas for special use facilities such as 
rest stops, parks, and resource-based recreation uses (DCA, DER, RPC, 
VMD, LGV). 

Policy 13.2.5.4. Within designated urban development areas, package 
wastewater treatment plants shall be permitted only as a temporary 
treatment facility and only where plans exist to replace the temporary 
facility with centralized wastewater treatment facilities within a 5-year 
capital improvements program. The developer of such temporary package 
treatment plants should be required to enter into a legally binding 
agreement which dedicates and assigns responsibility for the proper 
maintenance and operation of the plant to local government. Such 
agreement shall provide adequate compensation by the developer to the 
local government for tne proper operation and maintenance of the plant 
(DCA, DER, RPC, WMD , LGV). 

Policy 13.2.5.5. Water reuse of treated effluent for irrigation purposes 
shall be practiced by municipal and private wastewater facilities where 
feasible (DCA, DER, RPC, LGV). 

Policy 13.2.5.6. Water hyacinth or other vegetation based secondary and 
tertiary wastewater treatment plants shall be investigated and 
implemented where feasible (DCA, DER, RPC, LGV). 

IV-13-6 



Policy 13.2.5.7. The use of deep well injection techniques for the 
discharge of surfacewater or other wastewater shall be limited to methods 
which prevent inadequately treated waters from reaching either the 
Floridan, secondary, or surficial aquifers ( DER , VMD , RPC, LGV). 

Policy 13.2.5.8. The extension of water and sewer services seaward of 
the Coastal Construction Control Line outside of designated urban 
development areas shall be avoided (DCA, RPC, LGV). 

Policy 13.2.5.9. The extension of water and sewer services seaward of 
the coastal marsh outside of designated urban development areas shall be 
avoided (DCA, RPC, LGV). 

Policy 13.2.5.10. The extension of water and sewer services seaward of 
the coastal marsh outside of designated urban development areas shall be 
avoided (DCA, RPC, LGV). 

SEE ALSO PUBLIC FACILITIES Policy 18.2.1.8. 



REGIONAL GOAL 13.2.6. Ensure that wastewater and wastewater treatment 
byproducts do not pollute the region's groundwater or surf acewater s 
(State Plan Policy 13.7, 13-9). 

Measure: Annual change in the number of designated urban 
development areas with centralized wastewater treatment systems 
providing at least secondary wastewater treatment. 

Policy 13.2.6.1. Septic tanks shall be discouraged in those locations 
where soils are unsuitable, densities of dwellings are high, and in areas 
with high water tables (DCA, DER, HRS , RPC, LGV, VMD). 

Policy 13.2.6.2. Wastewater treatment plants shall not significantly 
degrade existing ambient water quality levels to those water bodies 
receiving wastewater treatment plant discharge (DER). 

Policy 13.2.6.3. Regular maintenance of septic tanks shall be 
encouraged to prevent improper functioning (DCA, DER, HRS, LGV, VMD). 

Policy 13.2.6.4. The placement of septic tank systems and package 
wastewater treatment plants shall be limited to places which will not 
pollute the groundwater ( DNR , DER, HRS, RPC, VMD, LGV). 

Policy 13.2.6.5. All septic tank systems shall be placed a sufficient 
distance from rivers, wetlands, springs, spring runs, lakes, and other 
water bodies to prevent improperly treated sewage from reaching surface 
waters (DER, HRS, RPC, VMD, LGV). 

Stajidard: At least seventy-five feet from the commonly recognized 
feature's edge. 

Policy 13.2.6.6. Septic tanks and package wastewater treatment plants 
which are not operating properly shall be upgraded (DER, HRS, RPC, VMD, 
LGV). 

IV-13-7 



Policy 13.2.6.7. All sewage treatment ponds shall be sealed to prevent 
sewage infiltration of the water-table aquifer and pollution of 
sur f acewaters (DER). 

SEE ALSO REGIONAL PLAN POLICIES 16.2.2.59., 16.2.2.40. 



REGIONAL GOAL 13.2.7. Minimize wastewater treatment needs by minimizing 
per capita water consumption (State Plan Policies 13.7, 13.9). 

Measure: Annual change in the number of local government plans 
which adequately addressed this goal. 

SEE ALSO VATER RESOURCES Policies 8.1.11.8., 8.1.11.9., 8.1.11.13., 
8.1.11.14. 



IV-13-8 



STATE GOAL 14: MINING 

Florida shall protect its air, land and water resources from the adverse 
effects of resource extraction and ensure that the disturbed areas are 
reclaimed or restored to beneficial use as soon as reasonably possible. 

Note: The goals and policies section of the regional plan is to be 
construed as a whole. Please review Air Quality, Energy, and Land Use, 
for additional applicable regional goals and policies. 



14.1. Regional Issue/Policy Cluster #52: Reclamation of Mined Areas 

REGIONAL GOAL 14.1.1. All mined areas in the region shall be reclaimed 
(State Plan Policies 14.1. 14.2, 14.3, 14.4, 14.5, 14.9). 

Measure: Change in the annual number of acres of reclaimed mining 
lands . 

Policy 14.1.1.1. Reclamation standards shall be adhered to and 
reclamation shall be timely ( DER , DNR , ACE). 

Policy 14.1.1.2. Phosphate mining firms and owners of unreclaimed lands 
which were mined prior to July 1, 1975 and which have not been reclaimed 
shall be encouraged to submit reclamation plans which meed state 
eligibility requirements for the "Nonmandatory Lands Trust Fund" (DCA, 
DNR, DER). 

Policy 14.1.1.3. Mine operators of the region shall be required to 
provide evidence that they are financially able to reclaim the site (DCA, 
DNR, DER). 

Policy 14.1.1.4. State-mandated reclamation should be expanded to all 
types of mining activities (DCA, DNR, DER). 

Policy 14.1.1.5. Where necessary, mine operators shall be required to 
insure that reclamation will be paid for (LGV). 



REGIONAL GOAL 14.1.2. Provide a proper balance of economic activities, 
recreation, and habitat preservation on reclaimed lands (State Plan 
Policies 14.1, 14.2, 14.5, 14.4, 14.5, 14.6, 14.7, 14.8, 14.9). 

Measure: Change in the number of acres by land use type within 
reclaimed raining lands. 

Policy 14.1.2.1. Consideration shall be given to the potential for 
economic re-use of reclaimed lands (DCA, DNR, DER, ACE, RPC, LGV). 

Policy 14.1.2.2. Consideration shall be given to the recreational use of 
reclaimed lakes (DCA, DNR, DER, ACE, RPC, LGV). 



IV-14-1 



Policy 14.1.2.5. Reclamation plans shall not conflict with local Z' •* 

government comprehensive plans or the comprehensive regional policy plan 
(DCA, DNR, DER, ACE, RPC, LGV ) . 



REGIONAL GOAL 14.1.3. Reclaimed natural ecosystems shall have biological 
diversity, replicate trends characteristic of comparable natural 
ecosystems, restore or enhance water quality, quantity, and habitat 
functions, and groundwater recharge, hydroperiod maintenance, and similar 
hydrologic functions (State Plan Policies 14.1, 14.2, 14.3, 14.4, 14.5, 
14.6, 14.7, 14.8, 14.9). 

Measure: The number of reclamation plans which adequately address 
this goal by the year 1991. 

Policy 14.1.3.1. Land and water resources affected by mining activities 
shall be reclaimed to a functional condition as soon as possible (DCA) 
(DCA, DER, DNR, EPA ACE). 

Policy 14.1.3.2. Reclaimed lands shall duplicate as closely as possible 
the water quality and hydroperiod of the original landscape (DCA, DNR, 
DER, ACE). 

Policy 14.1.3.3. All stream systems disturbed by mining shall be 
reclaimed to approximate their original discharge characteristics 
including peak discharge and minimum flow (DCA, DNR, DER, ACE). 



Policy 14.1.3.4. Landforms shall be designed to approximate premining 
hydrologic systems to provide aquifer recharge, ensure the quality of 
water entering the groundwater system, protect against stormwater runoff, 
and re-establish surface water outflow within historic peak flow-minimum 
flow for downstream protection (DCA, DNR, DER, ACE, VMD ) . 

Policy 14.1.3.5. Every effort shall be made to create on reclaimed lands 
biological communities similar to those present in natural systems (DCA, 
DNR, DER, ACE). 

Policy 14.1.3.6. Devegetated areas shall be revegetated with native 
species after reclamation (DCA, DNR, DER, ACE). 

Policy 14.1.3.7. Open water pits shall, where appropriate, be reclaimed 
to insure development of littoral zones for fish and wildlife habitat 
(DCA, DNR, DER, ACE). 

Policy 14.1.3.8. Peat mines shall be restored to productive freshwater 
marsh and lake habitats (DCA, DNR, DER, ACE). 



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14.2. Regional Issue/Policy Cluster: #55: Mining Regulation 

REGIONAL GOAL 14.2.1. Develop a comprehensive approach to regulating 
resource extraction (State Plan Policies 14.1, 14.2, 14.3, 14.4, 14.5, 
14.6, 14.7, 14.8, 14.9) . 

Measure: The creation of a coordinated process of mining regulation 
by the year 1 991 . 

Policy 14.2.1.1. A coordinated process of regulating mining activities 
involving local governments as well as the Regional Planning Council 
which includes permitting, inspection, and reclamation should be 
developed (DCA, DNR , DER , ACE, RFC, WMD , LGV). 

Policy 14.2.1.2. A comprehensive regulatory process shall be developed 
wherein the requirements of the various political entities are 
coordinated in subject matter, policy, and review (DCA, DNR, DER, ACE, 
RPC, VMD, LGV). 

Policy 14.2.1.3. A comprehensive regulation and reclamation program 
shall be developed that addresses all mining activities (DCA, DNR, DER, 
ACE, RPC, VMD, LGV). 

SEE ALSO MINING Goal 14.1.1. and Policies 14.1.1.1., 14.1.1.2., 
14.1 .1.3., 14.1.1 .4. 



14.3. Regional Issue/Policy Cluster #54: Environmental Protection 

REGIONAL GOAL 14.3.1. Lands containing irreplaceable resources of great 
value shall not be mined (State Plan Policies 14.1, 14.5, 14.6, 14.9). 

Measure: Change in the annual number of acres of lands mined within 
regionally significant natural areas. 

Policy 14.3.1.1. Mining shall be avoided within government-owned lands 
designated as parks, preserves wildlife refuges, forests, recreational 
areas, and other government-owned areas similarly-designated for 
conservation and recreation purposes (DCA, DNR, DER, EPA, DOI, HSMV , DOT, 
ACE, RPC, LGV). 

Policy 14.3.1.2. Mining shall be avoided in the coastal marsh, 
estuaries, and coastal freshwater wetlands (DCA, DNR, DER, VMD, LGV). 

Policy 14.3.1.3. Mining shall not be allowed within 500 feet of the 
Suwannee Santa Fe river system, upstream .5 mile of any second-order 
tributary of the Suwannee-Santa Fe river system, within 500 feet of any 
1st, 2nd, or 3rd magnitude spring or any regionally significant sinkhole 
(DCA, DNR, DER, ACE). 



IV-14-3 



Policy 14.5.1.4. Any activity or proposed activity affecting any of the 
region's hardwood or cypress/gum swamps shall be permitted only upon 
assurances that significant impacts to values identified for that 
particular resource are mitigated. However, silviculture activities may 
be permitted subject to Best Management Practices (DCA, DNR , DER , ACE, 
GFWFC, RFC, LGV). 

Policy 14.5.1.5. Mining shall be avoided within regionally significant 
rivers and streams, including the streamside setbacks (DCA, DNR, DER, 
ACE). 



REGIONAL GOAL 14.5.2. Protect representative samples of original Florida 
habitat from mining operations (State Plan Policies 14.1, 14.5, 14.6, 
14.9). 

Measure: Change in the annual number of acres of lands mined within 
regionally significant natural areas. 

Policy 14.5.2.1. Mining shall be guided away from areas where endangered 
species are known to exist (DCA, DNR, DER, ACE, GFWF ) . 

Policy 14.5.2.2. Mining shall be guided away from all identified 
regionally significant natural areas (DCA, DNR, DER, ACE, RPC, LGV). 



REGIONAL GOAL 14.5.5. Water quality, both surface and groundwater, shall 
be protected during any mining operation (State Plan Policies 14.1, 14.2, 
14.5, 14.4, 14.5, 14.6, 14.8, 14.9). 

Measure: Change in the amount of significant degradation of the 
ambient water quality of the Floridan aquifer or any Outstanding 
Florida Water through the year 2010. 

Measure: Change in DER-prescr ibed water quality for surfacewater 
and groundwaters adjacent or near mining sites through the year 
2010. 

Policy 14.5.5.1 - Mining shall not significantly degrade the water 
quality of the Floridan aquifer or any water body of the region 
designated as an Outstanding Florida Water (DER, DNR, EPA, ACE, RPC, 
LGV). 

Policy 14.5.5.2. Mining operations shall not affect existing users of 
ground or surfacewater adjacent to the mine site (DCA, DNR, DER, EPA, 
ACE, RPC, LGV). 

Policy 14.5.5.5. Adverse impacts of waste disposal associated with 
resource extraction shall be reduced (DCA, DER, EPA). 

SEE ALSO MINING Policies 14.5.1.2., 14.5.1.5-, 14.5.1-5. 



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REGIONAL GOAL 14.5.4. Setbacks shall be provided from mining operations 
for public safety and as a visual buffer (State Plan Policies 14.1, 14.4, 
14.6, 14.7, 14.9). 

Measure: The development of state regulations requiring mining 
setbacks from the regional road network and adjacent properties by 
the year 1 991 . 

Policy 14.3.4.1. Mines shall provide a setback adjacent to the regional 
road network to prevent the undermining of the roadway and to serve as a 
visual buffer (DCA, DNR . DER , DOT, ACE, RPC, LGV). 

Policy 14.5.4.2. Mines shall provide a setback from abutting property 
owners to provide a scenic buffer and to prevent the undermining and 
erosion of adjacent lands (DCA, DNR, DER, DOT, ACE, RPC, LGV). 



14.4. Regional Issue/Policy Cluster # 55: Environmental Health Care 
Protection _ 

REGIONAL GOAL 14.4.1. Protect citizens from any adverse health effects 
associated with mining (State Plan Policies 14.1, 14.2, 14.5, 14.4, 14.5, 
14.6, 14.7, 14.8, 14.9) . 

Measure: The development of state regulations to protect the public 
from the health effects of radiological or other adverse impacts 
associated with mining by the year 1991. 

Policy 14.4.1.1. Prevent adverse human health effects from radiological 
or other adverse impacts associated with resource extraction (DCA, DNR, 
EPA, HHS). 

Policy 14.4.1.2. All areas of high radon gas emissions shall be 
identified and mapped (EPA, DCA, DER, HRS , RPC, LGV). 

Policy 14.4.1.5. Where areas have been identified by health authorities 
as posing health hazards due to the occurrence of radon gas, actual 
notice shall be given to all affected parties and notice shall be 
required on all building permits issued in health hazard areas (LGV). 

Policy 14.4.1.4. Where areas have been identified by health authorities 
as posing health hazards due to the occurrence of radon gas, building 
standards shall be adopted which minimize the exposure of individuals to 
radon gas (EPA, DCA, RPC, LGV). 

Policy 14.4.1.5. Radon gas detection services to residences shall be 
provided upon request to residences of the region (DCA, EPA, LGV). 

Policy 14.4.1.6. The designation of reclaimed land areas on subdivision 
plats for all subdivisions on reclaimed lands shall be required (DCA, 
DNR, RPC, LGV). 



IV-14-5 



Policy 14.4.1.7. Improve reclamation and waste utilization technology in 
order to minimize the environmental impacts of mineral extraction and 
processing ( DCA , DNR , DER , EPA). 



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Policy 14.4.1.8. Develop a comprehensive monitoring program to detect 
degradation of water resources associated with mining operations and 
waste disposal so that sources of pollution can be quickly abated (DCA, 
DNR, DER. EPA VMD). 

Policy 14.4.1.9. An intergovernmental procedure to control mining 
impacts, especially those associated with waste disposal should be 
established (DCA, DNR, DER, EPA, ACE, RPC, VMD, LGV ) . 



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STATE GOAL 15: PROPERTY RIGHTS 

Florida shall protect private property rights and recognize the existence 
of legitimate and often competing public and private interests in land 
use regulations and other government action. 

Note: The goals and policies section of the regional plan is to be 
construed as a whole. Please review Land Use for additional applicable 
regional goals and policies. 



15.1. Regional Issue/Policy Cluster Title #56: Protecting Property 
Rights 

REGIONAL GOAL 15.1.1. Assure all constitutional guarantees associated 
with the protection of private property rights (State Plan Policies 15.1, 

15.2, 15.5). 

Measure: Annual change in the number of local ordinances and_ 
regulations which are deemed unconstitutional. 

Policy 15.1.1.1. All people shall be treated by government according to 
the laws established to regulate given situations ( DCA , DLA , LGV ) . 

Policy 15.1.1.2. Government shall be reasonable in its exercise of 
powers (DCA, DLA, LGV). 

Policy 15.1.1.5. All government policies, laws, ordinances, and 
regulations must have a reasonable relation to a stated objective (DCA, 
DLA, LGV). 

Policy 1 5 . 1 . 1 . 4 . Government regulations shall not violate specific 
constitutional guarantees such as the right to travel, equal protection, 
or the taking of property without compensation (DCA, DLA, LGV). 

Policy 15.1.1.5. Government shall not seek to control something beyond 
its power or in a way that is unfair, arbitrary or capricious, lacking in 
standards, or lacking a statement of reasons (DCA, DLA, LGV). 

Policy 15.1.1.6. Government regulations shall not be used to promote 
purely private objectives, to primarily enhance government assets, or to 
promote exclusionary objectives (DCA, DLA, LGV). 

Policy 15.1.1.7. Government may differentiate property into distinct 
groups but sucn differentiations shall have a reasonable basis and shall 
give similar treatment to individuals within each group (DCA, DLA, LGV). 

Policy 15.1.1.8. Government may create different categories and treat 
each category differently so long as there is a reasonable basis for the 
classification (DCA, DLA, LGV). 

Policy 15.1.1.9. Government classifications shall be limited to 
permissible state objectives (DCA, DLA, LGV). 



IV-15-1 



Policy 15.1.1.10. Government classifications shall be rationally related 
to permissible state objectives ( DCA , DLA , LGV ) . 

Policy 15.1.1.11. Government classifications shall not be applied in a 
discriminatory manner through its administration and practice (DCA, DLA, 
LGV) . 



REGIONAL GOAL 15.1.2. Ensure that government regulations do not result 
in the taking of property without just compensation (State Plan Policies 
15.1 , 15.2. 15.3). 

Measure: Annual change in the number of local ordinances and 
regulations which are deemed to be so restrictive as to constitute a 
taking of private property without just compensation. 

Policy 15.1.2.1. Lands for public use should be acquired in cases where 
regulation will prevent any and all reasonable use of real property (DCA, 
DLA, LGV). 

Policy 15.1.2.2. The physical invasion of private property by a 
government entity shall constitute a taking (DCA, DLA, LGV). 

Policy 15.1.2.3. Other takings shall be based upon a multi-factor 
inquiry into the economic impact of the regulation, the extent to which 
it interferes with investment-backed expectations, and the character of 
the government action (DCA, DLA, LGV). 

Policy 15.1.2.4. Changes in land use or zoning classifications shall 
not, by themselves, constitute a taking (DCA, DLA, LGV). 

Policy 15.1.2.5. Just compensation, or other appropriate relief as 
provided by law, should be provided to a landowner for any governmental 
action that is determined to be an unreasonable exercise of the state's 
police power so as to constitute a taking (DCA, DLA, LGV). 

Policy 15.1.2.6. Just compensation or other relief should be determined 
by judicial or administrative proceedings (DCA, DLA, LGV). 

Policy 15.1.2.7. When such local regulation that may be judicially 
deemed a taking occurs as a result of a state mandate, relief should be 
afforded the local government in either a more flexible approach to 
fulfilling the mandate, release from the mandate, or fiscal resources to 
perform the mandate (DCA, DLA, LGV). 



REGIONAL GOAL 15.1.3. Assure that government regulations do not deny any 
and all rights vested in private property (State Plan Policies 15-1, 
15.2. 15.3). 

Measure: Annual change in the number of local ordinances and 

regulations which are deemed to deny vested rights. / 



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Policy 15.1.5.1. A vested right which takes precedence over the 
existence of a governmental act shall be considered to exist when all of 
the following tests are met: (1) the property owner has acted in "good 
faith" that is, without knowledge that new or changed regulations might 
affect his development expectations; (2) the property owner, in reliance 
on governmental action such as the issuance of a building permit, spent 
substantial amount of money pursuing the approved development concept; 
and (3) the rights vested were so substantial that it would be 
fundamentally unfair to allow government to eliminate those rights (DCA, 
DLA, LGV). 

Policy 15.1.3.2. A vested right shall not exist due to a government 
classification such as a land use planning category or zoning district 
(DCA, DLA, LGV). 

Policy 15.1.3.3. If a property owner obtains a variance in face of 
pending changes in regulations and judicial challenge of approval and 
constructs, then the property owner shall not have a vested right due to 
uncertain status of variance (DCA, DLA, LGV). 

Policy 15.1.3.4. An expenditure of funds on architectural and 
engineering fees shall not constitute a vested right (DCA, DLA, LGV). 

Policy 15.1.3.5. The preliminary approval of a subdivision shall not 
cause a vested right (DCA, DLA, LGV). 



REGIONAL GOAL 15.1.4. Assure all Constitutional guarantees associated 
with the proxecxion of private property rights in the management of 
growth (State Plan Policies 15.1. 15.2, 15.3). 

Measure: Change in the number of local ordinances and regulations 
which are deemed unconstitutional through the year 2010. 

Policy 15.1.4.1. Growth management methods shall rationally promote the 
public welfare without placing unnecessary and unreasonable burdens upon 
individuals (DCA, DLA, LGV). 

Policy 15.1.4.2. There shall be a reasonable relationship between a 
stated goal and the means used to achieve that goal (DCA, DLA, LGV). 

Policy 15.1.4.3. Government shall not be required to provide urban 
services or meet urban level or service standards outside of designated 
urban areas (DCA, DLA, LGV). 

Policy 15.1.4.4. Government shall not be held liable for failure to 
provide urban services and facilities outside of designated urban 
development areas as indicated in the Comprehensive Regional Policy Plan 
and local government comprehensive plans (DCA, DLA, LGV). 

Policy 15.1.4.5. Planning at all levels of government should be 
coordinated to ensure the compatibility of development objectives (DCA, 
DLA, LGV). 



IV-15-3 



Policy 15.1-4.6. Local government comprehensive plan implementation 
mechanisms, such as zoning ordinances, shall be limited to purposes and 
policies expressed in the local government comprehensive plan ( DCA , DLA , 
LGV). 

Policy 15.1.4.7. Subdivision regulations shall be reasonably related to 
zoning ordinances, comprehensive plans, and local government policies 
for the extension of utilities or pavement of streets, and health 
regulations (DCA, DLA, LGV). 

Policy 15.1.4.8. Subdivision regulations shall allow for the dedication 
of land for public purposes (DCA, DLA, LGV). 



REGIONAL GOAL 15.1.5. Ensure an appeals procedure for the resolution of 
disputes regarding public property rights (State Plan Policies 15.1, 
15.2, 15.3). 

Measure: Change in the number of courts available to all parties 
within the region through the year 2010. 

Policy 15.1.5.1. Government shall ensure that all parties to a dispute 
have a reasonable chance to present their views before an impartial, 
reasonable, and convenient tribunal (DCA, DLA, LGV). 

Policy 15.1.5.2. All parties shall have a right to a speedy trial (DCA, 
DLA, LGV). 

Policy 15.1.5.3. Court review should be available when a governing body 
wishes to stop a violation (DCA, DLA, LGV). 

Policy 15.1.5.4. Court review to enforce a regulation or to challenge an 
interpretation, application, and the reasonableness and constitutionality 
of a regulation or law should be made available to a property owner whose 
use or property value is affected by a violation of a government 
regulation or law, to a property owner who has been denied relief, and to 
a neighbor who is affected by the granting of relief (DCA, DLA, LGV). 

Policy 15.1.5.5. A property owner shall not claim a taking until after 
he has exhausted his administrative appeals (DCA, DLA, LGV). 

Policy 15.1.5.6. A property owner shall be limited to injunctive relief 
in cases where a government regulation is deemed unconstitutional and not 
deemed a taking (DCA, DLA, LGV). 

Policy 15.1.5.7. Administrative appeals procedures shall take no longer 
than 180 days to complete. 

Policy 15.1.5.8. Legislative acts of government shall be given the 
presumption of validity unless proof is given to the contrary (DCA, DLA, 
LGV). 

Policy 15.1.5.9. The public interest shall be preserved through the 
variance process (DCA, DLA, LGV). 

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Policy 15.1.5.10. All granted variances shall be in harmony with the 
intent of the local government comprehensive plan (DCA, DLA , LGV ) . 

Policy 15.1.5.11. Variances shall be granted only when practical 
difficulties or unnecessary hardship applies in carrying out the strict 
letter of the ordinance (DCA, DLA, LGV). 

Policy 15.1.5.12. "Use Variances" shall be prohibited (DCA, DLA, LGV). 

Policy 15.1.5.13. Hardships shall not be considered to occur as a 
result of the applicant's actions (DCA, DLA, LGV). 

Policy 15.1.5.14. The expansion of nonconforming uses shall be limited 
through the variance procedure (DCA, DLA, LGV). 



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STATE GOAL 16: LAND USE 

In recognition of the importance of preserving the natural resources and 
enhancing the quality of life in the state, development shall be 
directed to those areas which have in place, or have agreements to 
provide, the land and water resources, fiscal abilities, ajid the service 
capacity to accommodate growth in an environmentally acceptable manner. 

Note: The goals and policies section of the regional plan is to be 
construed as a whole. Please review Housing, Public Safety, Water 
Resources, Coastal and Marine Resources, Natural Systems and 
Recreational Lands, Hazardous and Nonhazardous Materials and Waste, 
Downtown Revital izat ion , Public Facilities, Transportation, 
Intergovernmental Coordination, The Economy, Employment, Agriculture, and 
Tourism for additional applicable regional goals and policies. Please 
see Water Resources, Regional Goal 8.3.2., for Suwannee River Corridor 
policies. 

16.1. Regional Issue/Cluster Title #57: Balanced and Planned 
Development 



REGIONAL GOAL 16.1.1. Ensure that land use decisions adequately provide 
for the needs of the region's existing and future populations while 
maintaining or improving the quality of life (State Plan Policies 16.1, 
16.3, 16.4, 16.5). 

Measure: Annual change in the ratio of maximum allowable 
residential parcels permitted by local government comprehensive 
plans and the projected need for additional developed parcels by 
the plan horizon year. 

Measure: Annual change in the ratio of maximum allowable square 
feet of building floor area of commercial and industrial land uses 
permitted by local government comprehensive plans and the projected 
need for the additional square footage by the plan horizon year. 

Measure: Annual change in the ratios of maximum allowable 
residential parcels and maximum allowable square feet of building 
floor area of commercial and industrial land uses permitted by 
local government comprehensive plans in designated urban areas 
compared to rural areas. 

Policy 16.1.1.1. Population growth occurring in the region shall be 
direcxea to aesignated uroan development areas C DCA , RPC, LGV). 

Policy 16.1.1.2. A system of incentives and disincentives should be 
developed which encourages a separation of urban and rural land uses 
(DCA, RPC, LGV). 

Policy 16.1.1.3. Areas designated for future rural activity shall 
maintain their rural character by limiting development activity to those 
uses whose intensities are characteristic of and compatible with rural 
areas (DCA, RPC, LGV). 

IV-16-1 



Policy 16.1.1.4. Identify land areas and appropriate levels of 
intensity of use within and immediately adjacent to designated urban 
development areas to accommodate the planned population growth (DCA, RPC, 
LGV. 

Policy 16.1.1.5. Areas which are to remain in rural use shall be 
identified (RFC, LGV, DACS, SCS). 

Policy 16.1.1.6. Redevelopment of existing urbanized areas shall be 
encouraged (DCA, RFC, LGV). 

Policy 16.1.1.7. An attractive and functional mix of living, working, 
shopping, and recreation activities which enhance the livability and 
character of designated urban development areas should be encouraged 
(DCA, GFVFC, DNR, RPC, LGV). 

Policy 16.1.1.8. Differing thresholds for Developments of Regional 
Impact shall be developed based upon the urban area classification 
system and regionally significant natural area designation (DCA, RFC, 
LGV) . 

Policy 16.1.1.9. The timing and amount of population growth and 
development activity projected to occur in urban and rural areas of the 
region shall be modified by government through the planning process as 
necessary to minimize environmental damage and to maintain the level of 
service of available public facilities (DCA, GFWFC , DNR, DER , DOC, DOT, 
RFC, LGV). 

Policy 16.1.1.10. Future urban development shall be directed to 
designated urban development areas which have the capacity to accept 
growth in an environmentally acceptable manner (DCA, RFC, LGV). 

Policy 16.1.1.11. Land areas and appropriate levels of development 
intensity shall be identified within and adjacent to designated urban 
development areas for planned population growth and urban development of 
sufficient size through the respective plan horizon year (DCA, RFC, LGV). 

Policy 16.1.1.12. Appropriate amounts and mixes of land use types shall 
be allocated sufficient to meet the needs of the existing and planned 
future populations (DCA, RFC, LGV). 

Policy 16.1.1.13. Local government comprehensive plans should not 
designate so large an ajnount of acreage for commercial or industrial 
land uses beyond what can reasonably be expected to develop in these 
areas (DCA, RPC, LGV). 

Policy 16.1.1.14. The siting and construction of Locally Unpopular Land 
Uses (LULU's) shall not be prohibited by any local government (DCA, RFC, 
LGV) . 



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Policy 16.1.1.15. A system of intergovernmental negotiation for the 
siting of Locally Unpopular Land Uses (LULU's) shall be established which 
considers the area of population served, the impact on land development 
patterns or important natural resources and the cost-effectiveness of 
service delivery ( DCA , COR, DER , GFVFC , HRS, RPC, LGV). 

Policy 16.1.1.16. Economically viable agriculture and commercial forest 
lands shall be encouraged to remain in agriculture and silvicultural use 
(RPC, LGV, DACS, SCS). 

Policy 16.1.1.17. Areas which are intended to remain in rural use shall 
be identified in local government comprehensive plans (DCA, RPC, LGV). 

Policy 16.1.1.18. Urban development when proposed near agricultural or 
forested areas, or other regionally significant natural areas shall be 
planned and coordinated to avoid adverse impacts upon existing land uses 
(DCA, DACS, DER, DNR, GFWFC , RPC, LGV). 

Policy 16.1.1.19. Local governments should receive assistance in- 
establishing comprehensive impact-review procedures for the evaluation of 
the effects of significant development activities within their 
jurisdictions (DCA. DER, GFVFC, DOT, RPC, VMD , CSB, LGV). 

Policy 16.1.1.20. Land use decisions near airports shall take into 
consideration noise contours of landing and depar